2018년 고3 7월 모의고사
28 카드 | classcard
세트공유
다음 글의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것은?
 
Dear Mr. Fisher,

I want you to know how valuable you are to Northstar Plumbing. In the six months that you have been an employee here, the entire Drainage Department has demonstrated marked improvement in both billing and accounts receivable, largely because of your enthusiasm and administrative support. However, it is our policy at Northstar to assess employee performance and award raises annually. Since you have not yet reached your first anniversary as an employee with us, I cannot grant your request for a raise. In December of this year, I will be happy to meet with you and review your salary. At that time, it will be appropriate for me to consider raising your current salary. Thank you again for your excellent service to the company, and know that your performance is both monitored and valued.

Sincerely,
Judith Gardner
임금 인상 요구를 거절하려고
다음 글의 상황에 나타난 분위기로 가장 적절한 것은?

A horse’s cry came from one of the far barns. Marvin rushed over to it and saw that the entire back of the barn was coated in flames, but a horse was standing at the very front. Instincts told him it was Ewinar. The tiny brown colt was going crazy and kicking like a horse that was never tamed. Marvin put his hands to the barn door handle, and it was hot. Marvin ignored the screaming pain on his hand and opened the barn door. He threw the halter on Ewinar with amazing quickness. Marvin pulled the lead rope by Ewinar’s side and the horse walked on. He began walking faster, forcing Marvin to jog to keep up with him. The barn floor had been littered with highly flammable straw, and the fire was chasing him and the colt as they raced away.
*colt: 수망아지  **halter: 고삐
urgent and desperate
다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은?

A popular notion with regard to creativity is that constraints hinder our creativity and the most innovative results come from people who have “unlimited” resources. Research shows, however, that creativity loves constraints. In our own agency, we did the best work when we had limited time and client resources. You had to be more creative just to make everything work harder. I have often said our marketing teams were more creative on $5 million accounts than $100 million accounts. Today, when working with startups, I am amazed at the creativity you have to have when you only have $25,000. Perhaps companies should do just the opposite―intentionally apply limits to take advantage of the creative potential of their people.
사용할 수 있는 자원이 제한적일 때 창의성이 더 잘 발현된다.
다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은?

The most common settlement form is nuclear. Most rural people live in houses clustered in a village with forest and grassland lying beyond. The settlement land use protects most households from any insect­-transmitted diseases from woods and fields. The nuclear form, however, facilitates the fecal contamination of water sources and the spread of directly contagious diseases. Houses in a dispersed settlement form are located on farmland, and neither air nor water provides much focus of contagion for the scattered population. Each household, however, is exposed to vectored diseases originating in the natural surroundings. A linear settlement, in which houses are lined up along both sides of a river, canal, or road, has an intermediary position and often is characterized by the worst conditions of the other two settlement forms. People are only partially protected from insect-­transmitted diseases because the rear of the dwelling is exposed; yet the clustering of houses provides a focus for contagion.
*fecal: 배설물의  **vectored: 곤충(동물) 매개의
effect of settlement patterns on the spread of diseases
다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

The American anthropologist Margaret Mead once said, “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.” This same concept was echoed by Kelly Johnson: “The number of people having any connection with the project must be restricted in an almost vicious manner.” There are pretty good reasons for these opinions. Large or even medium­-sized groups―corporations, movements, whatever―aren’t built to be flexible, nor are they willing to take large risks. Such organizations are designed to make steady progress and have considerably too much to lose to place the big bets that certain breakthroughs require. Fortunately, this is not the case with small groups. With no bureaucracy, little to lose, and a passion to prove themselves, when it comes to innovation, small teams consistently outperform larger organizations.
*vicious: 심한
Why Small Teams Surpass Their Bigger Counterparts
다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Even though media coverage of sports is carefully edited and represented in total entertainment packages, most of us believe that when we see a sport event on television, we are seeing it “the way it is.” We don’t usually think that what we see, hear, and read is a series of narratives and images selected for particular reasons and grounded in the social worlds and interests of those producing the event, controlling the images, and delivering the commentary. Television coverage provides only one of many possible sets of images and narratives related to an event, and there are many images and messages that audiences do not receive. If we went to an event in person, we would see something quite different from the images selected and presented on television, and we would develop our own descriptions and interpretations, which would be very different from those carefully presented by media commentators.
Televised Sports: A Partial Reflection of a Sports Event
다음 도표의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?

The charts above show the results of a 2017 U.S. survey on the perceptions of gender differences and their origins. ①When it comes to how they express their feelings, their physical abilities, and their approach to parenting, more than half of respondents say men and women are basically different. ②Among the four items surveyed, the one with the biggest percentage of the response “different” is how they express their feelings. ③On the other hand, the item for which the most people choose the response “similar” is the things they are good at in the workplace, and the response rate is 63 percent. ④For all items except their physical abilities, the percentages of respondents saying that differences are mostly based on society are larger than those of people who say differences are mostly based on biology. ⑤In the case of their physical abilities, however, the percentage of people who say differences are mostly based on biology is more than four times that of those who say differences are mostly based on society.
5
saola에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?

The saola, also known as the Vu Quong ox, is an endangered, nocturnal forest­-dwelling ox weighing about 100 kilograms. Its habitat is the dense mountain forests in the Annamite Mountains, which run through the Lao PDR and Vietnam. The saola is generally considered the greatest animal discovery of recent times. First documented in Vietnam in 1992, it is so different from any other known species that a separate genus had to be created for it. The saola stays at higher elevations during the wetter summer season, when streams at these altitudes have plenty of water, and moves down to the lowlands in winter, when the mountain streams dry up. They are said to travel mostly in groups of two or three animals. Hunting and the loss of forest habitat due to logging and conversion to farmland threaten its survival.
*nocturnal: 야행성의  **genus:[생물] 속(屬)
여름에는 저지대에 머물고 겨울에는 고지대로 이동한다.
2018 Pegasus Drone Challenge에 관한 다음 안내문의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?
참가자 전원은 York Air Festival 입장권을 받는다.
Refugee Hope Box에 관한 다음 안내문의 내용과 일치하는 것은?  
물품을 신발 상자에 담는다.
다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점]

When it comes to medical treatment, patients see choice as both a blessing and a burden. And the burden falls primarily on women, who are ①typically the guardians not only of their own health, but that of their husbands and children. “It is an overwhelming task for women, and consumers in general, ②to be able to sort through the information they find and make decisions,” says Amy Allina, program director of the National Women’s Health Network. And what makes it overwhelming is not only that the decision is ours, but that the number of sources of information ③which we are to make the decisions has exploded. It’s not just a matter of listening to your doctor lay out the options and ④making a choice. We now have encyclopedic lay­-people’s guides to health, “better health” magazines, and the Internet. So now the prospect of medical decisions ⑤has become everyone’s worst nightmare of a term paper assignment, with stakes infinitely higher than a grade in a course.
*lay­-people: 비전문가
3
(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 문맥에 맞는 낱말로 가장 적절한 것은? [3점]

According to Derek Bickerton, human ancestors and relatives such as the Neanderthals may have had a relatively large lexicon of words, each of which related to a mental concept such as ‘meat’, ‘fire’, ‘hunt’ and so forth. They were able to string such words together but could do so only in a nearly (A) arbitrary / consistent fashion. Bickerton recognizes that this could result in some ambiguity. For instance, would ‘man killed bear’ have meant that a man has killed a bear or that a bear has killed a man? Ray Jackendoff, a cognitive scientist, suggests that simple rules such as ‘agent-­first’ (that is, the man killed the bear) might have (B) increased / reduced the potential ambiguity. Nevertheless, the number and complexity of potential utterances would have been severely limited. The transformation of such proto­language into language required the (C) destruction / evolution of grammar―rules that define the order in which a finite number of words can be strung together to create an infinite number of utterances, each with a specific meaning.
*lexicon: 어휘 목록
**proto­language: 원시 언어
arbitrary……reduced……evolution
밑줄 친 he[his]가 가리키는 대상이 나머지 넷과 다른 것은?

A notable and celebrated contemporary of Alfred Nobel was Gösta Mittag-­Leffler. Mittag-­Leffler, a student of the celebrated mathematician Karl Weierstrass, was a prominent mathematician in ①his own right. He married well, and as a result lived in a grand mansion in Djursholm, Sweden―just outside of Stockholm. Now Mittag­-Leffler was a true celebrity; ②his name was in the newspapers all the time. He dressed like a dandy, and was really a man about town. Nobel was an unattractive, dull, solitary bachelor. He never married, and as far as we know ③he never had a lady friend in his entire adult life. He was extremely jealous of Mittag­-Leffler and the lifestyle that ④he led. Mittag­-Leffler was the most prominent and celebrated scientist in all of Sweden. Some thought it likely that, were there a Nobel Prize in mathematics, ⑤he would have received it. This may have influenced Alfred Nobel’s decision not to found a prize in mathematics.
3
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

Businesses of design and entertainment are essentially competing with one another to predict the consumer’s taste―but also have some ability to ___________________________. In fashion, there is something of a cottage industry to predict which colors will be popular in the next season. This must be done a year or so in advance because of the planning time required to turn around a clothing line. If a group of influential designers decide that brown will be the hot color next year and start manufacturing lots of brown clothes, and they get models to wear brown, and stores begin to display lots of brown in their windows, the public may well begin to comply with the trend. But they’re responding more to the marketing of brown than expressing some deep underlying preference for it. The designer may look like a savant for having “anticipated” the popular color, but if he had picked white or lavender instead, the same process might have unfolded.
*savant: 석학, 학자
influence it through clever marketing plans
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

A challenge unique to environmental science lies in _________________________. For example, when you go to the grocery store, the bagger may ask, “Paper or plastic?” How can we know for certain which type of bag has the least environmental impact? There are techniques for determining what harm may come from using the petrochemical benzene to make a plastic bag and from using chlorine to make a paper bag. However, different substances tend to affect the environment differently: benzene may pose more of a risk to people, whereas chlorine may pose a greater risk to organisms in a stream. It is difficult, if not impossible, to decide which is better or worse for the environment overall. There is no single measure of environmental quality. Ultimately, our assessments and our choices involve value judgments and personal opinions.
the dilemmas raised by subjectivity
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

Risk portfolios explain why people often become original in one part of their lives ______________________. T. S. Eliot’s landmark work, The Waste Land, has been hailed as one of the twentieth century’s most significant poems. But after publishing it in 1922, Eliot kept his London bank job until 1925, rejecting the idea of embracing professional risk. As the novelist Aldous Huxley noted after paying him an office visit, Eliot was “the most bank­clerky of all bank clerks.” When he finally did leave the position, Eliot still didn’t strike out on his own. He spent the next forty years working for a publishing house to provide stability in his life, writing poetry on the side. As Polaroid founder Edwin Land remarked, “No person could possibly be original in one area unless he were possessed of the emotional and social stability that comes from fixed attitudes in all areas other than the one in which he is being original.”
while remaining quite conventional in others
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

In her 1850 preface to Wuthering Heights and Agnes Grey, Charlotte Brontë gives a detailed account of the reasons behind her decision to use a male pseudonym. She writes that adopting a masculinized pseudonym was an unsophisticated decision based on a ‘vague impression.’ However, Brontë’s anxieties did not stem from the fear that her gender would block her quest for a publisher. Rather, she worried that ___________________________. The Brontë sisters perceived themselves to be rebels, but not because they were breaking into a male­-dominated field. On the contrary, they wanted to distance themselves from the large group of women who were then writing domestic fiction: ‘we veiled our own names...because―without at the time suspecting that our mode of writing and thinking was not what is called feminine...we noticed how critics sometimes use for their chastisement the weapon of personality, and for their reward, a flattery, which is not true praise.’
*pseudonym: 필명
**chastisement: 신랄한 비난
her work would be dismissed as typically feminine writing
다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은?

Bert Vogelstein’s latest effort is what he calls a “liquid biopsy.” A blood sample is taken and tested for the presence of even the tiniest amounts of tumor DNA. ①A tumor detected by Vogelstein’s liquid biopsy can be detected at just 1 percent the size of what is necessary to be detected by an MRI, currently the most reliable tool for finding cancer. ②MRI scans are capable of producing a variety of chemical and physical data, in addition to detailed spatial images. ③The amount can be so small that the cancer is discovered even before any symptoms have developed. ④What this effectively means is that getting a blood test for cancer could become part of everybody’s annual medical checkup if the price goes down far enough, as Vogelstein believes it will. ⑤The testing done to date by researchers at two dozen medical institutions shows that Vogelstein’s method found 47 percent of earliest-­stage cancers.
*biopsy: 생검(생체 조직 검사)
2
주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.
 
The email inbox environment has changed―that much is undeniable. But people are amazingly adaptable. Just as they have adapted to changes everywhere else in their world, they will adapt to changes in email practices.

(A) Today, leave kids alone in front of the set with a remote control in their hands, and they’re likely to be exposed to explosions, bloody fights, and some rather provocative views of the human body. So what did parents do? They adapted.

(B) Think back about thirty years, when there were only three or four networks on television. Back then, parents could leave their children in front of the set without having to worry about what they’d see.

(C) They took away the remote. They purchased parental­lock technology. They began to watch with their children. People haven’t turned off their TVs, just as they will not stop reading email. They will continue to develop simple techniques that will enable them to manage ever-­increasing volumes of irrelevant email.

*provocative: 도발적인
(B) - (A) - (C)
주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.
                                                                                
In classic experiments on stress, people performed tasks that required concentration, like solving puzzles, while being blasted at random intervals with uncomfortably loud sounds.                                       

(A) But here’s what is: none of the participants actually pressed the button. Stopping the noise didn’t make the difference...knowing they could stop the noise did. The button gave them a sense of control and allowed them to endure the stress.

(B) If the noise became too unpleasant, they could press a button and make it stop. Sure enough, the button allowed them to stay calmer, make fewer mistakes, and show less irritation. That’s nothing surprising.

(C) They started sweating and their heart rates and blood pressure climbed. They struggled to focus and made mistakes. Many got so frustrated that they gave up. Searching for a way to reduce anxiety, researchers gave some of the participants an escape.
(C) - (B) - (A)
글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오.
 
At the end of the War, however, a transition began that replaced old-­style farming with production systems that were much more intensive.


What was it that prompted scientists to become interested in the way we treat animals? Before the Second World War, agricultural operations in the Western world consisted of traditional family-­run farms. ( ① ) These were small scale and were typically dependent on manual labour to work the land and tend the animals. ( ② ) There was a general view within society that the farmers cared for their livestock because they were closely tied to the farmers’ livelihood.  ( ③ ) Animals that had previously spent large parts of the year outdoors were now confined to indoor facilities. ( ④ ) By keeping livestock in windowless sheds and using artificial lighting and temperature control, growing seasons could be prolonged and it became possible to produce greater quantities of meat, milk, and eggs. ( ⑤ ) The human contact with individual animals, however, was lost.
3
글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오.

So, using a pointed stick, they marked the soft clay with signs that showed its contents.


Writing, like so many inventions, came about by accident, and this one happened on the back of an envelope. ( ① ) About 6,000 years ago in Mesopotamia, a group of people known as the Sumerians invented a new way of keeping track of trade. ( ② ) They made clay tokens shaped like animals, jars, and other goods, and recorded deals by wrapping the tokens up in clay envelopes. ( ③ ) Once they’d sealed an envelope, they could no longer see what was inside it. ( ④ ) It didn’t take them long to realize that, once they’d done this, they didn’t need the tokens any more: just the marked envelope would do. ( ⑤ ) So by about 3100 BC, the envelopes had turned into simple squares of clay recording trade deals in symbols.
4
다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?

In a set of remarkable experiments, Chen­-Bo Zhong and Katie Liljenquist have shown that lyrics like “Wash your sins away in the tide” are not just a quirk of language. In their experiment, they asked students to recall either an ethical or unethical behavior in their past. Students who remembered their own unethical behavior were more likely to act as if they felt unclean. On a word­completion task that followed, the “unethical memory” students were more likely to say that the unfinished word “W__H” was “WASH” instead of “WISH,” and the “S__P” was “SOAP” instead of, say, “STEP.” In a second experiment, students were told that the study was to determine if handwriting was linked to personality. Some students copied out stories of ethical behavior; others, stories of unethical behavior. They were then asked to rate the desirability of various products. Some were cleansing products and others were not. Those who copied out unethical stories rated cleansing products much higher than noncleansing products.       
*quirk: 재치, 기발함

According to some experiments, exposure to cases of moral ____(A)____   may lead people to develop a perception of physical ____(B)____.
violation ……  
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? [3점]


In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries clockmaking was a vital European technology, and London was at its cutting edge. As a maritime nation, the British were concerned with one problem in particular: they could make clocks that kept very good time as long as they stayed perfectly still but not when they were shaken about, and particularly not on board a rolling ship. If you wanted to sail, it was impossible to keep a precise record of time. And at sea, if you can’t tell the time, you don’t know how far east or west you are. It is relatively easy to calculate latitude―your distance north or south of the equator―by measuring the height of the Sun above the horizon at noon; but this won’t let you calculate longitude―your position east or west.
The problem of ______________ at sea was finally cracked in the middle of the eighteenth century by John Harrison, who invented a clock―a marine chronometer―which could go on precisely telling the time in spite of the constant movement of a ship, thus making it possible for the first time for ships anywhere to establish their longitude. Before a ship set sail, its chronometer would be set to the local time in harbour―for the British this was usually Greenwich. Once at sea, you could then compare the time at Greenwich with the time of noon on board ship, which you fixed by the Sun; the difference between the two times gave you your longitude. There are twenty­four hours in the day so, as the Earth rotates, every hour the Sun apparently ‘moves’ across the sky one twenty­fourth of a complete circle of the globe―that is, 15 degrees. If you are three hours behind the time in Greenwich, you are 45 degrees west―in the middle of the Atlantic.
*chronometer: (천문·항해용) 정밀 시계
A Portable Time Standard: Advance in Marine Navigation
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?


In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries clockmaking was a vital European technology, and London was at its cutting edge. As a maritime nation, the British were concerned with one problem in particular: they could make clocks that kept very good time as long as they stayed perfectly still but not when they were shaken about, and particularly not on board a rolling ship. If you wanted to sail, it was impossible to keep a precise record of time. And at sea, if you can’t tell the time, you don’t know how far east or west you are. It is relatively easy to calculate latitude―your distance north or south of the equator―by measuring the height of the Sun above the horizon at noon; but this won’t let you calculate longitude―your position east or west.
The problem of ______________ at sea was finally cracked in the middle of the eighteenth century by John Harrison, who invented a clock―a marine chronometer―which could go on precisely telling the time in spite of the constant movement of a ship, thus making it possible for the first time for ships anywhere to establish their longitude. Before a ship set sail, its chronometer would be set to the local time in harbour―for the British this was usually Greenwich. Once at sea, you could then compare the time at Greenwich with the time of noon on board ship, which you fixed by the Sun; the difference between the two times gave you your longitude. There are twenty­four hours in the day so, as the Earth rotates, every hour the Sun apparently ‘moves’ across the sky one twenty­fourth of a complete circle of the globe―that is, 15 degrees. If you are three hours behind the time in Greenwich, you are 45 degrees west―in the middle of the Atlantic.
*chronometer: (천문·항해용) 정밀 시계
accurate timekeeping
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
주어진 글 (A)에 이어질 내용을 순서에 맞게 배열한 것으로 가장 적절한 것은?
(D) - (C) - (B)
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
밑줄 친 (a)~(e) 중에서 가리키는 대상이 나머지 넷과 다른 것은?
(c)
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
글에 관한 내용으로 적절하지 않은 것은?
아들은 남자에게 자주 돈을 달라고 했었다.
학원에서 이용중인 교재의 어법/문법 연습문제 또는 듣기시험을 10분만에 제작하여
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