2021년 고3 9월 모의고사
28 카드 | classcard
세트공유
다음 글의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Dear Mr. Bernstein,

My name is Thomas Cobb, the marketing director of Calbary Hospital. Our hospital is planning to hold a charity concert on September 18th in the Main Hall of our hospital. We expect it to be helpful in raising money to cover the medical costs of those in need. To make the concert more special, we want to invite you for the opening of the concert. Your reputation as a pianist is well known, and everyone will be very happy to see your performance. Beautiful piano melodies will help create an enjoyable experience for the audience. We look forward to your positive reply.

Sincerely,
Thomas A. Cobb
자선 음악회 연주자로 참여해 줄 것을 요청하려고
다음 글에 드러난 David의 심경 변화로 가장 적절한 것은?

As he stepped onto the basketball court, David suddenly thought of the day he had gotten injured last season and froze. He was not sure if he could play as well as before the injury. A serious wrist injury had caused him to miss the rest of the season. Remembering the surgery, he said to himself, “I thought my basketball career was completely over.” However, upon hearing his fans’ wild cheers, he felt his body coming alive and thought, “For sure, my fans, friends, and family are looking forward to watching me play today.” As soon as the game started, he was filled with energy. The first five shots he attempted went in the basket. “I’m back! I got this,” he shouted.
anxious → confident
다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은?

We live in a time when everyone seems to be looking for quick and sure solutions. Computer companies have even begun to advertise ways in which computers can replace parents. They are too late ― television has already done that. Seriously, however, in every branch of education, including moral education, we make a mistake when we suppose that a particular batch of content or a particular teaching method or a particular configuration of students and space will accomplish our ends. The answer is both harder and simpler. We, parents and teachers, have to live with our children, talk to them, listen to them, enjoy their company, and show them by what we do and how we talk that it is possible to live appreciatively or, at least, nonviolently with most other people.
교육은 일상에서 아이들과의 상호 작용을 통해 이루어져야 한다.
밑줄 친 Flicking the collaboration light switch가 다음 글에서 의미하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은? [3점]

Flicking the collaboration light switch is something that leaders are uniquely positioned to do, because several obstacles stand in the way of people voluntarily working alone. For one thing, the fear of being left out of the loop can keep them glued to their enterprise social media. Individuals don’t want to be ― or appear to be ― isolated. For another, knowing what their teammates are doing provides a sense of comfort and security, because people can adjust their own behavior to be in harmony with the group. It’s risky to go off on their own to try something new that will probably not be successful right from the start. But even though it feels reassuring for individuals to be hyperconnected, it’s better for the organization if they periodically go off and think for themselves and generate diverse ― if not quite mature ― ideas. Thus, it becomes the leader’s job to create conditions that are good for the whole by enforcing intermittent interaction even when people wouldn’t choose it for themselves, without making it seem like a punishment.
* intermittent: 간헐적인
having people stop working together and start working individually
다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은?

Historically, the professions and society have engaged in a negotiating process intended to define the terms of their relationship. At the heart of this process is the tension between the professions’ pursuit of autonomy and the public’s demand for accountability. Society’s granting of power and privilege to the professions is premised on their willingness and ability to contribute to social well-being and to conduct their affairs in a manner consistent with broader social values. It has long been recognized that the expertise and privileged position of professionals confer authority and power that could readily be used to advance their own interests at the expense of those they serve. As Edmund Burke observed two centuries ago, “Men are qualified for civil liberty in exact proportion to their disposition to put moral chains upon their own appetites.” Autonomy has never been a one-way street and is never granted absolutely and irreversibly.
* autonomy: 자율성
** privilege: 특권
*** premise: 전제로 말하다
전문직에 부여되는 자율성은 그에 상응하는 사회적 책임을 수반한다.
다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? [3점]

In Kant’s view, geometrical shapes are too perfect to induce an aesthetic experience. Insofar as they agree with the underlying concept or idea ― thus possessing the precision that the ancient Greeks sought and celebrated ― geometrical shapes can be grasped, but they do not give rise to emotion, and, most importantly, they do not move the imagination to free and new (mental) lengths. Forms or phenomena, on the contrary, that possess a degree of immeasurability, or that do not appear constrained, stimulate the human imagination ― hence their ability to induce a sublime aesthetic experience. The pleasure associated with experiencing immeasurable objects ― indefinable or formless objects ― can be defined as enjoying one’s own emotional and mental activity. Namely, the pleasure consists of being challenged and struggling to understand and decode the phenomenon present to view. Furthermore, part of the pleasure comes from having one’s comfort zone (momentarily) violated.
* geometrical: 기하학의
** aesthetic: 심미적인
*** sublime: 숭고한
aesthetic pleasure from things unconstrained
다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

The world has become a nation of laws and governance that has introduced a system of public administration and management to keep order. With this administrative management system, urban institutions of government have evolved to offer increasing levels of services to their citizenry, provided through a taxation process and/or fee for services (e.g., police and fire, street maintenance, utilities, waste management, etc.). Frequently this has displaced citizen involvement. Money for services is not a replacement for citizen responsibility and public participation. Responsibility of the citizen is slowly being supplanted by government being the substitute provider. Consequentially, there is a philosophical and social change in attitude and sense of responsibility of our urban-based society to become involved. The sense of community and associated responsibility of all citizens to be active participants is therefore diminishing. Governmental substitution for citizen duty and involvement can have serious implications. This impedes the nations of the world to be responsive to natural and man-made disasters as part of global preparedness.
* supplant: 대신하다
** impede: 방해하다
Decreased Citizen Involvement: A Cost of Governmental Services
다음 표의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?

The table above shows seven U.S. states ranked by the number of workers added in the solar industry between 2015 and 2020, and provides information on the corresponding growth percentage in each state. ① During this period, Florida, which ranked first with regard to the number of workers added, exhibited 71% growth. ② The number of workers added in Utah was more than twice the number of workers added in Minnesota. ③ Regarding Texas and Virginia, each state showed less than 50% growth. ④ New York added more than 1,900 workers, displaying 24% growth. ⑤ Among these seven states, Pennsylvania added the lowest number of workers during this period.
3
Henry Moore에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?

Henry Moore (1898—1986), one of the most significant British artists of the 20th century, was the seventh child of a coal miner. Henry Moore showed a talent for art from early on in school. After World War I, during which he volunteered for army service, Moore began to study sculpture at the Leeds School of Art. Then, he entered the Royal College of Art in London and earned his degree there. His sculptures, known around the world, present the forms of the body in a unique way. One of his artistic themes was mother-and-child as shown in Madonna and Child at St. Matthew’s Church in Northampton. He achieved financial success from his hard work and established the Henry Moore Foundation to support education and promotion of the arts.
경제적으로 성공을 거두지 못했다.
2021 Whir Car Drawing Contest for Kids에 관한 다음 안내문의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?
그림 기술이 심사에서 고려된다.
Mary High School Foreign Language Program에 관한 다음 안내문의 내용과 일치하는 것은?
9월 5일까지 취소하면 환불받을 수 있다.
다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은?

Accepting whatever others are communicating only pays off if their interests correspond to ours ― think cells in a body, bees in a beehive. As far as communication between humans is concerned, such commonality of interests ① is rarely achieved; even a pregnant mother has reasons to mistrust the chemical signals sent by her fetus. Fortunately, there are ways of making communication work even in the most adversarial of relationships. A prey can convince a predator not to chase ② it. But for such communication to occur, there must be strong guarantees ③ which those who receive the signal will be better off believing it. The messages have to be kept, on the whole, ④ honest. In the case of humans, honesty is maintained by a set of cognitive mechanisms that evaluate ⑤ communicated information. These mechanisms allow us to accept most beneficial messages ― to be open ― while rejecting most harmful messages ― to be vigilant.
* fetus: 태아
** adversarial: 반대자의
*** vigilant: 경계하는
3
다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? [3점]

In economic systems what takes place in one sector has impacts on another; demand for a good or service in one sector is derived from another. For instance, a consumer buying a good in a store will likely trigger the replacement of this product, which will generate ① demands for activities such as manufacturing, resource extraction and, of course, transport. What is different about transport is that it cannot exist alone and a movement cannot be ② stored. An unsold product can remain on the shelf of a store until bought (often with discount incentives), but an unsold seat on a flight or unused cargo capacity in the same flight remains unsold and cannot be brought back as additional capacity ③ later. In this case an opportunity has been ④ seized, since the amount of transport being offered has exceeded the demand for it. The derived demand of transportation is often very difficult to reconcile with an equivalent supply, and actually transport companies would prefer to have some additional capacity to accommodate ⑤ unforeseen demand (often at much higher prices).
* reconcile: 조화시키다
4
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

When examining the archaeological record of human culture, one has to consider that it is vastly ________. Many aspects of human culture have what archaeologists describe as low archaeological visibility, meaning they are difficult to identify archaeologically. Archaeologists tend to focus on tangible (or material) aspects of culture: things that can be handled and photographed, such as tools, food, and structures. Reconstructing intangible aspects of culture is more difficult, requiring that one draw more inferences from the tangible. It is relatively easy, for example, for archaeologists to identify and draw inferences about technology and diet from stone tools and food remains. Using the same kinds of physical remains to draw inferences about social systems and what people were thinking about is more difficult. Archaeologists do it, but there are necessarily more inferences involved in getting from physical remains recognized as trash to making interpretations about belief systems.
* archaeological: 고고학의
incomplete
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Even as mundane a behavior as watching TV may be a way for some people to ____________. To test this idea, Sophia Moskalenko and Steven Heine gave participants false feedback about their test performance, and then seated each one in front of a TV set to watch a video as the next part of the study. When the video came on, showing nature scenes with a musical soundtrack, the experimenter exclaimed that this was the wrong video and went supposedly to get the correct one, leaving the participant alone as the video played. The participants who had received failure feedback watched the video much longer than those who thought they had succeeded. The researchers concluded that distraction through television viewing can effectively relieve the discomfort associated with painful failures or mismatches between the self and self-guides. In contrast, successful participants had little wish to be distracted from their self-related thoughts!
* mundane: 보통의
escape painful self-awareness through distraction
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

It is important to recognise the interdependence between individual, culturally formed actions and the state of cultural integration. People work within the forms provided by the cultural patterns that they have internalised, however contradictory these may be. Ideas are worked out as logical implications or consequences of other accepted ideas, and it is in this way that cultural innovations and discoveries are possible. New ideas are discovered through logical reasoning, but such discoveries are inherent in and integral to the conceptual system and are made possible only because of the acceptance of its premises. For example, the discoveries of new prime numbers are ‘real’ consequences of the particular number system employed. Thus, cultural ideas show ‘advances’ and ‘developments’ because they ____________. The cumulative work of many individuals produces a corpus of knowledge within which certain ‘discoveries’ become possible or more likely. Such discoveries are ‘ripe’ and could not have occurred earlier and are also likely to be made simultaneously by numbers of individuals.
* corpus: 집적(集積)
** simultaneously: 동시에
are outgrowths of previous ideas
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

Enabling animals to _____________ is an almost universal function of learning. Most animals innately avoid objects they have not previously encountered. Unfamiliar objects may be dangerous; treating them with caution has survival value. If persisted in, however, such careful behavior could interfere with feeding and other necessary activities to the extent that the benefit of caution would be lost. A turtle that withdraws into its shell at every puff of wind or whenever a cloud casts a shadow would never win races, not even with a lazy rabbit. To overcome this problem, almost all animals habituate to safe stimuli that occur frequently. Confronted by a strange object, an inexperienced animal may freeze or attempt to hide, but if nothing unpleasant happens, sooner or later it will continue its activity. The possibility also exists that an unfamiliar object may be useful, so if it poses no immediate threat, a closer inspection may be worthwhile.
* innately: 선천적으로
operate in the presence of harmless stimuli
다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은?

A variety of theoretical perspectives provide insight into immigration. Economics, which assumes that actors engage in utility maximization, represents one framework. ① From this perspective, it is assumed that individuals are rational actors, i.e., that they make migration decisions based on their assessment of the costs as well as benefits of remaining in a given area versus the costs and benefits of leaving. ② Benefits may include but are not limited to short-term and long-term monetary gains, safety, and greater freedom of cultural expression. ③ People with greater financial benefits tend to use their money to show off their social status by purchasing luxurious items. ④ Individual costs include but are not limited to the expense of travel, uncertainty of living in a foreign land, difficulty of adapting to a different language, uncertainty about a different culture, and the great concern about living in a new land. ⑤ Psychic costs associated with separation from family, friends, and the fear of the unknown also should be taken into account in cost-benefit assessments.
* psychic: 심적인
3
주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Green products involve, in many cases, higher ingredient costs than those of mainstream products.


(A) They’d rather put money and time into known, profitable, high-volume products that serve populous customer segments than into risky, less-profitable, low-volume products that may serve current noncustomers. Given that choice, these companies may choose to leave the green segment of the market to small niche competitors.

(B) Even if the green product succeeds, it may cannibalize the company’s higher-profit mainstream offerings. Given such downsides, companies serving mainstream consumers with successful mainstream products face what seems like an obvious investment decision.

(C) Furthermore, the restrictive ingredient lists and design criteria that are typical of such products may make green products inferior to mainstream products on core performance dimensions (e.g., less effective cleansers). In turn, the higher costs and lower performance of some products attract only a small portion of the customer base, leading to lower economies of scale in procurement, manufacturing, and distribution.

* segment: 조각
** cannibalize: 잡아먹다
*** procurement: 조달
(C) - (B) - (A)
주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

Recently, a number of commercial ventures have been launched that offer social robots as personal home assistants, perhaps eventually to rival existing smart-home assistants.


(A) They might be motorized and can track the user around the room, giving the impression of being aware of the people in the environment. Although personal robotic assistants provide services similar to those of smart-home assistants, their social presence offers an opportunity that is unique to social robots.

(B) Personal robotic assistants are devices that have no physical manipulation or locomotion capabilities. Instead, they have a distinct social presence and have visual features suggestive of their ability to interact socially, such as eyes, ears, or a mouth.

(C) For instance, in addition to playing music, a social personal assistant robot would express its engagement with the music so that users would feel like they are listening to the music together with the robot. These robots can be used as surveillance devices, act as communicative intermediates, engage in richer games, tell stories, or be used to provide encouragement or incentives.

* locomotion: 이동 ** surveillance: 감시
(B) - (A) - (C)
글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오.

It was not until relatively recent times that scientists came to understand the relationships between the structural elements of materials and their properties.


The earliest humans had access to only a very limited number of materials, those that occur naturally: stone, wood, clay, skins, and so on. ( ① ) With time, they discovered techniques for producing materials that had properties superior to those of the natural ones; these new materials included pottery and various metals. ( ② ) Furthermore, it was discovered that the properties of a material could be altered by heat treatments and by the addition of other substances. ( ③ ) At this point, materials utilization was totally a selection process that involved deciding from a given, rather limited set of materials, the one best suited for an application based on its characteristics. ( ④ ) This knowledge, acquired over approximately the past 100 years, has empowered them to fashion, to a large degree, the characteristics of materials. ( ⑤ ) Thus, tens of thousands of different materials have evolved with rather specialized characteristics that meet the needs of our modern and complex society, including metals, plastics, glasses, and fibers.
4
글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오. [3점]

Personal stories connect with larger narratives to generate new identities.


The growing complexity of the social dynamics determining food choices makes the job of marketers and advertisers increasingly more difficult. ( ① ) In the past, mass production allowed for accessibility and affordability of products, as well as their wide distribution, and was accepted as a sign of progress. ( ② ) Nowadays it is increasingly replaced by the fragmentation of consumers among smaller and smaller segments that are supposed to reflect personal preferences. ( ③ ) Everybody feels different and special and expects products serving his or her inclinations. ( ④ ) In reality, these supposedly individual preferences end up overlapping with emerging, temporary, always changing, almost tribal formations solidifying around cultural sensibilities, social identifications, political sensibilities, and dietary and health concerns. ( ⑤ ) These consumer communities go beyond national boundaries, feeding on global and widely shared repositories of ideas, images, and practices.
* fragmentation: 파편화
** repository: 저장소
5
다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?

The computer has, to a considerable extent, solved the problem of acquiring, preserving, and retrieving information. Data can be stored in effectively unlimited quantities and in manageable form. The computer makes available a range of data unattainable in the age of books. It packages it effectively; style is no longer needed to make it accessible, nor is memorization. In dealing with a single decision separated from its context, the computer supplies tools unimaginable even a decade ago. But it also diminishes perspective. Because information is so accessible and communication instantaneous, there is a diminution of focus on its significance, or even on the definition of what is significant. This dynamic may encourage policymakers to wait for an issue to arise rather than anticipate it, and to regard moments of decision as a series of isolated events rather than part of a historical continuum. When this happens, manipulation of information replaces reflection as the principal policy tool.
* retrieve: (정보를) 추출하다 ** diminution: 감소

Although the computer is clearly ____(A)____ at handling information in a decontextualized way, it interferes with our making ____(B)____ judgments related to the broader context, as can be seen in policymaking processes.
competent …… comprehensive
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?


In studies examining the effectiveness of vitamin C, researchers typically divide the subjects into two groups. One group (the experimental group) receives a vitamin C supplement, and the other (the control group) does not. Researchers observe both groups to determine whether one group has fewer or shorter colds than the other. The following discussion describes some of the pitfalls inherent in an experiment of this kind and ways to (a) avoid them. In sorting subjects into two groups, researchers must ensure that each person has an (b) equal chance of being assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. This is accomplished by randomization; that is, the subjects are chosen randomly from the same population by flipping a coin or some other method involving chance. Randomization helps to ensure that results reflect the treatment and not factors that might influence the grouping of subjects. Importantly, the two groups of people must be similar and must have the same track record with respect to colds to (c) rule out the possibility that observed differences in the rate, severity, or duration of colds might have occurred anyway. If, for example, the control group would normally catch twice as many colds as the experimental group, then the findings prove (d) nothing. In experiments involving a nutrient, the diets of both groups must also be (e) different, especially with respect to the nutrient being studied. If those in the experimental group were receiving less vitamin C from their usual diet, then any effects of the supplement may not be apparent.
* pitfall: 함정
Don’t Let Irrelevant Factors Influence the Results!
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
밑줄 친 (a)~(e) 중에서 문맥상 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은?



In studies examining the effectiveness of vitamin C, researchers typically divide the subjects into two groups. One group (the experimental group) receives a vitamin C supplement, and the other (the control group) does not. Researchers observe both groups to determine whether one group has fewer or shorter colds than the other. The following discussion describes some of the pitfalls inherent in an experiment of this kind and ways to (a) avoid them. In sorting subjects into two groups, researchers must ensure that each person has an (b) equal chance of being assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. This is accomplished by randomization; that is, the subjects are chosen randomly from the same population by flipping a coin or some other method involving chance. Randomization helps to ensure that results reflect the treatment and not factors that might influence the grouping of subjects. Importantly, the two groups of people must be similar and must have the same track record with respect to colds to (c) rule out the possibility that observed differences in the rate, severity, or duration of colds might have occurred anyway. If, for example, the control group would normally catch twice as many colds as the experimental group, then the findings prove (d) nothing. In experiments involving a nutrient, the diets of both groups must also be (e) different, especially with respect to the nutrient being studied. If those in the experimental group were receiving less vitamin C from their usual diet, then any effects of the supplement may not be apparent.
* pitfall: 함정
(e)
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
주어진 글 (A)에 이어질 내용을 순서에 맞게 배열한 것으로 가장 적절한 것은?
(D) - (B) - (C)
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
밑줄 친 (a)~(e) 중에서 가리키는 대상이 나머지 넷과 다른 것은?
(a)
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
주어진 글에 관한 내용으로 적절하지 않은 것은?
Sally는 색깔 있는 파스타를 만드는 것이 어렵다고 말했다.
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