2020년 고3 대학수학능력시험 짝수형
28 카드 | classcard
세트공유
다음 글의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Dear Friends,

Season’s greetings. As some of you already know, we are starting the campus food drive. This is how you participate. You can bring your items for donation to our booths. Our donation booths are located in the lobbies of the campus libraries. Just drop off the items there during usual library hours from December 4 to 23. The donated food should be non-perishable like canned meats and canned fruits. Packaged goods such as jam and peanut butter are also good. We will distribute the food to our neighbors on Christmas Eve. We truly appreciate your help.

Many blessings,
Joanna at Campus Food Bank
음식 기부에 참여하는 방법을 안내하려고
다음 글에 드러난 ‘I’의 심경 변화로 가장 적절한 것은?

Once again, I had lost the piano contest to my friend. When I learned that Linda had won, I was deeply troubled and unhappy. My body was shaking with uneasiness. My heart beat quickly and my face became reddish. I had to run out of the concert hall to settle down. Sitting on the stairs alone, I recalled what my teacher had said. “Life is about winning, not necessarily about winning against others but winning at being you. And the way to win is to figure out who you are and do your best.” He was absolutely right. I had no reason to oppose my friend. Instead, I should focus on myself and my own improvement. I breathed out slowly. My hands were steady now. At last, my mind was at peace.
upset → calm
다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은?

Developing expertise carries costs of its own. We can become experts in some areas, like speaking a language or knowing our favorite foods, simply by living our lives, but in many other domains expertise requires considerable training and effort. What’s more, expertise is domain specific. The expertise that we work hard to acquire in one domain will carry over only imperfectly to related ones, and not at all to unrelated ones. In the end, as much as we may want to become experts on everything in our lives, there simply isn’t enough time to do so. Even in areas where we could, it won’t necessarily be worth the effort. It’s clear that we should concentrate our own expertise on those domains of choice that are most common and/or important to our lives, and those we actively enjoy learning about and choosing from.
자신에게 의미 있는 영역을 정해서 전문성을 키워야 한다.
밑줄 친 the role of the ‘lion’s historians’가 다음 글에서 의미하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은?

There is an African proverb that says, ‘Till the lions have their historians, tales of hunting will always glorify the hunter’. The proverb is about power, control and law making. Environmental journalists have to play the role of the ‘lion’s historians’. They have to put across the point of view of the environment to people who make the laws. They have to be the voice of wild India. The present rate of human consumption is completely unsustainable. Forest, wetlands, wastelands, coastal zones, eco-sensitive zones, they are all seen as disposable for the accelerating demands of human population. But to ask for any change in human behaviour ― whether it be to cut down on consumption, alter lifestyles or decrease population growth ― is seen as a violation of human rights. But at some point human rights become ‘wrongs’. It’s time we changed our thinking so that there is no difference between the rights of humans and the rights of the rest of the environment.
urging a shift to sustainable human behaviour for nature
다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은?

Prior to file-sharing services, music albums landed exclusively in the hands of music critics before their release. These critics would listen to them well before the general public could and preview them for the rest of the world in their reviews. Once the internet made music easily accessible and allowed even advanced releases to spread through online social networks, availability of new music became democratized, which meant critics no longer had unique access. That is, critics and laypeople alike could obtain new music simultaneously. Social media services also enabled people to publicize their views on new songs, list their new favorite bands in their social media bios, and argue over new music endlessly on message boards. The result was that critics now could access the opinions of the masses on a particular album before writing their reviews. Thus, instead of music reviews guiding popular opinion toward art (as they did in preinternet times), music reviews began to reflect ― consciously or subconsciously ― public opinion.
* laypeople: 비전문가
미디어 환경의 변화로 음악 비평이 대중의 영향을 받게 되었다.
다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? [3점]

Difficulties arise when we do not think of people and machines as collaborative systems, but assign whatever tasks can be automated to the machines and leave the rest to people. This ends up requiring people to behave in machine-like fashion, in ways that differ from human capabilities. We expect people to monitor machines, which means keeping alert for long periods, something we are bad at. We require people to do repeated operations with the extreme precision and accuracy required by machines, again something we are not good at. When we divide up the machine and human components of a task in this way, we fail to take advantage of human strengths and capabilities but instead rely upon areas where we are genetically, biologically unsuited. Yet, when people fail, they are blamed.
issues of allocating unfit tasks to humans in automated systems
다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

People don’t usually think of touch as a temporal phenomenon, but it is every bit as time-based as it is spatial. You can carry out an experiment to see for yourself. Ask a friend to cup his hand, palm face up, and close his eyes. Place a small ordinary object in his palm ― a ring, an eraser, anything will do ― and ask him to identify it without moving any part of his hand. He won’t have a clue other than weight and maybe overall size. Then tell him to keep his eyes closed and move his fingers over the object. He’ll most likely identify it at once. By allowing the fingers to move, you’ve added time to the sensory perception of touch. There’s a direct analogy between the fovea at the center of your retina and your fingertips, both of which have high acuity. Your ability to make complex use of touch, such as buttoning your shirt or unlocking your front door in the dark, depends on continuous time-varying patterns of touch sensation.
* analogy: 유사 ** fovea: (망막의) 중심와(窩) *** retina: 망막
Time Does Matter: A Hidden Essence of Touch
다음 도표의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?

The graph above shows the online shares of retail sales for each of six countries in 2012 and in 2019. The online share of retail sales refers to the percentage of retail sales conducted online in a given country. ① For each country, its online share of retail sales in 2019 was larger than that in 2012. ② Among the six countries, the UK owned the largest online share of retail sales with 19.7% in 2019. ③ In 2019, the U.S. had the second largest online share of retail sales with 16.5%. ④ In 2012, the online share of retail sales in the Netherlands was larger than that in France, whereas the reverse was true in 2019. ⑤ In the case of Spain and Italy, the online share of retail sales in each country was less than 5.0% both in 2012 and in 2019.
5
Frank Hyneman Knight에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?

Frank Hyneman Knight was one of the most influential economists of the twentieth century. After obtaining his Ph.D. in 1916 at Cornell University, Knight taught at Cornell, the University of Iowa, and the University of Chicago. Knight spent most of his career at the University of Chicago. Some of his students at Chicago later received the Nobel Prize. Knight is known as the author of the book Risk, Uncertainty and Profit, a study of the role of the entrepreneur in economic life. He also wrote a brief introduction to economics entitled The Economic Organization, which became a classic of microeconomic theory. But Knight was much more than an economist; he was also a social philosopher. Later in his career, Knight developed his theories of freedom, democracy, and ethics. After retiring in 1952, Knight remained active in teaching and writing.
* entrepreneur: 기업가
은퇴 후에는 가르치는 일은 하지 않고 글 쓰는 일에 전념했다.
City of Sittka Public Bike Sharing Service에 관한 다음 안내문의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?
헬멧이 제공된다.
Jason’s Photography Class에 관한 다음 안내문의 내용과 일치하는 것은?
다루는 주제 중 하나는 특수 효과이다.
다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점]

Regulations covering scientific experiments on human subjects are strict. Subjects must give their informed, written consent, and experimenters must submit their proposed experiments to thorough examination by overseeing bodies. Scientists who experiment on themselves can, functionally if not legally, avoid the restrictions ① associated with experimenting on other people. They can also sidestep most of the ethical issues involved: nobody, presumably, is more aware of an experiment’s potential hazards than the scientist who devised ② it. Nonetheless, experimenting on oneself remains ③ deeply problematic. One obvious drawback is the danger involved; knowing that it exists ④ does nothing to reduce it. A less obvious drawback is the limited range of data that the experiment can generate. Human anatomy and physiology vary, in small but significant ways, according to gender, age, lifestyle, and other factors. Experimental results derived from a single subject are, therefore, of limited value; there is no way to know ⑤ what the subject’s responses are typical or atypical of the response of humans as a group.
* consent: 동의 ** anatomy: (해부학적) 구조
*** physiology: 생리적 현상
5
다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은?

How the bandwagon effect occurs is demonstrated by the history of measurements of the speed of light. Because this speed is the basis of the theory of relativity, it’s one of the most frequently and carefully measured ① quantities in science. As far as we know, the speed hasn’t changed over time. However, from 1870 to 1900, all the experiments found speeds that were too high. Then, from 1900 to 1950, the ② opposite happened ― all the experiments found speeds that were too low! This kind of error, where results are always on one side of the real value, is called “bias.” It probably happened because over time, experimenters subconsciously adjusted their results to ③ match what they expected to find. If a result fit what they expected, they kept it. If a result didn’t fit, they threw it out. They weren’t being intentionally dishonest, just ④ influenced by the conventional wisdom. The pattern only changed when someone ⑤ lacked the courage to report what was actually measured instead of what was expected.
* bandwagon effect: 편승 효과
5
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

In the classic model of the Sumerian economy, the temple functioned as an administrative authority governing commodity production, collection, and redistribution. The discovery of administrative tablets from the temple complexes at Uruk suggests that token use and consequently writing evolved as a tool of centralized economic governance. Given the lack of archaeological evidence from Uruk-period domestic sites, it is not clear whether individuals also used the system for ___________________________. For that matter, it is not clear how widespread literacy was at its beginnings. The use of identifiable symbols and pictograms on the early tablets is consistent with administrators needing a lexicon that was mutually intelligible by literate and nonliterate parties. As cuneiform script became more abstract, literacy must have become increasingly important to ensure one understood what he or she had agreed to.
* archaeological: 고고학적인
** lexicon: 어휘 목록
*** cuneiform script: 쐐기 문자
personal agreements
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Choosing similar friends can have a rationale. Assessing the survivability of an environment can be risky (if an environment turns out to be deadly, for instance, it might be too late by the time you found out), so humans have evolved the desire to associate with similar individuals as a way to perform this function efficiently. This is especially useful to a species that lives in so many different sorts of environments. However, the carrying capacity of a given environment _____________________________. If resources are very limited, the individuals who live in a particular place cannot all do the exact same thing (for example, if there are few trees, people cannot all live in tree houses, or if mangoes are in short supply, people cannot all live solely on a diet of mangoes). A rational strategy would therefore sometimes be to avoid similar members of one’s species.
places a limit on this strategy
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

Thanks to newly developed neuroimaging technology, we now have access to the specific brain changes that occur during learning. Even though all of our brains contain the same basic structures, our neural networks are as unique as our fingerprints. The latest developmental neuroscience research has shown that the brain is much more malleable throughout life than previously assumed; it develops in response to its own processes, to its immediate and distant “environments,” and to its past and current situations. The brain seeks to create meaning through establishing or refining existing neural networks. When we learn a new fact or skill, our neurons communicate to form networks of connected information. Using this knowledge or skill results in structural changes to allow similar future impulses to travel more quickly and efficiently than others. High-activity synaptic connections are stabilized and strengthened, while connections with relatively low use are weakened and eventually pruned. In this way, our brains are _______________________.
* malleable: 순응성이 있는 ** prune: 잘라 내다
sculpted by our own history of experiences
다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

Successful integration of an educational technology is marked by that technology being regarded by users as an unobtrusive facilitator of learning, instruction, or performance. When the focus shifts from the technology being used to the educational purpose that technology serves, then that technology is becoming a comfortable and trusted element, and can be regarded as being successfully integrated. Few people give a second thought to the use of a ball-point pen although the mechanisms involved vary ― some use a twist mechanism and some use a push button on top, and there are other variations as well. Personal computers have reached a similar level of familiarity for a great many users, but certainly not for all. New and emerging technologies often introduce both fascination and frustration with users. As long as ____________________ in promoting learning, instruction, or performance, then one ought not to conclude that the technology has been successfully integrated ― at least for that user.
* unobtrusive: 눈에 띄지 않는
the user’s focus is on the technology itself rather than its use
다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은?

Workers are united by laughing at shared events, even ones that may initially spark anger or conflict. Humor reframes potentially divisive events into merely “laughable” ones which are put in perspective as subservient to unifying values held by organization members. Repeatedly recounting humorous incidents reinforces unity based on key organizational values. ① One team told repeated stories about a dumpster fire, something that does not seem funny on its face, but the reactions of workers motivated to preserve safety sparked laughter as the stories were shared multiple times by multiple parties in the workplace. ② Shared events that cause laughter can indicate a sense of belonging since “you had to be there” to see the humor in them, and non-members were not and do not. ③ Since humor can easily capture people’s attention, commercials tend to contain humorous elements, such as funny faces and gestures. ④ Instances of humor serve to enact bonds among organization members. ⑤ Understanding the humor may even be required as an informal badge of membership in the organization.
* subservient: 도움이 되는
3
주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

The objective of battle, to “throw” the enemy and to make him defenseless, may temporarily blind commanders and even strategists to the larger purpose of war. War is never an isolated act, nor is it ever only one decision.

(A) To be political, a political entity or a representative of a political entity, whatever its constitutional form, has to have an intention, a will. That intention has to be clearly expressed.

(B) In the real world, war’s larger purpose is always a political purpose. It transcends the use of force. This insight was famously captured by Clausewitz’s most famous phrase, “War is a mere continuation of politics by other means.”

(C) And one side’s will has to be transmitted to the enemy at some point during the confrontation (it does not have to be publicly communicated). A violent act and its larger political intention must also be attributed to one side at some point during the confrontation. History does not know of acts of war without eventual attribution.

* entity: 실체 ** transcend: 초월하다
(B) - (A) - (C)
주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점]

Experts have identified a large number of measures that promote energy efficiency. Unfortunately many of them are not cost effective. This is a fundamental requirement for energy efficiency investment from an economic perspective.

(A) And this has direct repercussions at the individual level: households can reduce the cost of electricity and gas bills, and improve their health and comfort, while companies can increase their competitiveness and their productivity. Finally, the market for energy efficiency could contribute to the economy through job and firms creation.

(B) There are significant externalities to take into account and there are also macroeconomic effects. For instance, at the aggregate level, improving the level of national energy efficiency has positive effects on macroeconomic issues such as energy dependence, climate change, health, national competitiveness and reducing fuel poverty.

(C) However, the calculation of such cost effectiveness is not easy: it is not simply a case of looking at private costs and comparing them to the reductions achieved.

* repercussion: 반향, 영향
** aggregate: 집합의
(C) - (B) - (A)
글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오.

I have still not exactly pinpointed Maddy’s character since wickedness takes many forms.

Imagine I tell you that Maddy is bad. Perhaps you infer from my intonation, or the context in which we are talking, that I mean morally bad. Additionally, you will probably infer that I am disapproving of Maddy, or saying that I think you should disapprove of her, or similar, given typical linguistic conventions and assuming I am sincere. ( ① ) However, you might not get a more detailed sense of the particular sorts of way in which Maddy is bad, her typical character traits, and the like, since people can be bad in many ways. ( ② ) In contrast, if I say that Maddy is wicked, then you get more of a sense of her typical actions and attitudes to others. ( ③ ) The word ‘wicked’ is more specific than ‘bad’. ( ④ ) But there is more detail nevertheless, perhaps a stronger connotation of the sort of person Maddy is. ( ⑤ ) In addition, and again assuming typical linguistic conventions, you should also get a sense that I am disapproving of Maddy, or saying that you should disapprove of her, or similar, assuming that we are still discussing her moral character.
* connotation: 함축
4
글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오. [3점]

Note that copyright covers the expression of an idea and not the idea itself.

Designers draw on their experience of design when approaching a new project. This includes the use of previous designs that they know work ― both designs that they have created themselves and those that others have created. ( ① ) Others’ creations often spark inspiration that also leads to new ideas and innovation. ( ② ) This is well known and understood. ( ③ ) However, the expression of an idea is protected by copyright, and people who infringe on that copyright can be taken to court and prosecuted. ( ④ ) This means, for example, that while there are numerous smartphones all with similar functionality, this does not represent an infringement of copyright as the idea has been expressed in different ways and it is the expression that has been copyrighted. ( ⑤ ) Copyright is free and is automatically invested in the author, for instance, the writer of a book or a programmer who develops a program, unless they sign the copyright over to someone else.
* infringe: 침해하다 ** prosecute: 기소하다
4
다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?

From a cross-cultural perspective the equation between public leadership and dominance is questionable. What does one mean by ‘dominance’? Does it indicate coercion? Or control over ‘the most valued’? ‘Political’ systems may be about both, either, or conceivably neither. The idea of ‘control’ would be a bothersome one for many peoples, as for instance among many native peoples of Amazonia where all members of a community are fond of their personal autonomy and notably allergic to any obvious expression of control or coercion. The conception of political power as a coercive force, while it may be a Western fixation, is not a universal. It is very unusual for an Amazonian leader to give an order. If many peoples do not view political power as a coercive force, nor as the most valued domain, then the leap from ‘the political’ to ‘domination’ (as coercion), and from there to ‘domination of women’, is a shaky one. As Marilyn Strathern has remarked, the notions of ‘the political’ and ‘political personhood’ are cultural obsessions of our own, a bias long reflected in anthropological constructs.
* coercion: 강제 ** autonomy: 자율
*** anthropological: 인류학의

It is ______(A)______ to understand political power in other cultures through our own notion of it because ideas of political power are not ______(B)______ across cultures.
misguided …uniform
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?


Our irresistible tendency to see things in human terms ― that we are often mistaken in attributing complex human motives and processing abilities to other species ― does not mean that an animal’s behavior is not, in fact, complex. Rather, it means that the complexity of the animal’s behavior is not purely a (a) product of its internal complexity. Herbert Simon’s “parable of the ant” makes this point very clearly. Imagine an ant walking along a beach, and (b) visualize tracking the trajectory of the ant as it moves. The trajectory would show a lot of twists and turns, and would be very irregular and complicated. One could then suppose that the ant had equally complicated (c) internal navigational abilities, and work out what these were likely to be by analyzing the trajectory to infer the rules and mechanisms that could produce such a complex navigational path. The complexity of the trajectory, however, “is really a complexity in the surface of the beach, not a complexity in the ant.” In reality, the ant may be using a set of very (d) complex rules: it is the interaction of these rules with the environment that actually produces the complex trajectory, not the ant alone. Put more generally, the parable of the ant illustrates that there is no necessary correlation between the complexity of an (e) observed behavior and the complexity of the mechanism that produces it.
* parable: 우화 ** trajectory: 이동 경로
What Makes the Complexity of Animal Behavior?
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
밑줄 친 (a)~(e) 중에서 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? [3점]


Our irresistible tendency to see things in human terms ― that we are often mistaken in attributing complex human motives and processing abilities to other species ― does not mean that an animal’s behavior is not, in fact, complex. Rather, it means that the complexity of the animal’s behavior is not purely a (a) product of its internal complexity. Herbert Simon’s “parable of the ant” makes this point very clearly. Imagine an ant walking along a beach, and (b) visualize tracking the trajectory of the ant as it moves. The trajectory would show a lot of twists and turns, and would be very irregular and complicated. One could then suppose that the ant had equally complicated (c) internal navigational abilities, and work out what these were likely to be by analyzing the trajectory to infer the rules and mechanisms that could produce such a complex navigational path. The complexity of the trajectory, however, “is really a complexity in the surface of the beach, not a complexity in the ant.” In reality, the ant may be using a set of very (d) complex rules: it is the interaction of these rules with the environment that actually produces the complex trajectory, not the ant alone. Put more generally, the parable of the ant illustrates that there is no necessary correlation between the complexity of an (e) observed behavior and the complexity of the mechanism that produces it.
* parable: 우화 ** trajectory: 이동 경로
(d)
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
주어진 글 (A)에 이어질 내용을 순서에 맞게 배열한 것으로 가장 적절한 것은?
(C) - (D) - (B)
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
밑줄 친 (a)~(e) 중에서 가리키는 대상이 나머지 넷과 다른 것은?
(e)
다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
윗글에 관한 내용으로 적절하지 않은 것은?
Felix는 자신의 방에서 게임을 하고 있었다.
학원에서 이용중인 교재의 어법/문법 연습문제 또는 듣기시험을 10분만에 제작하여
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