YBM 고등 영어 독해와 작문 신정현 - 종합
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세트공유
hesitation
n. 주저, 망설임
With no hesitation, she answered, “Mental toughness.”
bring about
~을 가져오다, 초래하다
Anticipating success brings about persistence, and persistence brings about positive outcomes.
consequence
n. 결과, 결론
Value the effort, not the consequence.
superiority
n. 우월
For those with the fixed mindset, success is about establishing their superiority over others.
the former ... the latter ~
전자는 …, 후자는 ~
Unlike the former, the latter gained knowledge and experience from the challenges, and as a result, grew intellectually.
praise
v. 칭찬하다
Praise yourself, regardless of the outcome, when you do your own best.
achieve
v. 성취하다, 달성하다
It sends a message that with regard to the grade, we achieved nothing.
positive
a. 긍정적인
Some reacted in a surprisingly positive way, saying they loved a challenge.
improvement
n. 개선, 진보
The growth mindset focuses on the possibility of improvement.
mindset
n. 마음가짐, 사고방식
Behind the grading system is what is called a “fixed mindset.”
central
a. 주된
This idea of success is central to the growth mindset.
imply
v. ~의 뜻을 내포하다
It implies we will eventually meet with success, although we are not yet there.
challenge
n. 과제, 도전
Facing a challenge, we make a choice and work hard, doing our best.
in contrast to
~와 대조를 이루어, ~와는 대조적으로
The growth mindset, in contrast to Billy’s experience, values effort over natural talent.
evaluate
v. 평가하다
Our success or failure gets evaluated in terms of the end result.
extraordinary
a. 비상한
The real champions are not the ones born with extraordinary talent but those who persist and never give up.
enormous
a. 엄청난, 거대한
She had to practice and put in enormous effort.
anticipate
v. 예상하다, 예견하다
Anticipating success brings about persistence, and persistence brings about positive outcomes.
conscious
a. 의식하고 있는
Whenever you feel you might be slipping back into a fixed mindset, make a conscious decision to break free of it.
critical
a. 중대한, 결정적인
The two mindsets have critical differences in the ways they cope with challenges.
process
n. 과정
They knew their abilities could be developed and they enjoyed the process.
eventually
ad. 결국
It implies we will eventually meet with success, although we are not yet there.
break free of
~에서 벗어나다
Whenever you feel you might be slipping back into a fixed mindset, make a conscious decision to break free of it.
innovation
n. 혁신
The fixed mindset blocked him from pursuing innovations.
cope with
~에 대처[대응]하다
The two mindsets have critical differences in the ways they cope with challenges.
alternative
n. 선택지, 대안
Behind the “Not yet,” there is an alternative attitude toward success and failure.
talent
n. 재능
He believed that his natural talent was all he needed.
regardless of
~에도 불구하고, ~에 관계없이
Praise yourself, regardless of the outcome, when you do your own best.
promote
v. 촉진하다, 장려하다
He failed because he was so proud that he did not promote innovations.
not yet
아직 ~않다
What if we got a grade of “Not yet” instead of “Fail”?
neglect
v. 무시하다, 경시하다
You will be trapped in the joy of now, neglecting the power of “not yet.”
intelligence
n. 지능
With the fixed mindset, they thought their intelligence was being tested and they would fail.
intellectually
ad. 지적으로
Unlike the former, the latter gained knowledge and experience from the challenges, and as a result, grew intellectually.
confront
v. 맞서다
The students with the growth mindset, however, were not afraid to confront the problem and correct it.
executive
n. 경영 간부, 관리직
He learned his lesson and became a successful baseball executive.
reevaluate
v. 재평가하다
In terms of the growth mindset, success is constantly being reevaluated.
trap
v. 가두다, 덫을 놓다
Billy was trapped by his huge talent because of the fixed mindset and failed as a professional athlete.
privilege
n. 특권, 특전
He only wanted to enjoy the privilege of being at the top.
make or break
~의 성패를 좌우하다
In the world of sports, mindsets often make or break champions.
depend on
~에 의존하다, 따르다
Do not depend on talent.
mental
a. 마음의, 정신의
With no hesitation, she answered, “Mental toughness.”
cheat
v. 부정행위를 하다
They also said they would probably cheat the next time, instead of studying more.
confess
v. 고백하다, 털어놓다
He confessed that he failed because he was so proud that he did not promote innovations.
persist
v. 집요하게[고집스럽게] 계속하다
The real champions are not the ones born with extraordinary talent but those who persist and never give up.
matter
v. 중요하다, 문제가 되다
What matters is that our work did not meet the standards.
pursue
v. 추구하다
The fixed mindset blocked him from pursuing innovations.
get involved with/in
~에 관여(참여)하다
People began to ask Adam how they could get involved with/in Pencils of Promise.
enable
v. 가능하게 하다
Charity should be not about just giving to the poor and creating a cruel cycle of dependence but about enabling them.
constantly
ad. 끊임없이
When Adam Braun was a child, his father would constantly remind him, “We Brauns are different.”
reputation
n. 명성
He had a good reputation at work, and was about to be promoted.
first of all
무엇보다도, 우선
First of all, Adam needed adequate funding and volunteers.
publicize
v. 홍보하다, 알리다
He asked his friends to make a music video to publicize a Halloween party held as a fundraiser.
translator
n. 번역가, 통역사
The translator told Adam that they had been waiting their whole lives for this opportunity to have a school.
social media
n. 소셜미디어
The video spread quickly on social media.
afford
v. ~할 여유가 있다
That was the start of Adam’s plan to build schools for people who want to get an education but who cannot afford one.
inner
a. 내면의
After much thought, he decided to follow his inner voice and left his job.
surrounding
n. 주변, 인근
It was natural that Adam followed his father’s examples and tried to make a difference to his surroundings.
ordinary
a. 평범한
We are just ordinary people, so changing the world is someone else’s job, not ours.
fundraise
v. 기금을 모으다
His fundraising efforts included some fresh ideas and the active participation of his friends.
participate in
~에 참여하다
It has become a huge project in which thousands of volunteers participate in many ways.
nonprofit
a. 비영리의
Adam set up Pencils of Promise, a nonprofit organization that aims to build schools and support teachers in developing countries.
replace
v. 대체하다
It was clear that his company would have no problem finding someone else to replace him if he quit.
delighted
a. 기쁜
Whenever he gave out pencils, the children seemed to come alive, delighted to have a chance to learn.
budget
n. 예산
He did not give his children cash for good grades and spent half of the family’s holiday budget on charity.
recognize
v. 알다, 인지하다
He could recognize the joy on their faces.
become acquainted with
~에 정통해지다, ~와 친해지다
Out of a burning desire to see the world, he took a college program in which students travel around the world and become acquainted with other cultures.
spread
v. 펼치다, 퍼지다
The video spread quickly on social media.
comment
n. 논평, 의견
The video spread quickly on social media, leading to comments and emails from friends and strangers.
contribute
v. 기여하다, 기부하다
The local villagers promised to contribute to its construction.
community
n. 지역 사회
It gives local children and communities opportunities to be different and make a difference to the world.
adequate
a. 충분한
First of all, Adam needed adequate funding and volunteers.
in particular
특별히
One of the answers in particular surprised him.
approach
v. 다가가다
Three shy little girls approached Adam to say hello.
donation
n. 기부(금)
He turned his birthday party into a charity event and collected donations at the party instead of birthday presents.
organization
n. 단체
Adam set up Pencils of Promise, a nonprofit organization that aims to build schools and support teachers in developing countries.
fund
n. 기금
First of all, Adam needed adequate funding and volunteers.
desire
n. 욕구
Out of a burning desire to see the world, he took a college program in which students travel around the world and become acquainted with other cultures.
attention
n. 주의, 관심, 집중
Pencils of Promise would not succeed if it did not get his full attention.
be about to
~하려고 하다
He had a good reputation at work, and was about to be promoted.
raw material
n. 원자재
Because they had little money, they instead supplied raw materials and labor.
charity
n. 자선 단체
He turned his birthday party into a charity event.
scholarship
n. 장학금
It continues to build schools, support teachers, and provide scholarships to children.
cruel
a. 잔인한, 괴로운
Charity should be not about just giving to the poor and creating a cruel cycle of dependence but about enabling them.
dependence
n. 의존
Charity should be not about just giving to the poor and creating a cruel cycle of dependence but about enabling them.
support
v. 지원하다
Adam set up Pencils of Promise, a nonprofit organization that aims to build schools and support teachers in developing countries.
define
v. 규정하다, 분명히 밝히다
What do you think are the most important qualities that define the traditional Korean arts?
craftsmanship
n. 숙련, 솜씨
This simple approach, combined with exceptional craftsmanship, resulted in excellent works of art.
layout
n. 배치, 설계
The deliberating committee praised Changdeokgung highly for the unique beauty of its creative and free layout depicting harmony with nature.
complement
v. 보충하다, 보완하다
Whenever I wear hanbok , I am pleased because the elegant lines complement the shape of my body.
curve
v. 곡선을 이루다
I’d like to point out that gentle curved lines also characterize the Korean sense of beauty.
expertise
n. 전문 지식
We have invited special guests with expertise in this matter, the museum curator Choi Sora, the architect Yu Min, and the hanbok master Kim Hyejin.
attribute
n. 속성, 특성
This is the attribute that differentiates hanbok from other East Asian traditional costumes
result in
~의 결과가 되다
This simple approach, combined with exceptional craftsmanship, resulted in excellent works of art.
combine
v. 결합시키다, 연합시키다
Korean hanbok incorporates both straight and curved lines, which are combined to create a sense of naturally flowing harmony.
in contrast with
~와 대조를 이루어
In contrast with Chinese porcelain, with its bold straight lines and extreme curves, Joseon porcelain expresses gentler curves that remind us of the Korean landscape.
moderation
n. 적당, 중용, 절제
Most of the artworks from the late Joseon Dynasty are simple in appearance, likely due to the influence of Confucianism which advocated moderation.
stability
n. 안정감
This naturally curved line conveys stability and is comforting to the eye.
not only ... but also ~
…뿐만 아니라 ~도
This love of nature is expressed not only in works of art but also in the daily lives of all Koreans.
unite
v. 결합하다
This reflects Koreans’ wish to be united with nature.
origin
n. 기원, 근원
I believe the beauty of the Korean artistic tradition lies in a combination of its naturalness and its origin in our ancestors’ genuine love of nature.
emphasize
v. 강조하다, 중시하다
What Korean building or structure is a good architectural example that emphasizes harmony with its surroundings?
costume
n. 복장, 옷차림
This is the attribute that differentiates hanbok from other East Asian traditional costumes.
go well with
~와 잘 어울리다
The palace buildings go so well with the low hills, valleys, and thick forests that it is difficult to tell the natural space from the artificial palace buildings.
convey
v. 전달하다
This naturally curved line conveys stability and is comforting to the eye.
porcelain
n. 자기
The white porcelain of the Joseon Dynasty is a fine example.
heritage
n. 문화유산, 재산
In 1997, it was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
genuine
a. 순수한, 진짜의
I believe the beauty of the Korean artistic tradition lies in a combination of its naturalness and its origin in our ancestors’ genuine love of nature.
designate
v. 선정하다, 지정하다
In 1997, it was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
characterize
v. 특징짓다, ~의 특징이 되다
I’d like to point out that gentle curved lines also characterize the Korean sense of beauty.
committee
n. 위원회
The deliberating committee praised Changdeokgung highly for the unique beauty of its creative and free layout depicting harmony with nature.
deliberate
v. 숙고하다, 신중히 생각하다
The deliberating committee praised Changdeokgung highly for the unique beauty of its creative and free layout depicting harmony with nature.
simplicity
n. 단순함, 수수함, 소박함
Simplicity is another main characteristic of our traditional sense of beauty.
accommodate
v. (환경 등에) 맞추다, 적응시키다
Changdeokgung is known for its effort to accommodate the natural world in its palace garden.
depict
v. 묘사하다, 표현하다
The deliberating committee praised Changdeokgung highly for the unique beauty of its creative and free layout depicting harmony with nature.
landscape
n. 전망, 풍광
Chinese and Japanese gardens focus on the beauty of a highly fabricated landscape.
tell ... from ~
…와 ~를 분간하다[구별하다]
The palace buildings go so well with the low hills, valleys, and thick forests that it is difficult to tell the natural space from the artificial palace buildings.
reflect
v. 반영하다, 나타내다
This reflects Koreans’ wish to be united with nature.
advocate
v. 지지하다, 주장하다
Most of the artworks from the late Joseon Dynasty are simple in appearance, likely due to the influence of Confucianism which advocated moderation.
artificial
a. 인공적인
Korean gardens use little in the way of artificial decoration.
subtle
a. 미묘한, 은은한
The jeogori is especially rich in subtle curves, as shown in the collar and the sleeves.
parallel
a. 평행의
Its design is meant to run parallel to the curves of the mountain behind it.
curator
n. 학예사, 큐레이터
We have invited special guests with expertise in this matter, the museum curator Choi Sora, the architect Yu Min, and the hanbok master Kim Hyejin.
fabricate
v. 조작하다, 꾸미다
Chinese and Japanese gardens focus on the beauty of a highly fabricated landscape.
preserve
v. 보존하다
Let us continue the effort to preserve the beautiful artistic traditions of our country.
incorporate
v. (일부러) 포함하다, 결합하다
Korean hanbok incorporates both straight and curved lines, which are combined to create a sense of naturally flowing harmony.
bold
a. 뚜렷한
In contrast with Chinese porcelain, with its bold straight lines and extreme curves, Joseon porcelain expresses gentler curves that remind us of the Korean landscape.
extreme
a. 극도의
In contrast with Chinese porcelain, with its bold straight lines and extreme curves, Joseon porcelain expresses gentler curves that remind us of the Korean landscape.
architect
n. 건축가
We have invited special guests with expertise in this matter, the museum curator Choi Sora, the architect Yu Min, and the hanbok master Kim Hyejin.
characteristic
n. 특성, 특징
Simplicity is another main characteristic of our traditional sense of beauty.
differentiate ... from ~
…를 ~와 구별하다[차별화시키다]
This is the attribute that differentiates hanbok from other East Asian traditional costumes.
exceptional
a. 예외의, 우수한
This simple approach, combined with exceptional craftsmanship, resulted in excellent works of art.
lay out
~을 펼치다, 가지런히 늘어놓다
Hanbok has a very simple shape when laid out flat.
modernize
v. 현대화하다
Bhutanese people seemed to enjoy wearing these clothes in their daily life even in a modernized city.
downtown
ad. 시내에(로)
We started our tour in downtown Thimphu, Bhutan’s most modern area.
vital
a. 필수적인
All of these informed me that traditions continue to be a vital part of their modern culture.
discipline
n. 규율, 훈련, 수양
It was impossible not to be impressed with those young students’ discipline and skills.
spirit
v. 혼령, 유령
Tashi’s grandmother said a short prayer and placed a small amount of food on the floor as an offering to the spirits.
handicraft
n. 수공예(품)
We visited the National Institute of Arts and Crafts, a famous art school where children learn skills to do traditional Bhutanese painting and handicrafts.
temple
n. 절, 사원
This temple complex was built as a dedication to Guru Padmasambhava.
minimize
v. 최소화하다
This approach to traveling emphasizes visitors’ responsibility to minimize such negative impacts and leave a “positive footprint” on their destination.
end up -ing
결국 ~하다, 처하다
The cheerful mood was so inviting that we all ended up joining the dance with a lot of other visitors from different countries.
monastery
n. 수도원
Tiger’s Nest, is one of the most famous Buddhist monasteries in Bhutan.
mythology
n. 신화
I learned that mythology is an important part of Bhutanese culture.
guru
n. 전문가, 구루
This temple complex was built as a dedication to Guru Padmasambhava, who introduced Buddhism to Bhutan.
thunder
n. 천둥
The Bhutanese name for their country is Druk Yul, which means “the land of the thunder dragon.”
spicy
n. 양념 맛이 강한
It was deliciously spicy.
policy
n. 정책
Under Bhutan’s “High Value, Low Impact” policy, the government regulates tourist numbers.
breathtaking
a. 숨 막히는
The view of the surrounding mountains and emerald green valleys was absolutely breathtaking.
in recognition of
~을 인정하여, 존중하여
In recognition of those problems, many tourists are turning to “responsible travel.”
regulate
v. 조절하다, 통제하다
Under Bhutan’s “High Value, Low Impact” policy, the government regulates tourist numbers.
footprint
n. 발자국
This approach to traveling emphasizes visitors’ responsibility to minimize such negative impacts and leave a “positive footprint” on their destination.
mixture
n. 혼합(물)
I was amazed by the mixture of tradition and modernity.
meditate
v. 명상하다
It is believed that in the 8th century, a tigress brought the guru on her back to this site where he meditated for more than three years.
reward
v. 보상하다
Although our three hours’ uphill hike left us exhausted, our effort was greatly rewarded.
spectacular
a. 장관을 이루는
The monastery was spectacular.
cling to
~에 붙어있다, 매달리다
It clings to a cliff at 3,120 meters above sea level, and is often hidden in clouds.
demonstration
n. 시범, 입증
We saw craft demonstrations in one class and artwork on display in another.
proportion
n. 비율, 전체의 부분
A fixed proportion of the money earned from tourism goes to education programs and community development
narrow
a. 좁은
The path to the monastery was steep and narrow.
dedication
n. 헌신, 전념
This temple complex was built as a dedication to Guru Padmasambhava, who introduced Buddhism to Bhutan.
employment
n. 고용, 직장
The tourism industry is a major source of employment and economic growth.
roar
n. 포효, 함성
Druk , the thunder dragon, is a holy character in Bhutanese mythology and thunder is believed to be the sound of the dragon’s roar.
consist of
~로 구성되다
Tashi’s family consists of twelve people spanning four generations.
offering
n. 공물, 제물
Tashi’s grandmother said a short prayer and placed a small amount of food on the floor as an offering to the spirits.
sacred
a. 신성한
Out of respect for the sacred place and the animals, we decided to walk as most Bhutanese do.
be devoted to
~에 전념하다
A great portion of our time on the tour was devoted to learning about the Bhutanese people and their culture.
span
v. 걸쳐 이어지다
Tashi’s family consists of twelve people spanning four generations.
prayer
n. 기도, 기도문
Tashi’s grandmother said a short prayer and placed a small amount of food on the floor as an offering to the spirits.
accompany
v. 반주를 해 주다
They were accompanied by Bhutanese folk musicians playing folk songs.
persuade
v. 설득하다
I became curious about Bhutan and persuaded my parents to travel there.
responsibility
n. 책임, 책무
This approach to traveling emphasizes visitors’ responsibility to minimize such negative impacts and leave a “positive footprint” on their destination.
gathering
n. 모임
She told us that it is common for Bhutanese people to enjoy folk dancing at gatherings.
exhausted
a. 탈진한, 기진맥진한
Although our three hours’ uphill hike left us exhausted, our effort was greatly rewarded.
ensure
v. 확실히 하다
Under the policy, the government regulates tourist numbers and ensures that visitors respect the carefully protected Bhutanese culture and natural environment.
interconnected
a. 상호 연결된
Its four interconnected temples are the best example of the Buddhist architectural tradition in Bhutan.
lyric
n. 가사
The lyrics of the songs are about the harmony of humans, animals, and nature.
steep
a. 가파른, 경사진
The path to the monastery was steep and narrow.
tribe
n. 부족
Malik, the leader of the Inupiat tribe, realized that they would face enormous criticism if they killed the whales as the world watched.
furiously
ad. 맹렬하게
The clock continues to tick down as crews work furiously to cut a path to the open ocean.
despite
prep. ~에도 불구하고
Despite the unfriendly relations between the U.S. government and the Soviet Union, the U.S. government decided to call the Soviet Union for help.
conflict
n. 갈등
That put them in direct conflict with a Greenpeace activist named Rachel.
injury
n. 상해
In the meantime, the baby whale died from its injuries.
freeze
v. 얼다
They were in danger because the ice wall around the whales was freezing rapidly and getting thicker.
slim
a. 희박한
A family of three gray whales is trapped in the ice, and experts give the whales a slim chance of survival.
edge
n. 모서리
Each time they surfaced, they cut themselves on the sharp edges of the ice.
come up with
(해답 등을) 찾아내다, 생각해 내다
Malik came up with a plan to cut open the ice and make small pools.
unexpectedly
ad. 뜻밖에도
Unexpectedly, the Soviet Navy responded positively to the request by sending a ship to help break a path for the whales.
rescue
v. 구조하다
A rescue mission is being discussed but has not yet begun.
harsh
a. 가혹한, 혹독한
They played an important role in the rescue because they knew how to survive in the harsh climate.
sheet
n. 얇은 층
The barge was the only hope to break the sheet of ice so the whales could swim out to the open sea.
chance
n. 가능성
A family of three gray whales is trapped in the ice, and experts give the whales a slim chance of survival.
put aside
~을 제쳐놓다
The whales jumped high as if they were saying, “Thank you,” to all the people who put their differences aside and joined forces to save them.
in the meantime
그 동안에
In the meantime, the baby whale died from its injuries.
barrier
n. 장벽, 장애물
The enormous ice breaker arrived to remove the last barrier between the whales and the open sea.
crew
n. 팀, 조, 반
The clock continues to tick down as crews work furiously to cut a path to the open ocean.
in the making
만들어지고 있는, 진행 중인
I’m standing out on this frozen landscape in Barrow, Alaska where we’ve recently discovered a tragedy in the making.
starve
v. 굶주리다
If we don’t teach our children how to feed themselves, they’re going to starve.
gain favor with
~의 호의를 얻다
An oil company offered a barge to break the ice as a way to gain favor with the public.
survival
n. 생존
A family of three gray whales is trapped in the ice, and experts give the whales a slim chance of survival.
attempt
n. 시도
The ship’s first attempt did not work and left only a small path in the ice.
cooperate
v. 협력하다
They all cooperated to save the whales.
miracle
n. 기적
The result was a “big miracle.”
flood
v. ~에 몰려들다
Reporters flooded into Barrow from all over the world.
intention
n. 의도, 목적
The various groups of people involved in the rescue had different intentions at first.
tragedy
n. 비극
I’m standing out on this frozen landscape in Barrow, Alaska where we’ve recently discovered a tragedy in the making.
surface
v. 수면으로 올라오다
Each time they surfaced, they cut themselves on the sharp edges of the ice.
ambitious
a. 야심 있는
Ambitious news reporters used the story to further their careers.
criticism
n. 비난
Malik, the leader of the Inupiat tribe, realized that they would face enormous criticism if they killed the whales as the world watched.
escape
v. 달아나다
The ice was finally broken into a wide enough path and the whales escaped.
play a part in
~에서 역할을 하다
Many groups responded to play a part in saving the whales.
incredible
a. 놀라운
That’s more than 30 holes an hour, in a single day. It’s incredible.
run out
다하다, 끝나다
One day, the oil is going to run out, and the money will stop coming.
side effect
n. 부작용
ASI could use nanotechnology to manufacture drugs to kill the cancer cells without side effects.
perceive
v. 감지[인지]하다
AI is software designed to perceive information and apply it towards solving problems within a given context, in a similar way to how human intelligence does.
as of now
현재, 지금으로서는
As of now, we have ANI, the lowest level of AI.
optimist
n. 낙관주의자
{Optimists] about AI’s development believe that it will greatly improve our quality of life.
pessimistic
a. 비관적인
Experts in the pessimistic camp express concerns about the future that ASI may bring, including the loss of jobs and in particular, ethical issues.
capacity
n. 능력, 용량
There are three major types of AI based on capacity.
circumstance
n. 상황, 환경, 경우
Many people are worried that robots equipped with AI could soon fill positions currently held by humans, leaving many of us in desperate circumstances.
upgrade
v. 개선하다
As to its software, AGI will be able to be continuously upgraded through updates and fixes.
immensely
ad. 엄청나게, 대단히
AI is an immensely powerful tool and will become much more powerful as time passes.
as to
~에 관해서는
As to its hardware, its data storage space will be able to be expanded to any size while the brain cannot get bigger.
desperate
a. 자포자기한, 절박한
Many people are worried that robots equipped with AI could soon fill positions currently held by humans, leaving many of us in desperate circumstances.
financial
a. 금융의, 재정의
The resulting economic and financial instability could lead to serious social problems.
humanity
n. 인류, 인간
What future will AI bring to humanity?
simultaneously
ad. 동시에
Anything any single computer learned would be uploaded to all the other computers, which will make all of them smarter simultaneously.
nanotechnology
n. 나노 기술
If a person has cancer, ASI could use nanotechnology to design special nanobots to perform surgery.
advancement
n. 발전, 진보
AI at the last level of advancement is called Artificial Superintelligence (ASI).
acknowledge
v. 인정하다
They also acknowledge that once an AI system reaches the level of AGI, it will not take long for it to reach the next level.
exceed
v. 넘어서다, 초과하다
It equals or exceeds human intelligence or efficiency in its specific task, but cannot do much more than that.
noticeably
ad. 두드러지게
When a computer equipped with artificial intelligence (AI) beat the world Go champion in Seoul in early 2016, the worries about AI were noticeably increased.
nanobot
n. 나노 로봇
If a person has cancer, ASI could use nanotechnology to design special nanobots to perform surgery.
update
n. (데이터의) 갱신, 최신 정보
As to its software, AGI will be able to be continuously upgraded through updates and fixes.
fatal
a. 치명적인, 죽음을 초래하는
ASI could defeat fatal diseases.
specialize in
~를 전문적으로 다루다
Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI), or Weak AI, is AI that specializes in one task.
generate
v. 발생시키다, 만들어내다
To reduce global warming, AI could come up with much better ways to generate energy without polluting the environment.
equip
v. 장비를 갖추다
When a computer equipped with artificial intelligence (AI) beat the world Go champion in Seoul in early 2016, the worries about AI were noticeably increased.
replace ... with ~
…를 ~와 바꾸다
Most jobs requiring a medium level of skills and involving doing routine activities can be replaced with ASI, or even AGI.
give rise to
~이 생기게 하다, 일으키다
ASI gives rise to heated debates because, if developed, it will change our future forever by employing its enormous power.
complicated
a. 복잡한
Creating AGI is much more difficult because the human brain works in a very complicated way.
trillion
n. 1조
ASI could range from a computer that is a little smarter than a human to one that is a trillion times smarter in all areas.
cancer
n. 암
If a person has cancer, ASI could use nanotechnology to design special nanobots to perform surgery.
fundamental
a. 근본적인, 본질적인
AI will bring about a fundamental change in our lives and the world will never be the same.
filter
v. 걸러 내다
It can search for information, filter out unwanted emails, translate short sentences to another language, or play Go.
debate
n. 토론, 논의
ASI gives rise to heated debates because, if developed, it will change our future forever by employing its enormous power.
instability
n. 불안정
The resulting economic and financial instability could lead to serious social problems.
panic
v. 공황 상태에 빠지다
We do not have to panic.
filter out
~을 걸러내다
Microbeads are too small to be filtered out during the waste water treatment process.
scrub
n. 스크럽, 각질 제거제
They are used in hundreds of personal care products, including toothpaste, facial scrubs, and some cosmetic products.
substance
n. 물질
The toxic substances we consume at the top of the food chain can be harmful enough to cause genetic changes and cancer.
reproduce
v. 번식하다
Shockingly, some young fish have been found to prefer these tiny plastic particles to their natural food sources, starving themselves before they can reproduce.
synthetic
a. 합성한, 인조의
Microfibers are the synthetic materials that are used in clothes.
coastal
a. 해안의
Avoiding personal care products that have microbeads in them would reduce the amount of microplastics entering marine and coastal environments.
estimate
n. 추정(치), 추산
This estimate does not include the microplastic waste that may have sunk into the depths of the oceans, washed ashore onto beaches, or been swallowed by marine animals.
ashore
ad. 해안으로, 물가로, 강가에
This estimate does not include the microplastic waste that may have sunk into the depths of the oceans, washed ashore onto beaches, or been swallowed by marine animals.
tiny
a. 아주 작은
Microplastics are tiny plastic particles less than five millimeters wide.
breakdown
n. 분해
They are formed from the breakdown of larger plastic waste in the seas or are industrially manufactured in two forms: microbeads and microfibers.
legislation
n. 제정법
Some governments have introduced legislation to deal with microplastics.
obtain
v. 얻다, 구하다
Companies want to keep microplastics in their products because they are cheap and easy to obtain.
take notice of
…을 알아차리다, 주의하다
As a result, people, industries, and governments around the world are beginning to take notice of the microplastic problem.
ecologist
n. 생태학자
In 2013, British ecologist Mark Browne launched a project to help reduce the number of microfibers released into the oceans.
demand
v. 요구하다
Based on scientific discoveries, NGOs are particularly demanding that products containing microplastics not be sold at all.
particle
n. (아주 작은) 입자, 조각
Microplastics are tiny plastic particles less than five millimeters wide.
marine
a. 바다의, 해양의
Microplastics in the oceans are a serious threat to the marine ecosystem.
explore
v. 탐험하다
NGOs are leading many activities such as raising awareness, removing waste from seashores, and exploring the oceans.
offspring
n. (동식물의) 새끼
A group of French researchers reported that oysters exposed to microplastics produced fewer offspring and the offspring grew more slowly.
tackle
v. (힘든 문제·상황과) 씨름하다
This policy, which was an important step towards tackling plastic pollution in the oceans, offers a model for the rest of the world.
expose
v. (유해한 환경 등에) 노출되다
A group of French researchers reported that oysters exposed to microplastics produced fewer offspring and the offspring grew more slowly.
decompose
v. 분해되다
We know that plastic waste harms the environment because it does not decompose naturally.
cosmetic
a. 화장용의, 미용의
They are used in hundreds of personal care products, including toothpaste, facial scrubs, and some cosmetic products.
organic
a. 유기농의
As a consumer, you should buy clothing made of natural materials like organic cotton and wool, and avoid synthetic ones.
genetic
a. 유전의
The toxic substances we consume at the top of the food chain can be harmful enough to cause genetic changes and cancer.
launch
v. (특히 조직적인 일을) 시작하다
In 2013, British ecologist Mark Browne launched a project to help reduce the number of microfibers released into the oceans.
cotton
n. 면직물
As a consumer, you should buy clothing made of natural materials like organic cotton and wool, and avoid synthetic ones.
sharply
ad. 급격히
The amount of microplastics in the oceans will necessarily increase sharply.
quantities of
많은
Another study showed that vast quantities of microplastics are present on the deep sea floor.
organism
n. 유기체, (특히 극도로 작은) 생물(체)
The toxic microplastics are eaten by fish and other marine organisms.
fiber
n. 섬유
Now, around 90 percent of the brand’s clothing products are made with all natural fibers.
wool
n. 모직
As a consumer, you should buy clothing made of natural materials like organic cotton and wool, and avoid synthetic ones.
prevent ... from -ing
...가 ~하는 것을 막다
Another study has shown that microplastics are even preventing ocean fish from becoming adults.
thread
n. 실
Most of our clothing is made up of these tiny threads of plastic.
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