YBM 고등 영어Ⅱ 한상호 Lesson 4
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세트공유
philosopher
n. 철학자
French philosopher Descartes said, “Except our own thoughts, there is nothing absolutely in our power.”
rationally
ad. 이성적으로, 합리적으로
You only had to think rationally, unaffected by biases and emotions.
rely on
…에 의존하다
In fact, the human brain is structured in a way that it often prefers relying on a set of illogical thinking patterns instead of following reason all the time.
judgment
n. 판단, 평가
The brain’s illogical thinking patterns that make unsound judgments are called cognitive bias.
cognitive
a. 인지의
The brain’s illogical thinking patterns that make unsound judgments are called cognitive bias.
bias
n. 편견, 편향
The brain’s illogical thinking patterns that make unsound judgments are called cognitive bias.
confirmation
n. 확신, 확증
The confirmation bias is a type of cognitive bias that involves favoring information that confirms previously existing beliefs or biases.
vegetarian
n. 채식주의자
I’m a vegetarian, and I’m convinced that my decision not to eat meat is rational and based on objective research.
convince
v. 확신시키다, 설득하다
I’m a vegetarian, and I’m convinced that my decision not to eat meat is rational and based on objective research.
unreliable
a. 신뢰할 수 없는
Studies in favor of eating meat seem few and unreliable.
advocate
n. 옹호자, 지지자
I’m a strong advocate for a balanced meat and plant diet.
interpret
v. 해석하다
The confirmation bias impacts both how people gather information and how they interpret and recall it.
unconsciously
ad. 무의식적으로
The confirmation bias makes people unconsciously seek information that matches their own opinions.
contradict
v. 모순되다; 반박하다
When people encounter evidence that contradicts their view, the confirmation bias helps them to interpret it in a way that supports their existing opinion or to dismiss it as unreliable.
dismiss
v. 무시하다
When people encounter evidence that contradicts their view, the confirmation bias helps them to interpret it in a way that supports their existing opinion or to dismiss it as unreliable.
faulty
ad. 결점 있는, 불완전한
The confirmation bias prevents us from looking at situations objectively, leading us to make poor or faulty choices.
attribute
n. 속성, 특성
Racism is a dangerous human attribute that is essentially found in all societies.
firm
a. 확고한
We even become firm in our loyalty to political parties and view them simply in “us” or “them” terms.
loyalty
n. 충성(심)
We even become firm in our loyalty to political parties and view them simply in “us” or “them” terms.
trap
n. 덫, 함정
Charles Darwin came up with a golden rule to avoid falling into the trap of the confirmation bias.
discredit
v. 신임을 떨어뜨리다, 의심하다
Paying extra attention to claims that challenge your opinions and attempting to discredit your own beliefs allow you to come to a conclusion in a more objective way.
bandwagon
n. 밴드왜건(악대를 실은 마차); 시류를 탄 움직임
The term “bandwagon” refers to a wagon that carried a band through the crowd.
psychology
n. 심리, 심리학
In psychology, the bandwagon effect refers to a phenomenon in which people do something primarily because other people are doing it, regardless of their own beliefs.
phenomenon
n. 현상
In psychology, the bandwagon effect refers to a phenomenon in which people do something primarily because other people are doing it, regardless of their own beliefs.
conform
v. 따르다, 순응하다
Since human beings are social animals, the desire to conform is a part of our nature.
political
a. 정치의
It may cause people to vote for an already popular political candidate without carefully examining his or her character and policies.
candidate
n. 후보자
It may cause people to vote for an already popular political candidate without carefully examining his or her character and policies.
broadcast
n. 방송 프로그램
When the Nazi party was new and unknown, he used radio broadcasts to make his party appear important and popular.
horrible
a. 끔찍한, 무서운
People wanted to support the popular party because their friends supported the party, in spite of its horrible beliefs and actions.
advisable
a. 타당한, 현명한, 바람직한
That is why it is advisable to be aware of the bandwagon effect and guard yourself against it, even if you eventually decide that “most people” are right.
reflect
v. 곰곰이 생각하다, 심사숙고하다
As Mark Twain said, “Whenever you find yourself on the side of the majority, it is time to pause and reflect.”
manipulation
n. 조작
When manipulation of information succeeds in altering the audience’s decisions or judgments, it is called the framing effect.
alter
v. 바꾸다
When manipulation of information succeeds in altering the audience’s decisions or judgments, it is called the framing effect.
decisive
a. 결정적인, 중대한
The framing effect is also common in the mass media, where it often has a decisive impact on public opinion.
migrant
n. 이주자
A newspaper may have a headline saying “EU migrants cost the UK government ₤408.12 per second in public expenditures."
expenditure
n. 경비, 비용
A newspaper may have a headline saying “EU migrants cost the UK government ₤408.12 per second in public expenditures.
contribute
v. 기여하다, 공헌하다
Another newspaper may write “EU migrants contribute ₤463.35 per second in revenue” as a headline.
revenue
n. 수입, 수익
Another newspaper may write “EU migrants contribute ₤463.35 per second in revenue” as a headline.
hostile
a. 적대적인, 냉담한
A newspaper may have a headline saying “EU migrants cost the UK government ₤408.12 per second in public expenditures,” which will immediately lead many readers to have a hostile attitude toward immigrants.
immigrant
n. 이민자
A newspaper may have a headline saying “EU migrants cost the UK government ₤408.12 per second in public expenditures,”, which will immediately lead many readers to have a hostile attitude toward immigrants.
generate
v. 발생시키다, 야기하다
Another newspaper may write “EU migrants contribute ₤463.35 per second in revenue” as a headline and put the rest later, which will generate a completely different response among its readers.
calculate
v. 계산하다
You can calculate how much a gym membership would cost per month or per year even though the gym owner advertises it as 1,370 won a day.
option
n. 선택, 선택사항
Another way is to consider options and possibilities that are not included in the information.
unfair
a. 불공평한
What makes cognitive biases dangerous is that they prevent us from realizing how unreasonable and unfair ideas may be.
deliberate
a. 신중한, 의도적인
The product of 17 and 24, however, uses System 2 — slow, deliberate thinking that you have to practice.
intuitive
a. 직관적인
System 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional.
immediate
a. 즉각적인
It is most helpful in familiar situations when time is short and immediate action is required.
ahead
ad. 미리, 앞에
You have to plan ahead and consider all your options.
take over
대체하다
System 2 takes over when System 1 runs into difficulty.
impulse
n. 충동, 자극
Another task of System 2 is to overcome the impulses and habitual patterns of System 1 when System 1 makes us feel overconfident about what we know and fails to acknowledge our ignorance.
ignorance
n. 무지, 무시
Another task of System 2 is to overcome the impulses and habitual patterns of System 1 when System 1 makes us feel overconfident about what we know and fails to acknowledge our ignorance.
second-guess
v. (결과 등을) 예측하다
System 2 is in charge of second-guessing and controlling our impulses.
superior
a. 우월한
According to Kahneman, System 2 clearly produces the superior answers in most situations.
impractical
a. 비실용적인
As a way to live our lives, however, constant control by System 2 is not necessarily good, and it is certainly impractical.
avoid
v. 피하다, 모면하다
The best we can do is to learn to recognize situations in which mistakes are likely and try to avoid these mistakes.
학생
가장 빠르게 암기하도록 도와주는 암기학습 〉
제대로 외웠나 바로 확인하는 리콜학습 〉
철자까지 외우려면 스펠학습 〉
재미있게 복습하려면 매칭 게임 〉
주관식으로도 재미있는 복습, 크래시 게임 〉
선생님
수업 중 이 단어장을 보고 듣고 질문하는 슬라이드 〉
수업시간이 들썩 들썩 퀴즈배틀 (로그인) 〉
클릭만으로 종이낭비 없이 시험지 인쇄 (로그인) 〉
필요한 세트를 직접 만드는 단어장 만들기 (로그인) 〉
선생님들이 만드신 30만개 단어장 검색하기 〉
고객
센터
궁금한 것, 안되는 것
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