2020년 고3 4월 모의고사 (5월 21일 시행)
28 카드 | classcard
세트공유
다음 글의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것은?

To Whom It May Concern:

I recently purchased a home and moved into the Belrose neighborhood. I see neighborhood children, elderly neighbors in wheelchairs, and residents in general being forced to walk in the middle of the street due to the lack of sidewalks. This causes a very clear safety hazard. There is a large population of children in this neighborhood and this number will continue to grow as the population of the whole city continues to increase and more homeowners move into this area. Basic public infrastructure such as sidewalks should be a right for all residents in this area so that they can walk safely and not be threatened by sharing the streets with cars. Thank you for your concern and consideration.

Sincerely Yours,
Tina Gregory
지역 주민의 안전을 위해 인도 확충을 요구하려고
다음 글에 드러난 Alex의 심경으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Alex heard the principal’s door open. Mrs. McKay looked enormous as she stared down at him. He could feel his heart pounding in his chest. His hands clasped together in fear. He tried to hold the tears back. “Come into my office, young man,” Mrs. McKay said. Alex could tell that she already knew all the terrible things he had done. His legs were shaking so much it was hard to walk. He was taking short, fast breaths, but it felt like his lungs were empty. He needed more oxygen. There were tears forming in the corner of his eyes and one of them trickled down his cheek. He anxiously stared at her.
scared and nervous
다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은?

Does the following situation sound familiar? You’ve had some bad news. You tell someone else about it. They say, “Just call me if you need help,” or “If I can do anything, let me know.” These offers are well-meaning, but they are vague. It’s hard to know whether they have been made just for the sake of politeness. What’s the lesson here? If you are offering help, make your offer specific. For example, if your friend’s child is in hospital, you might realize that shopping for groceries may seem overwhelming under the circumstances. You could ask, “Can I help by doing a grocery run?”The same principle applies in the case of minor problems. If your colleague appears overworked and stressed one morning, don’t just stand there and say, “You look busy, so let me know if you need help.” It would be better to say, “Can I help by doing that filing for you?”
누군가에게 도움을 주고자 할 때 구체적으로 제안해야 한다.
밑줄 친 The scent is like a flag pin이 다음 글에서 의미하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은? [3점]

Most insect communication is based on chemicals known as pheromones, with specialized glands releasing compounds to signal emergencies or signpost a route to food. Colony membership is marked by chemistry, as well. Although ants don’t tell individuals apart by their personal aromas the way hamsters do, they do recognize each other as nest-mates―or as foreign―using an odor as a shared sign of identity. As long as an ant displays the correct emblem (as long as she smells right, which requires that she have the right combination of molecules known as hydrocarbons on her body), her colony-mates admit her as one of their own. The scent is like a flag pin, one that every ant must wear. An ant that shouldn’t be there is quickly detected by her alien scent. Since ants have no white flag of surrender, more often than not the outsider is killed.
*gland: 분비샘  **emblem: 상징
Members of a group are identified by a shared distinctive smell.
다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은?

Parkinson’s Law states that “work expands to fill the time available for its completion,” essentially meaning that our tasks will take us more time to complete if we allot more time for their completion. Limiting your time on tasks may sound like it will add more stress to your day, but it will actually have the opposite effect; when you impose deadlines on your tasks, you will be able to better focus on what needs to get done at any given moment, clearly defining your work schedule for the day. Set a challenging time limit to your task and play with it―turn completing the task into a competition against the clock so that you can have a greater sense of accomplishment as you work towards the task at hand. If you complete your challenge, try reducing the amount of time you give yourself the next time you have to do something similar; this internal competition will help motivate you to focus more on your tasks, making you more productive in the long run.
마감 시간을 정하면 과업에 더 집중하게 되어 생산성이 높아진다.
다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은?

The act of “seeing” appears so natural that it is difficult to appreciate the vastly sophisticated machinery underlying the process. It may come as a surprise that about one-third of the human brain is devoted to vision. The brain has to perform an enormous amount of work to unambiguously interpret the billions of photons streaming into the eyes. Strictly speaking, all visual scenes are ambiguous. Your brain goes through a good deal of trouble to disambiguate the information hitting your eyes by taking context into account and making assumptions. But all this doesn’t happen effortlessly, as demonstrated by patients who surgically recover their eyesight after decades of blindness: they do not suddenly see the world, but instead must learn to see again. At first the world is a chaotic attack of shapes and colors, and even when the optics of their eyes are perfectly functional, their brain must learn how to interpret the data coming in.
*photon: 빛의 요소가 되는 입자
**disambiguate: 명확하게 하다
significant role of the brain in processing visual information
다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Normally, bodies and faces work together as integrated units. Conveniently, experiments can separate and realign face and body. When face and body express the same emotion, assessments are more accurate. If face and body express different emotions, the body carries more weight than the face in judging emotions. When they conflict, emotion expressed by the body can override and even reverse emotion expressed by the face. A striking example comes from competitive tennis matches. Players typically react strongly to points they win or lose. When a winning body is paired with a losing face, people see the reaction as positive. And vice versa: when a losing body is paired with a winning face, people interpret the reaction as negative. Impressions go with the body when the face and the body conflict. In these cases, the face alone, without the body, even when viewed close up in a photograph, is not reliably judged for positive or negative affect.
*realign: 재정렬하다
Body vs. Face: Which Do We Rely on in Judging Emotions?
다음 표의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?

The table above shows the organic farming area in hectares for selected European countries in 2012 and 2017 and the percentage change. ①The total organic farming area of those countries was larger in 2017 than in 2012. ②In both years, Spain had the largest organic farming area, followed by Italy and France, and it was the only country that had more than two million hectares of organic farming area in 2017. ③Poland and the United Kingdom showed a reduction in organic farming area in 2017 compared to 2012, and the organic farming area of Poland was smaller than that of the United Kingdom in 2017. ④Hungary showed an increase of organic farming area in 2017 compared to 2012, and the organic farming area of Hungary in 2017 was over three times larger than that of Croatia in 2017. ⑤Even though Croatia ranked the lowest with the smallest organic farming area both in 2012 and 2017, it recorded the biggest percentage change.
4
Daniel H. Burnham에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?

Daniel H. Burnham, one of America’s most important architects, was born in 1846 in Henderson, New York, and moved to Chicago, Illinois, at the age of eight. In his high school days, Burnham excelled in both athletics and art. He applied to Harvard and Yale but could not pass the admission test for either university. Burnham started his architectural career working under William L. Jenney, Father of the American Skyscraper. Soon he met his business partner John Root, and together they built the Masonic Temple Building, which was the tallest building of its time in Chicago. He contributed to urban development in many cities, such as building the triangular Flatiron for New York and developing the plan for Union Station in Washington D.C. Even though his plans for the development of San Francisco and Manila were not realized, he extensively contributed to the development of Chicago. By the time he died, his company had become the most significant architecture firm in the world.
샌프란시스코와 마닐라 개발에 대한 계획을 실현시켰다.
2020 Summer Curling Camp에 관한 다음 안내문의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?
장갑 대여비가 등록비에 포함된다.
Doggy Day Out에 관한 다음 안내문의 내용과 일치하는 것은?
날씨가 좋지 않으면 취소될 것이다.
다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점]

Mental representation is the mental imagery of things that are not actually present to the senses. In general, mental representations can help us learn. Some of the best evidence for this ①comes from the field of musical performance. Several researchers have examined ②what differentiates the best musicians from lesser ones, and one of the major differences lies in the quality of the mental representations the best ones create. When ③practicing a new piece, advanced musicians have a very detailed mental representation of the music they use to guide their practice and, ultimately, their performance of a piece. In particular, they use their mental representations to provide their own feedback so that they know how ④closely they are to getting the piece right and what they need to do differently to improve. The beginners and intermediate students may have crude representations of the music ⑤that allow them to tell, for instance, when they hit a wrong note, but they must rely on feedback from their teachers to identify the more subtle mistakes and weaknesses.
*crude: 투박한
4
(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 문맥에 맞는 낱말로 가장 적절한 것은?

Play can be costly because it takes energy and time which could be spent foraging. While playing, the young animal may be at great (A) comfort / risk. For example, 86 percent of young Southern fur seals eaten by sea lions were play-swimming with others when they were caught. Against these costs many functions have been proposed for play, including practice for adult behaviours such as hunting or fighting, and for developing motor and social interaction skills. However, for these theories, there is (B) much / little experimental evidence in animals. For example, detailed studies which tracked juvenile play and adult behaviour of meerkats couldn’t prove that play-fighting influenced fighting ability as an adult. Therefore, the persistence of play across so many animal species (C) remains / resolves a mystery. The answers are likely to involve diverse and multiple factors, which may be quite different in different species, as might what we call play itself.
*forage: 먹이를 찾아 다니다  
**juvenile: 성장기의
risk……little……remains
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

The New York Times ran an article titled “Why Waiting Is Torture,” and the piece gave a clear explanation for queue rage: It’s about ________________. When someone cuts in front of us, it upsets us, and we’re willing to go a long way to make sure that people who arrive later than us don’t get served before us. A few years ago, some Israeli researchers studied people’s preferences for different types of lines, as the New York Times notes. Would people rather stand in a first-come, first-served line? Or would they rather wait in a “multiple queue” line, which is common in supermarkets and requires individuals to wait in separate first-come, first-served lines? People overwhelmingly wanted their lines to be first-come, first-served, and they were willing to wait some 70 percent longer for this sort of justice. In other words, in exchange for their time, people got something that’s often just as important.
*queue: 줄
fairness
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Evolutionary biologist Robert Trivers gives an extraordinary example of a case where an animal ___________________________ may be damaging to its evolutionary fitness. When a hare is being chased, it zigzags in a random pattern in an attempt to shake off the pursuer. This technique will be more reliable if it is genuinely random, as it is better for the hare to have no foreknowledge of where it is going to jump next: if it knew where it was going to jump next, its posture might reveal clues to its pursuer. Over time, dogs would learn to anticipate these cues―with fatal consequences for the hare. Those hares with more self-awareness would tend to die out, so most modern hares are probably descended from those that had less self-knowledge. In the same way, humans may be descended from ancestors who were better at the concealment of their true motives. It is not enough to conceal them from others―to be really convincing, you also have to conceal them from yourself.
*hare: 산토끼
having conscious access to its own actions
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

Scientists have known about ‘classical’ language regions in the brain like Broca’s area and Wernicke’s, and that these are stimulated when the brain interprets new words. But it is now clear that stories activate other areas of the brain in addition. Words like ‘lavender’, ‘cinnamon’, and ‘soap’ activate not only language-processing areas of the brain, but also those that respond to smells as though we physically smelled them. Significant work has been done on how the brain responds to metaphor, for example. Participants in these studies read familiar or clichéd metaphors like ‘a rough day’ and these stimulated only the language-sensitive parts of the brain. The metaphor ‘a liquid chocolate voice’, on the other hand, stimulated areas of the brain concerned both with language―and with taste. ‘A leathery face’ stimulated the sensory cortex. And reading an exciting, vivid action plot in a novel stimulates parts of the brain that coordinate movement. Reading powerful language, it seems, stimulates us in ways ________________________.
*cortex: 대뇌 피질
that are similar to real life
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

There are two fundamental components in mathematics and music: formulas and gestures. Musical formulas are well known―for example, the song form A-B-A, or the formula I-IV-V-I in harmony. But music cannot be reduced to such form(ula)s; it needs to deploy them in its sounds’ time and space. The aim of this deployment is the gestural action of musicians. In other words, music transfers formulas into gestures when performers interpret the written notes, and when the composers unfold formulas into the score’s gestures. Similarly, mathematicians do mathematics; they don’t just observe eternal formulas. They move symbols from one side of an equation to the other. Mathematics thrives by intense and highly disciplined actions. You will never understand mathematics if you do not “play” with its symbols. However, the mathematical goal is not a manipulatory activity; it is the achievement of a formula that condenses your manipulatory gestures. Mathematics, therefore, shares with music a movement between gestures and formulas, but it ______________.

*deploy: 배치하다  **condense: 응축하다
moves in the opposite direction of the musical process
다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은?

The use of portable technologies and personal cloud services facilitates the work of digital nomads across different places. Given the knowledge-heavy varieties of digital nomad work, it is of utmost importance for such workers to maintain a large, stored collection of information. ①By transferring their relevant information to cloud storage, where it can be accessed anywhere with an Internet connection, digital nomads can maintain the necessary knowledge base without the struggle of packing, storing, and carrying more things. ②They accomplish work across various devices, and portable devices provide them with the flexibility to work from different spaces or while in transit. ③Additionally, digital nomads use cloud services to share information or collaborate on a document with clients or peers. ④This kind of active communication with others often holds the work process back, resulting in unsatisfactory working conditions compared to traditional office work. ⑤Through these services and devices, digital nomads assemble a kind of movable office, which allows them to reach their materials from anywhere.
*nomad: 유목민
4
주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Because humans are now the most abundant mammal on the planet, it is somewhat hard to imagine us ever going extinct.


(A) Many branches broke off from each other and developed branches of their own, instead. There were at least three or four different species of hominids living simultaneously for most of the past five million years. Of all these branches, only one survived until today: ours.

(B) However, that is exactly what almost happened―many times, in fact. From the fossil record and from DNA analysis, we can tell that our ancestors nearly went extinct, and their population shrunk to very small numbers countless times.

(C) In addition, there are many lineages of hominids that did go extinct. Since the split between our ancestors and those of the chimps, our lineage has not been a single line of gradual change. Evolution never works that way.

*hominid: 진화 인류의 모체가 된 사람이나 동물
**lineage: 혈통
(B)-(C)-(A)
주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

We are sure that some plants such as wheat or barley were perfect for the needs of the first farmers and among the first to be chosen for domestication. Along with those grains, however, farmers selected their toughest weeds without noticing they were there.


(A) Having arrived in regions with colder winters or poorer soils, rye proved its strength by producing more and better crops than the wheat and barley it had attached itself to, and in a short time it replaced them. Rye had become a domesticated plant.

(B) That would not have been an easy task, and as a result, rye became one of the main weeds. When wheat and barley cultivation was expanded, rye went along for the ride, also expanding its own distribution area.

(C) That is where the history of rye begins, in the unenviable role of weeds. Since the ancestors of rye were very similar to wheat and barley, to eliminate them, the ancient populations of the Fertile Crescent would have had to carefully search their seeds for invaders.

*rye: 호밀
(C)-(B)-(A)
주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

In today’s food chain, customer feedback can, however, be used by the processor or retailer to develop product standards which can then be passed back to the producer as a future production requirement.


In a market situation, the two-way exchange of information is important to both customer and producer. (①)The simplest pathway—direct selling to a customer—is the most useful for a producer for obtaining feedback concerning a product and production method. (②)This pathway is not available to producers supplying today’s food chains which typically pass through several intermediates (buyers, processors, wholesalers, retailers) before reaching the customer. (③)Moreover, because there are relatively few processors and retailers, each handling a high volume of goods, the provision of feedback from customers to individual producers on their particular goods is impractical. (④)Thus, information exchange on this pathway can become a one-way flow from customer to retailer/processor to producer rather than the two-way exchange observed via direct selling.   (⑤)This change diminishes the role of producers in the food chain, undermining their autonomy and limiting opportunities for innovation and experimentation with new products or approaches.
*autonomy: 자율성
4
주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

The bacterium will swim in a straight line as long as the chemicals it senses seem better now than those it sensed a moment ago.


A bacterium is so small that its sensors alone can give it no indication of the direction that a good or bad chemical is coming from. (①)To overcome this problem, the bacterium uses time to help it deal with space. (②)The bacterium is not interested in how much of a chemical is present at any given moment, but rather in whether that concentration is increasing or decreasing. (③)After all, if the bacterium swam in a straight line simply because the concentration of a desirable chemical was high, it might travel away from chemical nirvana, not toward it, depending on the direction it’s pointing. (④)The bacterium solves this problem in an ingenious manner: as it senses its world, one mechanism registers what conditions are like right now, and another records how things were a few moments ago. (⑤)If not, it’s preferable to change course.
*nirvana: 극락
5
다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?

A few scientists from Duke University and University College London decided to find out what happens inside our brains when we lie. They put people into an fMRI machine and had them play a game where they lied to their partner. The first time people told a lie, the amygdala weighed in. It released chemicals that give us that familiar fear, that sinking sense of guilt we get when we lie. But then the researchers went one step further. They rewarded people for lying. They gave them a small monetary reward for deceiving their partner without them knowing they’d been lied to. Once people started getting rewarded for lying and not getting caught, that amygdala-driven sense of guilt started to fade. Interestingly, it faded most markedly when the lie would hurt someone else but help the person telling it. So people started telling bigger and bigger lies. Despite being small at the beginning, engagement in dishonest acts may trigger a process that leads to larger acts of dishonesty later on.
* fMRI: 기능적 자기 공명 영상
** amygdala: 편도체

The experiment above suggests that when people receive a ____(A)____ for lying, their brain chemistry changes, affecting their sense of guilt and ____(B)____ engagement in bigger lies.
prize……facilitating
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?


Life in the earth’s oceans simply would not exist without the presence of dissolved oxygen. This life-giving substance is not, however, distributed evenly with (a) depth in the oceans. Oxygen levels are typically high in a thin surface layer 10–20 metres deep. Here oxygen from the atmosphere can freely diffuse into the seawater, plus there is plenty of floating plant life producing oxygen through photosynthesis. Oxygen concentration then decreases rapidly with depth and reaches very low levels, sometimes close to zero, at depths of around 200–1,000 metres. This region is referred to as the oxygen (b) minimum zone. This zone is created by the low rates of oxygen diffusing down from the surface layer of the ocean, combined with the high rates of consumption of oxygen by decaying organic matter that sinks from the surface and accumulates at these depths. Beneath this zone, oxygen content (c) increases again with depth. The deep oceans contain quite high levels of oxygen, though not generally as high as in the surface layer. The higher levels of oxygen in the deep oceans reflect in part the origin of deep-ocean seawater masses, which are derived from cold, oxygen-rich seawater in the surface of polar oceans. That seawater sinks rapidly down, thereby (d) exhausting its oxygen content. As well, compared to life in near-surface waters, organisms in the deep ocean are comparatively scarce and have low metabolic rates. These organisms therefore consume (e) little of the available oxygen.
*dissolve: 용해시키다  **diffuse: 퍼지다
Is Oxygen Content Consistent Through Marine Layers?
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
밑줄 친 (a)~(e) 중에서 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? [3점]


Life in the earth’s oceans simply would not exist without the presence of dissolved oxygen. This life-giving substance is not, however, distributed evenly with (a) depth in the oceans. Oxygen levels are typically high in a thin surface layer 10–20 metres deep. Here oxygen from the atmosphere can freely diffuse into the seawater, plus there is plenty of floating plant life producing oxygen through photosynthesis. Oxygen concentration then decreases rapidly with depth and reaches very low levels, sometimes close to zero, at depths of around 200–1,000 metres. This region is referred to as the oxygen (b) minimum zone. This zone is created by the low rates of oxygen diffusing down from the surface layer of the ocean, combined with the high rates of consumption of oxygen by decaying organic matter that sinks from the surface and accumulates at these depths. Beneath this zone, oxygen content (c) increases again with depth. The deep oceans contain quite high levels of oxygen, though not generally as high as in the surface layer. The higher levels of oxygen in the deep oceans reflect in part the origin of deep-ocean seawater masses, which are derived from cold, oxygen-rich seawater in the surface of polar oceans. That seawater sinks rapidly down, thereby (d) exhausting its oxygen content. As well, compared to life in near-surface waters, organisms in the deep ocean are comparatively scarce and have low metabolic rates. These organisms therefore consume (e) little of the available oxygen.
*dissolve: 용해시키다  **diffuse: 퍼지다
(d)
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
주어진 글 (A)에 이어질 내용을 순서에 맞게 배열한 것으로 가장 적절한 것은?
(D)-(B)-(C)
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
밑줄 친 (a)~(e) 중에서 가리키는 대상이 나머지 넷과 다른 것은?
(c)
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
글의 Wells 교수에 관한 내용으로 적절하지 않은 것은?
눈을 감고 조각 작품을 만져 보았다.
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