YBM 고등 심화 영어 독해 Ⅱ 신정현 UNIT 3
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on the brink of
~의 직전에
We stand on the brink of a technological revolution that will severely alter the way we live, work, and relate to one another.
v. 펼쳐지다; 펴다
We do not yet know just how the revolution will unfold.
a. 어디에나 있는, 아주 흔한
A Fourth Industrial Revolution is rearing its head, armed with a much more ubiquitous and mobile Internet.
inflection point
n. 변곡점
Many innovations are still in their infant stages, but some of them are already reaching an inflection point in their development.
n. 출현, 도래
Today’s transformations represent not merely an extension of the Third Industrial Revolution but rather the advent of a Fourth one.
n. 선례
The speed of current breakthroughs has no historical precedent.
ad. 급격하게, 기하급수적으로
While previous industrial revolutions moved at a linear pace, the Fourth Industrial Revolution is evolving exponentially.
a. 인간을 닮은, 인간에 가까운
Artificial intelligence is all around us: driverless cars, humanoid robots, and even software that translates and invests.
n. 공생(관계)
Engineers, designers, and architects pioneer a symbiosis between microorganisms, our bodies, and even the buildings we inhabit.
a. 동시에 일어나는
The great progress of the Fourth Industrial Revolution has included advances in natural language processing, simultaneous localization and mapping, and many other areas.
a. 실질적인, 중요한
Countless AI-equipped devices assist us in areas ranging from trivial to substantive to life-changing.
a. 손상된
Innovators at an Israeli company enabled the visually impaired to experience the key aspects of sight.
v. (열·전기·음파 등을) 전도하다, 전달하다
The speaker that works by conducting sound waves through the cranial bones.
v. 앞지르다, 능가하다
Reading text in varying fonts has historically been yet another area where humans have outpaced even the most advanced hardware and software.
n. 사지마비 환자
Digital technologies are enhancing mobility for quadriplegics with wheelchairs controlled by thoughts.
at one’s disposal
마음대로 이용하는
Industrialized countries have long been used to having libraries, telephones, and computers at their disposal.
n. 가입, 구독
In 2000, there were approximately seven hundred million mobile phone subscriptions in the world.
a. 연안의, 근해의
Between 1997 and 2001 the economist Robert Jensen studied a set of coastal villages in Kerala, India, where fishing was the main industry.
v. 안정시키다; 견고하게 하다
Fish prices stabilized immediately after phones were used.
v. 제거하다, 배제하다
They were able to eliminate the waste that occurred when they took their fish to markets that already had enough supply for the day.
a. 종합적인, 일반적인
The overall economic well-being of both buyers and sellers improved.
a. 잠재적인, ~할 가능성이 있는
It will bring billions of people into the community of potential problem solvers and innovators.
n. 식견, 통찰(력)
They can share their insights on social media.
a. 정교한, 복잡한
They can even conduct sophisticated database analyses using cloud resources.
a. 특권이 있는
Until quite recently, overseas broadcasting, rapid communication, information acquisition, and knowledge sharing were essentially limited to the planet’s privileged people.
a. 인류평등주의의
They are much more democratic and egalitarian now, and they are becoming more so all the time.
v. (직관으로) 추측하다
While we cannot divine exactly what new insights, products, and solutions will arrive in the future, we are fully confident that they will be astonishing.
v. (어려운 문제 등을) 다루다, 대처하다
We tend to assume that technological devices created to address special needs in developing countries are not good enough to compete against existing solutions.
a. 혁명적인, 대개혁을 일으키는
In the early 1990s, Dr. Therdchai Jivacate of the Prostheses Foundation of Thailand began working on a revolutionary idea.
a. 비싸지 않은, 적정한
What made this idea revolutionary was how reasonable the prices actually were.
v. 전환하다〔바꾸다〕
Thanks to his innovative spirit he was able to convert a smart idea into reality.
a. 튼튼한; 건장한
Using recycled materials like pull-tabs, Dr. Jivacate’s foundation makes sturdy replacement legs and feet.
a. 직관에 반(反)한
As counterintuitive as it may seem, the quality demanded by poor people tends to be higher than the quality demanded by the rich.
a. 오래 견디는, 내구력이 있는
This is why their prostheses should be stronger, more durable, and more manageable.
n. (기발한) 재주, 창의력
Govindarajan created the term “reverse innovation” to describe these brilliant bursts of ingenuity.
n. 고난, 고생
Some of the victims of the Boston Marathon attack suffer all kinds of tribulation to pay for prostheses.
a. 실행 가능한, 실용적인
The victims of land mines in Laos, Myanmar, Malaysia, and Thailand have fresh and viable solutions that fit both their legs and their finances.
a. (값이) 알맞은
The innovation department of a US corporation developed an affordable electrocardiogram machine for people in rural India.
a. (일 따위가) 벅찬, 어려운
Health care is a daunting, stressful challenge in low-resource places.
v. 상반〔상충〕되다
Existing designs conflict with shortages of electricity and drinking water, scarcity of funds, and insufficient policy innovation in resource-poor settings.
n. 약간의 돈
Now, innovators in the poorest regions of the world are devising their own technological solutions for a pittance.
v. (요구·조건·필요에) 맞추어 만들다
These solutions are perfectly tailored to their needs and, thanks to their efficiency, are exportable to the developed world.
a. (수준·질이) 괜찮은
Because of the low incomes in the developing world, conditions are appropriate for innovations that offer decent quality at an extremely low price.
v. 알아내다, 탐지하다
In India, diapers containing smart chips that detect deadly diseases through contact with feces are already being used.
n. 지지자, 옹호자
Recently, an invention of Argentine Jorge Odon that helps with complicated births is gaining advocates.
n. (의료용) 핀셋
Everything indicates that it will lead to harmful forceps being retired forever.
n. 분만
The Odon device protects women in labor when the delivery continues for a long time.
n. 소생, 의식의 회복
Thanks to a breathing device for the resuscitation of newborns that does not need electricity, the mortality of infants has been reduced by 47%.
a. 튼튼한, 강건한
Devices should be cheap, fast, robust, user friendly, and workable without needing to connect to the electric grid.
a. 생각나게 하는; 추억에 잠기는
These initiatives are reminiscent of the projects that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is funding.
n. 피임기구; 피임약
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is funding a new generation of cheap, unbreakable, and sensitive contraceptives.
n. 위생 (시설)
It is funding a new generation for the efficient disposal of organic waste in populations without sanitation or sewage systems.
n. 추진력; 자극
Reverse innovation illustrates an impetus and a bubbly enthusiasm both individually and nationally for pushing global health.
v. 활성화하다
There is a large global movement destined to activate the real potential of low- and middle-income countries.
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