YBM 고등 영어Ⅱ 한상호 Lesson 1
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세트공유
cluster
n. 군집
These creatures are clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as on the surface or in the deep layers of the skin, in the mouth and the nose, and in the lungs and the stomach.
reside
v. 살다, 거주하다
The greatest number of bacteria, about 100 trillion that weigh up to 2 kg, reside in the gut.
gut
n. (내)장
The greatest number of bacteria, about 100 trillion that weigh up to 2 kg, reside in the gut.
crucial
a. 중대한
This may sound somewhat frightening, but these bacteria have a crucial and positive influence on our health.
microbe
n. 미생물
The first scientist who paid attention to these microbes in the gut and their importance was Ilya Mechinikov, who won the Nobel Prize in 1908 for his studies on the immune system.
immune
a. 면역의
The first scientist who paid attention to these microbes in the gut and their importance was Ilya Mechinikov, who won the Nobel Prize in 1908 for his studies on the immune system.
sweep
v. 휩쓸다
He was living in Paris in the late 19th century when thousands of people were suffering from cholera, a disease that was sweeping the European continent.
intrigue
v. 흥미를 돋우다
Intrigued, he decided to increase his sample size and recruited a colleague to do the same.
recruit
v. 모집하다
Intrigued, he decided to increase his sample size and recruited a colleague to do the same.
microscope
n. 현미경
By studying cholera under the microscope, Mechinikov found that certain species of bacteria from the human gut supported and stimulated the cholera’s growth, while other species prevented it.
species
n. (생물 분류상의) 종
By studying cholera under the microscope, Mechinikov found that certain species of bacteria from the human gut supported and stimulated the cholera’s growth, while other species prevented it.
stimulate
v. 자극하다
By studying cholera under the microscope, Mechinikov found that certain species of bacteria from the human gut supported and stimulated the cholera’s growth, while other species prevented it.
antibiotic
n. 항생제
A decade later, antibiotics were discovered.
germ
n. 세균
Antibiotics have saved countless lives by giving doctors and scientists the means to kill harmful germs that infect wounds, cause deadly diseases, and spread through food.
infect
v. 감염시키다
Antibiotics have saved countless lives by giving doctors and scientists the means to kill harmful germs that infect wounds, cause deadly diseases, and spread through food.
wage
v. (전쟁 등을) 벌이다
A war has been waged on microbes, and people have spent almost a century trying to kill them.
deficiency
n. 결핍
Unfortunately, this attitude has had harmful effects on health, resulting in a rise in allergies and immune deficiencies.
occupy
v. 차지하다
By occupying our bodies first, they prevent harmful germs from growing there.
facilitate
v. 증진시키다, 촉진하다
They also facilitate our immune system by distinguishing between good substances that should be allowed into our bodies and harmful ones that should be rejected.
distinguish
v. 구별하다
They also facilitate our immune system by distinguishing between good substances that should be allowed into our bodies and harmful ones that should be rejected.
reject
v. 거절하다, 거부하다
They also facilitate our immune system by distinguishing between good substances that should be allowed into our bodies and harmful ones that should be rejected.
insufficient
a. 불충분한
Therefore, having insufficient germs or losing important ones leads to various health problems.
absorb
v. 흡수하다
If they are absent, it is difficult to absorb certain vegetables and milk, which eventually leads to an unbalanced diet and poorer health.
toxic
a. 유독한, 독성의
Some microbes in the gut determine whether particular drugs are toxic to the liver and whether or not other drugs will work to combat a heart condition.
combat
v. (나쁜 일을 방지하기 위해) 싸우다
Some microbes in the gut determine whether particular drugs are toxic to the liver and whether or not other drugs will work to combat a heart condition.
regulate
v. 규제하다
Other microbes regulate the appetite hormone, which makes a person feel full or hungry.
appetite
n. 식욕
Other microbes regulate the appetite hormone, which makes a person feel full or hungry.
transplant
v. 이식하다
One recent study found that transplanting a lean mouse’s gut bacteria into an overweight mouse’s stomach made the overweight mouse lose weight.
diarrhea
n. 설사
There were people who had a terrible form of diarrhea, so they had to go to the bathroom up to 20 times a day.
donor
n. 기증자
Researchers transplanted some of the good microbes from a healthy donor into these patients’ guts.
cultivate
v. 기르다, 재배하다
By eating foods that contain beneficial bacteria, such as yogurt, gimchi, and natto, or choosing a diet packed with good, fresh nutrients, such as garlic, onions, and unprocessed grains rich in fiber, we can cultivate good microbes.
be abundant with
…이 풍부하다
Places with diverse life forms, such as woods, beaches, parks, or even small farms and gardens, are abundant with diverse bacteria that germ-free urban environments lack.
urban
a. 도시의
Places with diverse life forms, such as woods, beaches, parks, or even small farms and gardens, are abundant with diverse bacteria that germ-free urban environments lack.
eliminate
v. 제거하다
Although antibiotics play a crucial role in keeping us healthy by eliminating dangerous germs, they cannot tell good bacteria from bad ones.
tell ... from ~
~으로부터 …을 구별하다
Although antibiotics play a crucial role in keeping us healthy by eliminating dangerous germs, they cannot tell good bacteria from bad ones.
get rid of
없애다
Therefore, whenever we use antibiotics, we inevitably damage beneficial bacteria as well as the harmful bacteria that we want to get rid of.
make sense
말이 되다, 이치에 맞다
If we can affect microbes and they can affect our bodies, it doesn't make sense to talk about the two separately.
separately
ad. 따로, 별도로
If we can affect microbes and they can affect our bodies, it makes little sense to talk about the two separately.
neuron
n. 뉴런, 신경 세포
We need to start thinking of the microbes in our guts as a part of our bodies, like the blood cells and the neurons, and take care of them just as we take care of our skin and our teeth.
undergo
v. 겪다, 경험하다
Just like any other organisms, individual bacteria can undergo random mutations.
mutation
n. 돌연변이
Just like any other organisms, individual bacteria can undergo random mutations.
resistant
a. 저항력이 있는
However, sometimes the mutation makes the bacteria resistant to a certain antibiotic.
prosper
v. 번영하다
As the non-resistant bacteria are killed off by the antibiotics we use, there is more room for the resistant ones to prosper.
multiply
v. 증식하다
Over time, as the resistant genes among bacteria multiply, super bacteria that can resist multiple antibiotics can emerge.
novel
a. 새로운
Scientists are trying to develop novel antibiotics that can kill super bacteria.
transmit
v. 전염시키다
Giving animals antibiotics to prevent illness or promote growth can generate resistance in animal bacteria that can later be transmitted to humans.
antibacterial
a. 항균의
In the home, antibacterial cleaning products such as household cleaners or bath products can lead to antibiotic resistance.
학생
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선생님
수업 중 이 단어장을 보고 듣고 질문하는 슬라이드 〉
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고객
센터
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