YBM 고등 심화 영어 독해 II 신정현 - 종합
308 카드 | ybmadmin
세트공유
enact
v. 제정하다
With the crisis more serious than ever, we should enact policies like this that reward practices which restore carbon to the soil.
impediment
n. 방해(물); 장애
Viewing cover crops as a benefit instead of an impediment to cash crops would be the kind of climate-smart policy we need.
dispersal
n. 확산
Flowering plants, in turn, got the benefit of seed dispersal from mammals.
perennial
a. 다년생의
It includes modifications to current cropping systems, the use of perennial crops, and more.
generate
v. 발생시키다, 만들어 내다
Fields full of carbon generate more productive crops, cutting expenses for farmers.
havoc
n. 큰 피해, 대파괴
Modern techniques have also caused havoc throughout the environment, having severe effects on the soil, water, and atmosphere.
compensate
v. 상쇄하다, 메우다
Because the wind is pretty unpredictable, gymnosperms compensate by producing lots of pollen.
compatible
a. 호환이 되는, 양립할 수 있는
Softened by moisture, the pollen grain releases proteins that detect whether the new plant is genetically compatible.
desiccation
n. 건조
An angiosperm’s ovary protects its embryo from desiccation and physical harm.
sustenance
n. 음식, 먹을 것; 지지, 유지
Through agriculture, angiosperms met our need for sustenance.
subsidy
n. 보조금; 장려금
Farmers are denied full crop insurance, price supports, and subsidies if they grow cover crops beyond a specified period of time.
paleontologist
n. 고생물학자
“Before flowering plants appeared,” says Dale Russell, a paleontologist, “the world was like a Japanese garden."
realign
v. 재편성〔조정〕하다
There is a rich opportunity here to completely realign the politics of agricultural and environmental policy.
finery
n. (아름다운) 장식; 화려함
In their new finery, once overlooked angiosperms began to stand out in the landscape.
compress
v. 압축하다; 누르다
If all of earth’s history were compressed into an hour, flowering plants would exist for only the last 90 seconds.
sustain
v. 유지하다, 지속하다
Angiosperms also sustain and enrich our lives.
recipe
n. 방법, 비결
Innovative carbon farmers already know the recipe.
relatively
ad. 비교적, 상대적으로
That is relatively recent in geological time.
microbe
n. 미생물
Intense plowing has introduced more oxygen into the soil, increasing the number of microbes that convert organic matter into carbon dioxide.
reptile
n. 파충류
They survived for another 65 million years, which was sufficient time for the big reptiles to adapt to a new diet that included angiosperms.
pollinator
n. 꽃가루 매개자
Insects were among the most important animal pollinators that began visiting angiosperms as soon as they appeared.
wring
v. 짜다, 비틀다
The desire to wring every last dollar out of fields has put pressure on farmers to rely on chemical fertilizers.
outnumber
v. ~보다 수가 많다
Today, flowering plant species outnumber by twenty to one those of ferns and cone-bearing trees, or conifers.
median
n. 중간(값)의, 평균의
Median crop yields are likely to decline by about 2 percent per decade through 2100.
flamboyant
a. 눈부신, 화려한
Flowering plants developed colorful and flamboyant petals some time between 70 and 100 million years ago.
sequester
v. 격리하다
It is a suite of agricultural practices and crops that sequester carbon in the soil.
lush
a. 무성한
Even those farmers and ranchers who do not care about climate change desire healthy soil, high productivity, and lush pastures.
germinate
v. 자라기 시작하다, 커지다
If so, the pollen grain germinates and grows a tube down through the style and ovary and into the ovule.
ameliorate
v. 개선〔개량〕하다
The government successfully responded by implementing new policies to ameliorate the problem.
realm
n. 범위, 영역
Flowers reign over a realm sought by artists, poets, and everyday people in search of inspiration, comfort, or the simple pleasure of seeing a blossom.
unprecedented
a. 전례 없는
We in turn have taken certain species like corn and rice and given them unprecedented success.
virtually
ad. 거의
Virtually every non-meat food we eat starts as a flowering plant.
carpel
n. 심피(암술을 구성하는 잎)
Each fruit contains one or more carpels, chambers that protect and nourish the seeds.
stash
n. 숨긴 것
From a bee’s-eye-view, the ultraviolet colors and patterns on a flower’s petals dramatically announce the flower’s stash of nectar and pollen.
receptor
n. (세포의) 수용기
Eventually these grains come to rest on another flower’s stigma, a tiny pollen receptor.
boost
v. 밀어 올리다, 증가시키다
Farmers can also boost their income by selling some of their cover crops.
unsustainable
a. 지속할 수 없는, 유지할 수 없는
Our unsustainable farming methods are a main contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.
toehold
n. 거점; 발판
These botanical newcomers managed to get a toehold in areas of ecological disturbance, such as volcanic regions.
chasm
n. (사람·집단 사이의) 큰 차이, 간극
Incentives for carbon farming could bridge the political chasm between ranchers and farmers.
commercialize
v. 상업화하다
As farmers have learned, some cover crops can also be commercialized.
striation
n. 줄무늬
The patterns on flowers—such as the lines on petals called striations—serve as a sort of air traffic control system for bees.
endemic
a. 고유의
The genome of Amborella, a small shrub endemic to New Caledonia, provides evidence that the ancestor of all flowering plants evolved following a “genome doubling event.”
disseminate
v. 전파하다, 퍼뜨리다
The science is new and has not yet been widely disseminated.
blossom
n. 꽃
The most obvious is the blossom that we associate with flowering plants.
regenerative
a. 재생시키는
Regenerative farming would increase the fertility of the land.
halt
v. 멈추다, 정지시키다
It is possible to halt and even reverse this process through better agricultural policies and practices.
accumulation
n. 쌓임, 축적
Under the right conditions, farming can encourage the accumulation of carbon in the ground.
degrade
v. 저하시키다
That loss has significantly degraded soil health, reducing our ability to grow food.
incentive
n. 유인책; 동기
Most of the incentives built into agricultural policies are based on maximizing yield, often at the expense of soil health.
synthetic
a. 합성의; 인조의
Carbon farmers compost, reduce plowing, and eschew synthetic chemicals like nitrogen fertilizers.
bulldoze
v. 밀어 버리다, 밀고 나가다
Dinosaurs bulldozed through ancient forests, unconsciously clearing new ground for angiosperms.
formality
n. 형식적임, 격식
One result was triplets that allow us to express ideas with varying degrees of formality.
ruinous
a. 폐허의
It crept onward among ruinous houses and over the shining river.
inflow
n. 유입
It was thanks to this inflow from French and Latin that English acquired the likes of crucified, definition, and conclusion.
detach
v. 떨어지게 하다, 분리하다
An uninhabited house of two stories stood at the blind end, detached from its neighbors in a square ground.
remark
v. ~에 주목하다; ~을 알아차리다
I remarked their English accents and listened vaguely to their conversation.
humbly
ad. 초라하게, 풀죽어서
I looked humbly at the great jars that stood like eastern guards at either side of the dark entrance to the stall.
tempest
n. 사나운 비바람, 폭풍우
French and Latin endings pull the accent closer—TEM-pest, tem-PEST-uous.
porcelain
n. 도자기
I went over to one of the stalls and examined porcelain vases and flowered tea sets.
far-fetched
a. 무리가 있는, 억지의
Old English is so unlike the modern version that it seems far-fetched to think of them as the same language.
liberate
v. 벗어나다, 자유롭게 하다
The high cold empty gloomy rooms liberated me.
indistinct
a. 불분명한
Their cries reached me weakened and indistinct.
hybridity
n. 혼성, 잡종
English’s hybridity is high on the scale compared with most European languages.
latchkey
n. 바깥문의 열쇠
At nine o’clock I heard my uncle’s latchkey in the hall door.
outrageous
a. 별난, 이상한
It became peculiar because of the caprices of outrageous history.
tenant
n. 소작인, 임차인
The former tenant of our house, a priest, had died in the back drawing room.
nuisance
n. 성가심, 귀찮음
We think it is a nuisance that so many European languages assign gender to nouns for no reason.
parlor
n. 거실
Every morning I lay on the floor in the front parlor watching her door.
litter
v. 흩뜨리다
The waste room behind the kitchen was littered with old useless papers.
correspondence
n. 일치, 부합
For a normal language, there is a reliable correspondence between the way words are spelled and how they are pronounced.
annihilate
v. 전멸시키다
I wished to annihilate the tedious intervening days.
linger
v. (우물쭈물) 오래 머무르다, 떠나지 못하다
I lingered before her stall, though I knew my stay was useless.
subjugate
v. 정복하다, 예속시키다
The subjugated Celts quickly adopted the conqueror’s language.
oddity
n. 이상함, 특이함
The oddity that we all perceive most readily is its spelling, which is indeed a nightmare.
hostile
a. 적대적인, 호의적이 아닌
Her image accompanied me even in places the most hostile to romance.
sophisticated
a. 세련된; 복잡한
Starting in the 16th century, educated Anglophones began to develop English as a vehicle for sophisticated writing.
negate
v. 부정〔부인〕하다, 무효화하다
Try naming another language where you have to slip do into sentences to negate or question something.
culinary
a. 요리(용)의
Especially interesting here are the culinary transformations.
dusk
n. 땅거미, 황혼
When the short days of winter came, dusk fell before we had eaten our dinners.
obscure
a. 분명치 않은, 모호한
The closest thing to a sister language that an Anglophone can find is the obscure Northern European language called Frisian.
imperturbable
a. 침착한, 태연한, 동요하지 않는
The other houses of the street gazed at one another with brown imperturbable faces.
diverge
v. 갈리다, 분기하다
When we came near the point at which our ways diverged, I quickened my pace and passed her.
slaughtering
n. 도살
Generally in Norman England, English-speaking laborers did the slaughtering for rich French speakers at the table.
suffix
n. 접미사
Clip on a suffix to the word wonder, and you get wonderful.
address
v. ~에게 말을 하다
When she addressed the first words to me, I was so confused that I did not know what to answer.
incessant
a. 끊임없는, 그칠 새 없는
Through one of the broken windows I heard the rain hit upon the earth, the fine incessant needles of water playing in the sodden beds.
pawnbroker
n. 전당포 주인
She was an old talkative woman, a pawnbroker’s widow.
pervade
v. ~에 널리 퍼지다, 보급되다
I recognized a silence like that which pervades a church after a service.
palm
n. 손바닥
I pressed the palms of my hands together.
deride
v. 조롱하다, 비웃다
Gazing up into the darkness, I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity.
sternness
n. 엄격함, 단호함
I watched my master’s face pass from gentleness to sternness.
seize
v. 잡다, 붙들다, 꽉 움켜지다
I ran to the hall, seized my books and followed her.
modest
a. 보통의
There is no other language that is close enough to English for us to understand without training or with only modest effort.
recite
v. 암송하다
When I left the kitchen, he was about to recite the opening lines of the piece to my aunt.
resignedly
ad. 체념하여
We left our shadow and walked up to Mangan’s steps resignedly.
adoration
n. 애모, 동경
I did not know how I could tell her of my confused adoration.
conjugation
n. (동사의) 활용, 어형 변화
The Vikings mastered only one part of a complex conjugation system.
pretentious
a. 허세를 부리는
When they were new, many persons of letters in the 1500s considered them irritatingly pretentious and 10 intrusive.
visible
a. 눈에 보이는
It fell over one side of her dress and caught the white border of a petticoat, just visible as she stood at ease.
populate
v. ~에 살다, 거주하다
Originally, England was mostly populated by the native speakers of Celtic languages.
indelible
a. 지울 수 없는, 지워지지 않는
While doing so, they also made indelible marks on Old English.
implant
v. (생각·태도 등을) 심다, 이식하다
These look familiar now, but it was the Celts who implanted those weird grammar patterns in their own translation of Old English.
infusion
n. 주입, 불어넣음
Because of this infusion of words from different languages, we English speakers also have to contend with two different ways of accenting words.
retreat
n. 묵상
There would be a retreat that week in her convent.
straggling
a. 뿔뿔이 흩어져 나아가는
The wild garden behind the house contained a central apple tree and a few straggling bushes.
sheer
a. 완전한; 순전한
It brings the sheer connectedness of humanity into sharp focus.
off guard
방심한, 무방비 상태로
A number of viruses have caught the world off guard, even though they should not have.
destabilize
v. 불안정하게 하다
That is a very interesting and a potentially politically destabilizing development.
transformation
n. 변형 (과정)
Zika’s transformation from a sleeping virus to a global crisis is all too familiar.
recession
n. 경기 침체
“I was a member of the President’s economics group during the worst recession we’ve had since the Great Depression.
fizzle out
흐지부지되다
The countries have enjoyed bursts of growth but then have fizzled out rather quickly.
indication
n. 징조, 조짐
Early indication is important, and it gives us the ability to take measures right away.
leverage
n. 차입 자본 이용
That creates large leverage bubbles which explode and hurt growth.
extraordinary
a. 놀라운, 비범한
The world has been making extraordinary progress in lifting people out of extreme poverty.
astounding
a. 놀라운
Over the past 200 years, the growth of the average real income per person has been astounding.
cohesive
a. 화합하는, 결합력이 있는
In societies that are more socially cohesive, governments can take measures that are acceptable for the population at large.
alert
n. 경계, 경보
In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization issued an alert about the transmission of Zika virus in Brazil.
remote
a. 외딴, 먼
Mosquitoes that had once spread diseases in remote, less-populated areas had millions more human hosts to bite and infect.
prosperity
n. 번성, 번영
Four experts provide their views regarding the effects of inequality on growth and prosperity.
deregulate
v. 규제를 없애다
Sometimes you need to have a little bit more inequality in order to get growth going as part of deregulating of your economy.
connect the dots
다양한 사실에서 결론을 도출하다
Jonathan Patz is doing research to connect the dots between climate change and global health.
mutate
v. (돌연)변이하다
A respond-to-an-emergency approach cannot keep up with the ability of viruses to mutate and spread.
segregate
v. 분리〔격리〕하다
You have lots of low income people stuck in tough neighborhoods that are segregated by income and race.
petri dish
n. 페트리 접시
We’re all in the same petri dish.
connection
n. 연관 관계; 인연
You begin to see this connection between high levels of inequality and barriers to opportunity.
surge
n. 급증, 급등
There is a silver lining in the surge of outbreaks.
provided
conj. 만약 ~라면
Provided that was the case, I wouldn’t be overly concerned that a given level of inequality was causing great harm.
marked
a. 눈에 띄는, 구별된
There was a marked and quite significant increase in income inequality.
plutocracy
n. 금권 정치 (국가)
We could end up with a kind of a global plutocracy.
enhance
v. 강화하다
Advances in global transportation made the world smaller and further enhanced the ability of viruses to expand their reach.
interdisciplinary
a. 둘(이상)의 학문 분야에 걸치는
Infectious disease researchers are pushing toward a more interdisciplinary approach to predict outbreaks.
undermine
v. 깎아내리다, 약화시키다
The inequality between growth and the income of working families undermines the basic incentive that hard work will be rewarded.
epidemic
n. 유행병, 전염병
In 2007, a Zika epidemic swept through Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia.
stagnation
n. 침체, 정체
We have essentially a stagnation of middle class incomes in rich countries.
tarnish
v. (평판을) 더럽히다, 손상시키다
Inequality is beginning to tarnish growth and prosperity throughout the world.
indispensable
a. 필수불가결한
We should not forget that inequality is indispensable for the development of a society.
disproportionately
ad. 불균형적으로
Growth, if any, has disproportionately benefited higher income groups.
inactive
a. 활동하지 않는
We should learn from this that just because a virus is lying inactive does not mean it is less of a threat to the world’s populations.
capitalism
n. 자본주의
Capitalism is not the problem; it’s the solution.
better off
형편이 더 나은
What we need is to help people to be better off.
long-standing
a. 오래 지속하는
Outbreaks are forcing us to break long-standing lines of division.
appalling
a. 지독한, 형편없는
The percentage of people in the world living on $2 a day—an appalling level of income—has been halved in the last 30 years.
susceptible
a. 영향을 받기 쉬운; 감염되기 쉬운
With half the world’s population living in areas susceptible to infectious diseases, a virus that has gone quiet can easily come roaring back.
outbreak
n. 발생, 발발
With every new outbreak, the same repeated flaw in the approach to infectious disease control is exposed.
defect
n. 장애; 결점, 결함
Its possible connection to birth defects compelled the WHO to declare an international public health emergency.
monetary
a. 화폐의, 통화의; 금융의
We know that monetary rewards are really crucial.
proactive
a. 적극적인, 진취적인
Proactive, aggressive elimination efforts got rid of the Aedes aegypti mosquito in 23 countries.
mentality
n. 사고방식
Part of our problem is that we have the mentality of looking at these viruses as one species.
thorough
a. 철저한, 완전한
Building a more thorough global network of early detection centers around the world is also essential for a proactive approach to infectious disease.
apathy
n. 무관심, 냉담
Gubler noted that our comfort in victory kicked off a period of “increasing apathy and complacency.”
threshold
n. (비유적인 의미의) 문턱
We don’t have a threshold level for how much inequality is too much.
household
a. 가정, 가구
Lower income households have been left behind.
life expectancy
기대수명
Millions more have gas heating, cars, medical services, doubled life expectancy, and much more.
embrace
v. 받아들이다, 포용하다
Outbreaks are forcing us to embrace the fact that we are one species.
ecology
n. 생태학; 생태 환경
We need to look at culture, epidemiology, economics, and ecology at a local level and develop strategies from there.
disinterested
a. 사욕이 없는
You spurred the others on to pursue genuine and disinterested inquiry.
definitive
a. 결정적인; 최종적인
The discoveries Monet and Renoir made while painting together are considered the definitive elements of the Impressionist style.
reassurance
n. 확신
A fear of falling short in the eyes of others results in a constant demand for reassurance.
condemnation
n. 비난
The word vanity itself carries its own condemnation.
novel
a. 새로운, 신기한
Creative people are very good at coming up with lots of novel ideas.
enthralling
a. 매혹하는, 사로잡는
Without the Inklings, these enthralling stories might not exist.
drive out
몰아내다, 추방하다
Self-love has driven out all other social emotions and concerns.
initially
ad. 처음으로, 최초로
The themes initially emerged during the Inklings meetings.
indulge in
(취미·욕망 따위에) 빠지다, 탐닉하다
The vain person indulges in being flattered, even if the flattery is empty.
conceited
a. 자만심이 강한, 잘난 체하는, 우쭐한
The conceited person is so sure of himself that reassurance from others becomes irrelevant.
incorporate
v. 통합하다, 섞다
Monet incorporated the innovations into his paintings the most boldly.
coherent
a. 시종 일관된, 통일성이 있는
It was the Inklings that converted Tolkien’s mythical ideas into a coherent narrative.
embed in
~에 끼워 넣다, ~에 뿌리박다
Albert Einstein’s contributions to modern physics were firmly embedded in international teams of scientists.
conceivable
a. 생각〔상상〕할 수 있는
These ideas were not conceivable without an extensive network of colleagues.
evolutionary
a. 진화의, 발달의
In evolutionary terms, selfless behavior to the potential benefit of others is quite absurd.
breakthrough
n. 획기적인 발견, 성공
It is group genius that generates breakthroughs and innovations.
hubris
n. 과도한 자부〔자만〕
Arrogance, excessive self-confidence, and hubris mark the path of conceit.
intimation
n. 암시
The Inklings is a pun showing that the members were both writers and people who were searching for “vague or imperfect intimations and ideas.”
hangout
n. 단골집, 소굴
Café Guerbois was the favorite hangout for painters and intellectuals in Paris.
mesmerize
v. ~에게 최면술을 걸다, 홀리게 하다, 매혹시키다
Perhaps we are all narcissists, mesmerized by our own image.
altruism
n. 이타주의
It is possible to imagine a reversal, a world where modesty and altruism reign.
insecurity
n. 불안정, 불확실
Vanity is being overly concerned with the admiration of others and often arises from a fundamental insecurity.
fantasize
v. 공상에 빠지다
We like to fantasize about being wealthy and famous, and we become easily dissatisfied with our less luxurious lives.
undertaking
n. (떠맡은) 일, 사업
In his writing, he called for sufficient self-respect or self-confidence to fit us for the undertakings that enrich our lives or those of others.
scarcity
n. 부족, 결핍
The scarcity of similar souls set limits to the enlargement of the circle.
contempt
n. 경멸, 모욕
Pride turns wicked only when it slips into an elevation of one’s self above others and a corresponding contempt for them.
ideological
a. 이데올로기의, 관념학의
Tolkien was in a political and ideological struggle with his colleagues.
solipsistic
a. 자기중심적인
The narcissist is not so much conceited—where there is a relationship of arrogance or contempt towards other people—as solipsistic.
lavishly
ad. 낭비 버릇이 있게, 사치스럽게
Many of us in today’s society envy celebrities, yearning to live and spend lavishly.
chronicle
n. 연대기
The Chronicles of Narnia and The Lord of the Rings were not solo works, authored by lone geniuses.
stumble upon
~을 마주치다, 우연히 만나다
He, almost accidentally, stumbles upon his next “big idea.”
addiction
n. 중독
We might talk about the “me” generation, the addiction to selfies, or a general self-centered character in relation to all of these terms.
reminisce
v. 추억하다; 회상하다
Monet reminisces "You always went home afterwards better steeled for the fight, with a new sense of purpose and a clearer head."
cluster
v. (사람·짐승이) 모여들다, 몰려들다
Walking through Times Square, I was astonished to see about 1,000 people all clustered and staring up at something.
resentment
n. 노함, 분개
We develop resentment about those who dispute our self-worth.
virtuous
a. 덕행이 있는, 고결한
With a little effort, we can cultivate a virtuous sense of self-worth without submitting to an excess of self-love.
groundbreaking
a. 획기적인
Mutual passion can even help create things that are truly groundbreaking.
provoke
v. (감정 따위를) 일으키다
Members soon became friends and critics simultaneously, encouraging, provoking, and enlightening one another.
in progress
진행 중인
They read aloud from their own works in progress.
perpetual
a. 끊임없는, 영속하는
Nothing could be more stimulating than the talks we had, with their perpetual clashes of opinion.
legitimately
ad. 합법적으로, 적법하게
There is such a thing as proper pride: the pleasure one might legitimately take in having accomplished something good.
abound with
~로 그득하다, 풍부하다, 충만하다
History abounds with cases of fruitful collaboration.
contentious
a. 논쟁을 불러일으키는
It was in these contentious arguments that the group members were collectively provoked into achieving consensus about their emerging vision.
crave
v. 열망〔갈망〕하다
For now, we can start to resist vanity by learning to live without craving the constant admiration of others.
intriguing
a. 흥미를〔호기심을〕 자아내는
This would ignore their important differences and flatten out all the intriguing features of the landscape of the self.
summon
v. 소환하다, 소집하다
Scratching out line after line and filling in ideas for a new text, Pound helped summon the poem into being.
conjure
v. 생각해내다, 출연시키다
We are inclined to conjure an image of a character like Einstein, who wears an untidy suit.
strain
v. 안간힘을 쓰다
They strained themselves to extract secrets from the solitary creative person.
censure
n. 비난, 질책
Vanity is often a better target for sympathy or pity than for censure.
ensnare
v. 올가미에 걸다, 함정에 빠뜨리다
We encounter conceited people who are all too often ensnared by their own claims to leadership, wisdom, insight, and ability.
weird
a. 기묘한, 이상한
They also felt different because they had a weird hobby.
capacity
n. 능력, 역량
If you have 40 years of earning capacity and you want to make $4 million, that means you need to earn $100,000 per year.
assumption
n. 추정, 가정
It just goes to show that we can never be too sure of our assumptions.
adjust
v. 조절하다; 적응하다
People who view time as flexible readily adjust deadlines.
envisage
v. 상상하다; 예상하다
Contemplation of the whole scene has indicated that task G, perhaps not even envisaged at all earlier on, might be the most significant of all.
abide by
지키다, 따르다
Those who abide by cyclical time are likely to make business decisions in very different ways.
subjective
a. 주관적인
For those living in the world of flexible time, time is subjective and event-related.
submissive
a. 순종적인, 고분고분한
People living in flexible time would scorn this submissive attitude to schedules.
profound
a. 깊은; 심오한
Palladio's impact on architecture has been profound and far-reaching.
equate
v. 동일시하다
They also equate working time with success.
evoke
v. (감정·기억·이미지를) 떠올리다, 되살리다
Its magnificent white facade, composed of two temple fronts of different sizes, evokes a sense of order, balance, and harmony.
contextual
a. 전후 관계의, 맥락상의
The past forms the contextual background of the present decision in cyclical time.
marvel at
~에 놀라다
When young, Palladio followed Trissino to Rome, where the young architect marveled at the ancient ruins of Roman buildings.
patron
n. (화가·작가 등에 대한) 후원자
When he met Count Gian Giorgio Trissino, a poet, diplomat, and architectural patron in Vicenza, he switched to architecture.
aesthetic
a. 심미적, 미학적
It was Goethe in his Italian Journey who most famously praised the aesthetic value of Palladio’s work in Vicenza.
sanctity
n. 거룩함, 존엄성, 신성함
San Giorgio Maggiore embodies a perfect mixture of a classical Roman temple with the sanctity of a Christian church.
burgeoning
a. 급성장하는, 증가하는
Recognizing the young Palladio’s burgeoning talent, Trissino took him into his household and educated him in art.
manipulate
v. 조종〔조작〕하다
Time can be shaped, stretched, or manipulated, regardless of what the clock says.
in awe of
~을 경외하여
It is not surprising that the brightest British Modern Movement architects of the 1930s were as in awe of Palladio as they were of Le Corbusier.
symmetrical
a. (인체·디자인·사물 등이) 대칭적인
Hundreds of thousands of houses with symmetrical fronts and applied columns topped by a pediment descend from the designs of Palladio.
idle
a. 게으른, 나태한
People with a linear view of time cannot bear to be idle.
succeed
v. (자리·지위 등의) 뒤를 잇다
Governments and rulers will succeed each other.
culmination
n. 정점, 최고조
The Teatro Olimpico is the culmination of Palladio’s artistic genius.
irreversibly
ad. 되돌릴 수 없게, 영구적으로
According to this view, time is always flowing quickly by, and once it has passed, it is irreversibly gone.
adhere to
~을 고수하다
The inside similarly adheres to a classical use of mathematical formulas and geometric ratios.
monochronic
a. 단일 과제 지향적인
People who adopt a linear view of time also tend to be monochronic.
disposal
n. 처리, 처분권
For those following linear time, time is clock- and calendar-related, divided for their convenience, measurement, and disposal.
contemplate
v. 응시하다; 심사숙고하다
Each of the loggias is itself a place from which one can contemplate the ever-changing spectacle of nature without being exposed to the sun.
enduring
a. 지속적인, 영구적인
What was it that made Palladio’s influence so enduring around the world?
sublime
a. (감탄할 만큼) 숭고한, 장엄한
The view from a distance is sublime.
monastic
a. 수도원의, 수도승의
Every building Palladio designed, from a simple farmhouse to his grand monastic churches, is a treasure.
legacy
n. 유산
Palladio left a vast legacy that includes San Giorgio Maggiore, Villa Saraceno, and numerous other remarkable buildings.
punctual
a. 시간을 잘 지키는
Nurturing one’s relationships with others is far more important than being punctual and sticking to strict schedules.
commission
v. 의뢰〔위탁〕하다; n. 의뢰〔주문〕
The Teatro Olimpico was commissioned by the Olympic Academy for the purpose of staging performances and intellectual debates.
friction
n. 갈등; 마찰
Sometimes these differences cause friction between people from different cultures or countries.
triumphal
a. 승리를 축하하는, 개선의
The three arches of the loggia resemble Roman triumphal arches.
commodity
n. 상품, 물품, 원자재
The societies view time as a precious, even scarce commodity.
pared-down
a. 삭감〔긴축〕한
The villa is a quietly magnificent building that looks and feels like a Roman temple, despite being a pared-down, almost ordinary farmhouse.
sequential
a. 순차적인
Instead of tackling problems immediately in sequential fashion, they might circle around them for a few days or weeks before committing themselves.
exert
v. (권력·영향을) 행사하다
Palladio exerted a great influence long after his death in 1580.
appoint
v. 임명하다
For his masterful work as well as through his powerful patrons, Palladio was appointed chief architect of the Venetian Republic.
catastrophe
n. 참사, 재앙
Floods, earthquakes and other catastrophes will be repeated.
subscribe to
(의견·이론 등을) 동의〔지지〕하다
Those who subscribe to flexible time may go through the motions of observing schedules and deadlines.
innate
a. 타고난
Behind Palladio’s designs is a complex architectural chemistry that is beautifully resolved through an innate understanding of proportion.
monument
n. 기념비적인 건축물; 기념물
It is only with these monuments before our eyes that we can understand their great value.
anticipate
v. 예상하다
We are often surprised to discover that people behave in completely different ways from what we anticipated.
slip away
사라지다
Those living in cyclical time do not see time as slipping away into the past.
unpretentious
a. 잘난 체 하지 않는, 가식 없는
Palladio offered a practical, perfectly proportioned, unpretentious form of classical design.
humdrum
a. 단조로운; 따분한
Palladio gradually transformed Vicenza from a humdrum backwater into a small city of exceptional grace.
dictate
v. ~을 좌우하다, ~에 영향을 주다
Time is an objective truth that dictates one’s actions.
aristocrat
n. 귀족
Following his growing reputation in Vicenza, Palladio received more and more commissions from wealthy and prominent aristocrats in Venice.
affordable
a. (값이) 알맞은
The innovation department of a US corporation developed an affordable electrocardiogram machine for people in rural India.
reasonable
a. 비싸지 않은, 적정한
What made this idea revolutionary was how reasonable the prices actually were.
symbiosis
n. 공생(관계)
Engineers, designers, and architects pioneer a symbiosis between microorganisms, our bodies, and even the buildings we inhabit.
forceps
n. (의료용) 핀셋
Everything indicates that it will lead to harmful forceps being retired forever.
coastal
a. 연안의, 근해의
Between 1997 and 2001 the economist Robert Jensen studied a set of coastal villages in Kerala, India, where fishing was the main industry.
reminiscent
a. 생각나게 하는; 추억에 잠기는
These initiatives are reminiscent of the projects that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is funding.
inflection point
n. 변곡점
Many innovations are still in their infant stages, but some of them are already reaching an inflection point in their development.
insight
n. 식견, 통찰(력)
They can share their insights on social media.
exponentially
ad. 급격하게, 기하급수적으로
While previous industrial revolutions moved at a linear pace, the Fourth Industrial Revolution is evolving exponentially.
decent
a. (수준·질이) 괜찮은
Because of the low incomes in the developing world, conditions are appropriate for innovations that offer decent quality at an extremely low price.
substantive
a. 실질적인, 중요한
Countless AI-equipped devices assist us in areas ranging from trivial to substantive to life-changing.
impetus
n. 추진력; 자극
Reverse innovation illustrates an impetus and a bubbly enthusiasm both individually and nationally for pushing global health.
detect
v. 알아내다, 탐지하다
In India, diapers containing smart chips that detect deadly diseases through contact with feces are already being used.
unfold
v. 펼쳐지다; 펴다
We do not yet know just how the revolution will unfold.
at one’s disposal
마음대로 이용하는
Industrialized countries have long been used to having libraries, telephones, and computers at their disposal.
humanoid
a. 인간을 닮은, 인간에 가까운
Artificial intelligence is all around us: driverless cars, humanoid robots, and even software that translates and invests.
daunting
a. (일 따위가) 벅찬, 어려운
Health care is a daunting, stressful challenge in low-resource places.
stabilize
v. 안정시키다; 견고하게 하다
Fish prices stabilized immediately after phones were used.
subscription
n. 가입, 구독
In 2000, there were approximately seven hundred million mobile phone subscriptions in the world.
impaired
a. 손상된
Innovators at an Israeli company enabled the visually impaired to experience the key aspects of sight.
overall
a. 종합적인, 일반적인
The overall economic well-being of both buyers and sellers improved.
contraceptive
n. 피임기구; 피임약
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is funding a new generation of cheap, unbreakable, and sensitive contraceptives.
conduct
v. (열·전기·음파 등을) 전도하다, 전달하다
The speaker that works by conducting sound waves through the cranial bones.
potential
a. 잠재적인, ~할 가능성이 있는
It will bring billions of people into the community of potential problem solvers and innovators.
simultaneous
a. 동시에 일어나는
The great progress of the Fourth Industrial Revolution has included advances in natural language processing, simultaneous localization and mapping, and many other areas.
eliminate
v. 제거하다, 배제하다
They were able to eliminate the waste that occurred when they took their fish to markets that already had enough supply for the day.
precedent
n. 선례
The speed of current breakthroughs has no historical precedent.
ingenuity
n. (기발한) 재주, 창의력
Govindarajan created the term “reverse innovation” to describe these brilliant bursts of ingenuity.
revolutionary
a. 혁명적인, 대개혁을 일으키는
In the early 1990s, Dr. Therdchai Jivacate of the Prostheses Foundation of Thailand began working on a revolutionary idea.
tailor
v. (요구·조건·필요에) 맞추어 만들다
These solutions are perfectly tailored to their needs and, thanks to their efficiency, are exportable to the developed world.
advocate
n. 지지자, 옹호자
Recently, an invention of Argentine Jorge Odon that helps with complicated births is gaining advocates.
conflict
v. 상반〔상충〕되다
Existing designs conflict with shortages of electricity and drinking water, scarcity of funds, and insufficient policy innovation in resource-poor settings.
divine
v. (직관으로) 추측하다
While we cannot divine exactly what new insights, products, and solutions will arrive in the future, we are fully confident that they will be astonishing.
viable
a. 실행 가능한, 실용적인
The victims of land mines in Laos, Myanmar, Malaysia, and Thailand have fresh and viable solutions that fit both their legs and their finances.
privileged
a. 특권이 있는
Until quite recently, overseas broadcasting, rapid communication, information acquisition, and knowledge sharing were essentially limited to the planet’s privileged people.
convert
v. 전환하다〔바꾸다〕
Thanks to his innovative spirit he was able to convert a smart idea into reality.
tribulation
n. 고난, 고생
Some of the victims of the Boston Marathon attack suffer all kinds of tribulation to pay for prostheses.
durable
a. 오래 견디는, 내구력이 있는
This is why their prostheses should be stronger, more durable, and more manageable.
quadriplegic
n. 사지마비 환자
Digital technologies are enhancing mobility for quadriplegics with wheelchairs controlled by thoughts.
egalitarian
a. 인류평등주의의
They are much more democratic and egalitarian now, and they are becoming more so all the time.
sanitation
n. 위생 (시설)
It is funding a new generation for the efficient disposal of organic waste in populations without sanitation or sewage systems.
on the brink of
~의 직전에
We stand on the brink of a technological revolution that will severely alter the way we live, work, and relate to one another.
robust
a. 튼튼한, 강건한
Devices should be cheap, fast, robust, user friendly, and workable without needing to connect to the electric grid.
advent
n. 출현, 도래
Today’s transformations represent not merely an extension of the Third Industrial Revolution but rather the advent of a Fourth one.
delivery
n. 분만
The Odon device protects women in labor when the delivery continues for a long time.
resuscitation
n. 소생, 의식의 회복
Thanks to a breathing device for the resuscitation of newborns that does not need electricity, the mortality of infants has been reduced by 47%.
pittance
n. 약간의 돈
Now, innovators in the poorest regions of the world are devising their own technological solutions for a pittance.
activate
v. 활성화하다
There is a large global movement destined to activate the real potential of low- and middle-income countries.
counterintuitive
a. 직관에 반(反)한
As counterintuitive as it may seem, the quality demanded by poor people tends to be higher than the quality demanded by the rich.
sturdy
a. 튼튼한; 건장한
Using recycled materials like pull-tabs, Dr. Jivacate’s foundation makes sturdy replacement legs and feet.
ubiquitous
a. 어디에나 있는, 아주 흔한
A Fourth Industrial Revolution is rearing its head, armed with a much more ubiquitous and mobile Internet.
outpace
v. 앞지르다, 능가하다
Reading text in varying fonts has historically been yet another area where humans have outpaced even the most advanced hardware and software.
학생
가장 빠르게 암기하도록 도와주는 암기학습 〉
제대로 외웠나 바로 확인하는 리콜학습 〉
철자까지 외우려면 스펠학습 〉
재미있게 복습하려면 매칭 게임 〉
주관식으로도 재미있는 복습, 크래시 게임 〉
선생님
수업 중 이 단어장을 보고 듣고 질문하는 슬라이드 〉
수업시간이 들썩 들썩 퀴즈배틀 (로그인) 〉
클릭만으로 종이낭비 없이 시험지 인쇄 (로그인) 〉
필요한 세트를 직접 만드는 단어장 만들기 (로그인) 〉
선생님들이 만드신 30만개 단어장 검색하기 〉
고객
센터
궁금한 것, 안되는 것
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