YBM 고등 심화 영어 독해 II 신정현 - 2학기
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세트공유
relatively
ad. 비교적, 상대적으로
That is relatively recent in geological time.
compress
v. 압축하다; 누르다
If all of earth’s history were compressed into an hour, flowering plants would exist for only the last 90 seconds.
outnumber
v. ~보다 수가 많다
Today, flowering plant species outnumber by twenty to one those of ferns and cone-bearing trees, or conifers.
paleontologist
n. 고생물학자
“Before flowering plants appeared,” says Dale Russell, a paleontologist, “the world was like a Japanese garden."
carpel
n. 심피(암술을 구성하는 잎)
Each fruit contains one or more carpels, chambers that protect and nourish the seeds.
toehold
n. 거점; 발판
These botanical newcomers managed to get a toehold in areas of ecological disturbance, such as volcanic regions.
endemic
a. 고유의
The genome of Amborella, a small shrub endemic to New Caledonia, provides evidence that the ancestor of all flowering plants evolved following a “genome doubling event.”
blossom
n. 꽃
The most obvious is the blossom that we associate with flowering plants.
receptor
n. (세포의) 수용기
Eventually these grains come to rest on another flower’s stigma, a tiny pollen receptor.
compatible
a. 호환이 되는, 양립할 수 있는
Softened by moisture, the pollen grain releases proteins that detect whether the new plant is genetically compatible.
germinate
v. 자라기 시작하다, 커지다
If so, the pollen grain germinates and grows a tube down through the style and ovary and into the ovule.
compensate
v. 상쇄하다, 메우다
Because the wind is pretty unpredictable, gymnosperms compensate by producing lots of pollen.
desiccation
n. 건조
An angiosperm’s ovary protects its embryo from desiccation and physical harm.
pollinator
n. 꽃가루 매개자
Insects were among the most important animal pollinators that began visiting angiosperms as soon as they appeared.
flamboyant
a. 눈부신, 화려한
Flowering plants developed colorful and flamboyant petals some time between 70 and 100 million years ago.
finery
n. (아름다운) 장식; 화려함
In their new finery, once overlooked angiosperms began to stand out in the landscape.
stash
n. 숨긴 것
From a bee’s-eye-view, the ultraviolet colors and patterns on a flower’s petals dramatically announce the flower’s stash of nectar and pollen.
striation
n. 줄무늬
The patterns on flowers—such as the lines on petals called striations—serve as a sort of air traffic control system for bees.
bulldoze
v. 밀어 버리다, 밀고 나가다
Dinosaurs bulldozed through ancient forests, unconsciously clearing new ground for angiosperms.
reptile
n. 파충류
They survived for another 65 million years, which was sufficient time for the big reptiles to adapt to a new diet that included angiosperms.
dispersal
n. 확산
Flowering plants, in turn, got the benefit of seed dispersal from mammals.
sustenance
n. 음식, 먹을 것; 지지, 유지
Through agriculture, angiosperms met our need for sustenance.
unprecedented
a. 전례 없는
We in turn have taken certain species like corn and rice and given them unprecedented success.
virtually
ad. 거의
Virtually every non-meat food we eat starts as a flowering plant.
sustain
v. 유지하다, 지속하다
Angiosperms also sustain and enrich our lives.
realm
n. 범위, 영역
Flowers reign over a realm sought by artists, poets, and everyday people in search of inspiration, comfort, or the simple pleasure of seeing a blossom.
halt
v. 멈추다, 정지시키다
It is possible to halt and even reverse this process through better agricultural policies and practices.
unsustainable
a. 지속할 수 없는, 유지할 수 없는
Our unsustainable farming methods are a main contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.
havoc
n. 큰 피해, 대파괴
Modern techniques have also caused havoc throughout the environment, having severe effects on the soil, water, and atmosphere.
microbe
n. 미생물
Intense plowing has introduced more oxygen into the soil, increasing the number of microbes that convert organic matter into carbon dioxide.
wring
v. 짜다, 비틀다
The desire to wring every last dollar out of fields has put pressure on farmers to rely on chemical fertilizers.
degrade
v. 저하시키다
That loss has significantly degraded soil health, reducing our ability to grow food.
median
n. 중간(값)의, 평균의
Median crop yields are likely to decline by about 2 percent per decade through 2100.
sequester
v. 격리하다
It is a suite of agricultural practices and crops that sequester carbon in the soil.
perennial
a. 다년생의
It includes modifications to current cropping systems, the use of perennial crops, and more.
accumulation
n. 쌓임, 축적
Under the right conditions, farming can encourage the accumulation of carbon in the ground.
recipe
n. 방법, 비결
Innovative carbon farmers already know the recipe.
synthetic
a. 합성의; 인조의
Carbon farmers compost, reduce plowing, and eschew synthetic chemicals like nitrogen fertilizers.
boost
v. 밀어 올리다, 증가시키다
Farmers can also boost their income by selling some of their cover crops.
regenerative
a. 재생시키는
Regenerative farming would increase the fertility of the land.
generate
v. 발생시키다, 만들어 내다
Fields full of carbon generate more productive crops, cutting expenses for farmers.
disseminate
v. 전파하다, 퍼뜨리다
The science is new and has not yet been widely disseminated.
incentive
n. 유인책; 동기
Most of the incentives built into agricultural policies are based on maximizing yield, often at the expense of soil health.
subsidy
n. 보조금; 장려금
Farmers are denied full crop insurance, price supports, and subsidies if they grow cover crops beyond a specified period of time.
impediment
n. 방해(물); 장애
Viewing cover crops as a benefit instead of an impediment to cash crops would be the kind of climate-smart policy we need.
commercialize
v. 상업화하다
As farmers have learned, some cover crops can also be commercialized.
chasm
n. (사람·집단 사이의) 큰 차이, 간극
Incentives for carbon farming could bridge the political chasm between ranchers and farmers.
lush
a. 무성한
Even those farmers and ranchers who do not care about climate change desire healthy soil, high productivity, and lush pastures.
realign
v. 재편성〔조정〕하다
There is a rich opportunity here to completely realign the politics of agricultural and environmental policy.
ameliorate
v. 개선〔개량〕하다
The government successfully responded by implementing new policies to ameliorate the problem.
enact
v. 제정하다
With the crisis more serious than ever, we should enact policies like this that reward practices which restore carbon to the soil.
oddity
n. 이상함, 특이함
The oddity that we all perceive most readily is its spelling, which is indeed a nightmare.
correspondence
n. 일치, 부합
For a normal language, there is a reliable correspondence between the way words are spelled and how they are pronounced.
modest
a. 보통의
There is no other language that is close enough to English for us to understand without training or with only modest effort.
obscure
a. 분명치 않은, 모호한
The closest thing to a sister language that an Anglophone can find is the obscure Northern European language called Frisian.
nuisance
n. 성가심, 귀찮음
We think it is a nuisance that so many European languages assign gender to nouns for no reason.
negate
v. 부정〔부인〕하다, 무효화하다
Try naming another language where you have to slip do into sentences to negate or question something.
far-fetched
a. 무리가 있는, 억지의
Old English is so unlike the modern version that it seems far-fetched to think of them as the same language.
populate
v. ~에 살다, 거주하다
Originally, England was mostly populated by the native speakers of Celtic languages.
subjugate
v. 정복하다, 예속시키다
The subjugated Celts quickly adopted the conqueror’s language.
indelible
a. 지울 수 없는, 지워지지 않는
While doing so, they also made indelible marks on Old English.
implant
v. (생각·태도 등을) 심다, 이식하다
These look familiar now, but it was the Celts who implanted those weird grammar patterns in their own translation of Old English.
conjugation
n. (동사의) 활용, 어형 변화
The Vikings mastered only one part of a complex conjugation system.
sophisticated
a. 세련된; 복잡한
Starting in the 16th century, educated Anglophones began to develop English as a vehicle for sophisticated writing.
inflow
n. 유입
It was thanks to this inflow from French and Latin that English acquired the likes of crucified, definition, and conclusion.
pretentious
a. 허세를 부리는
When they were new, many persons of letters in the 1500s considered them irritatingly pretentious and 10 intrusive.
formality
n. 형식적임, 격식
One result was triplets that allow us to express ideas with varying degrees of formality.
culinary
a. 요리(용)의
Especially interesting here are the culinary transformations.
slaughtering
n. 도살
Generally in Norman England, English-speaking laborers did the slaughtering for rich French speakers at the table.
hybridity
n. 혼성, 잡종
English’s hybridity is high on the scale compared with most European languages.
infusion
n. 주입, 불어넣음
Because of this infusion of words from different languages, we English speakers also have to contend with two different ways of accenting words.
suffix
n. 접미사
Clip on a suffix to the word wonder, and you get wonderful.
tempest
n. 사나운 비바람, 폭풍우
French and Latin endings pull the accent closer—TEM-pest, tem-PEST-uous.
outrageous
a. 별난, 이상한
It became peculiar because of the caprices of outrageous history.
detach
v. 떨어지게 하다, 분리하다
An uninhabited house of two stories stood at the blind end, detached from its neighbors in a square ground.
imperturbable
a. 침착한, 태연한, 동요하지 않는
The other houses of the street gazed at one another with brown imperturbable faces.
tenant
n. 소작인, 임차인
The former tenant of our house, a priest, had died in the back drawing room.
litter
v. 흩뜨리다
The waste room behind the kitchen was littered with old useless papers.
straggling
a. 뿔뿔이 흩어져 나아가는
The wild garden behind the house contained a central apple tree and a few straggling bushes.
dusk
n. 땅거미, 황혼
When the short days of winter came, dusk fell before we had eaten our dinners.
resignedly
ad. 체념하여
We left our shadow and walked up to Mangan’s steps resignedly.
parlor
n. 거실
Every morning I lay on the floor in the front parlor watching her door.
seize
v. 잡다, 붙들다, 꽉 움켜지다
I ran to the hall, seized my books and followed her.
diverge
v. 갈리다, 분기하다
When we came near the point at which our ways diverged, I quickened my pace and passed her.
hostile
a. 적대적인, 호의적이 아닌
Her image accompanied me even in places the most hostile to romance.
adoration
n. 애모, 동경
I did not know how I could tell her of my confused adoration.
incessant
a. 끊임없는, 그칠 새 없는
Through one of the broken windows I heard the rain hit upon the earth, the fine incessant needles of water playing in the sodden beds.
palm
n. 손바닥
I pressed the palms of my hands together.
address
v. ~에게 말을 하다
When she addressed the first words to me, I was so confused that I did not know what to answer.
retreat
n. 묵상
There would be a retreat that week in her convent.
visible
a. 눈에 보이는
It fell over one side of her dress and caught the white border of a petticoat, just visible as she stood at ease.
annihilate
v. 전멸시키다
I wished to annihilate the tedious intervening days.
sternness
n. 엄격함, 단호함
I watched my master’s face pass from gentleness to sternness.
liberate
v. 벗어나다, 자유롭게 하다
The high cold empty gloomy rooms liberated me.
indistinct
a. 불분명한
Their cries reached me weakened and indistinct.
pawnbroker
n. 전당포 주인
She was an old talkative woman, a pawnbroker’s widow.
latchkey
n. 바깥문의 열쇠
At nine o’clock I heard my uncle’s latchkey in the hall door.
recite
v. 암송하다
When I left the kitchen, he was about to recite the opening lines of the piece to my aunt.
ruinous
a. 폐허의
It crept onward among ruinous houses and over the shining river.
pervade
v. ~에 널리 퍼지다, 보급되다
I recognized a silence like that which pervades a church after a service.
porcelain
n. 도자기
I went over to one of the stalls and examined porcelain vases and flowered tea sets.
remark
v. ~에 주목하다; ~을 알아차리다
I remarked their English accents and listened vaguely to their conversation.
humbly
ad. 초라하게, 풀죽어서
I looked humbly at the great jars that stood like eastern guards at either side of the dark entrance to the stall.
linger
v. (우물쭈물) 오래 머무르다, 떠나지 못하다
I lingered before her stall, though I knew my stay was useless.
deride
v. 조롱하다, 비웃다
Gazing up into the darkness, I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity.
extraordinary
a. 놀라운, 비범한
The world has been making extraordinary progress in lifting people out of extreme poverty.
disproportionately
ad. 불균형적으로
Growth, if any, has disproportionately benefited higher income groups.
household
a. 가정, 가구
Lower income households have been left behind.
tarnish
v. (평판을) 더럽히다, 손상시키다
Inequality is beginning to tarnish growth and prosperity throughout the world.
prosperity
n. 번성, 번영
Four experts provide their views regarding the effects of inequality on growth and prosperity.
better off
형편이 더 나은
What we need is to help people to be better off.
appalling
a. 지독한, 형편없는
The percentage of people in the world living on $2 a day—an appalling level of income—has been halved in the last 30 years.
capitalism
n. 자본주의
Capitalism is not the problem; it’s the solution.
astounding
a. 놀라운
Over the past 200 years, the growth of the average real income per person has been astounding.
life expectancy
기대수명
Millions more have gas heating, cars, medical services, doubled life expectancy, and much more.
recession
n. 경기 침체
“I was a member of the President’s economics group during the worst recession we’ve had since the Great Depression.
undermine
v. 깎아내리다, 약화시키다
The inequality between growth and the income of working families undermines the basic incentive that hard work will be rewarded.
leverage
n. 차입 자본 이용
That creates large leverage bubbles which explode and hurt growth.
segregate
v. 분리〔격리〕하다
You have lots of low income people stuck in tough neighborhoods that are segregated by income and race.
connection
n. 연관 관계; 인연
You begin to see this connection between high levels of inequality and barriers to opportunity.
threshold
n. (비유적인 의미의) 문턱
We don’t have a threshold level for how much inequality is too much.
marked
a. 눈에 띄는, 구별된
There was a marked and quite significant increase in income inequality.
deregulate
v. 규제를 없애다
Sometimes you need to have a little bit more inequality in order to get growth going as part of deregulating of your economy.
provided
conj. 만약 ~라면
Provided that was the case, I wouldn’t be overly concerned that a given level of inequality was causing great harm.
fizzle out
흐지부지되다
The countries have enjoyed bursts of growth but then have fizzled out rather quickly.
cohesive
a. 화합하는, 결합력이 있는
In societies that are more socially cohesive, governments can take measures that are acceptable for the population at large.
monetary
a. 화폐의, 통화의; 금융의
We know that monetary rewards are really crucial.
indispensable
a. 필수불가결한
We should not forget that inequality is indispensable for the development of a society.
stagnation
n. 침체, 정체
We have essentially a stagnation of middle class incomes in rich countries.
destabilize
v. 불안정하게 하다
That is a very interesting and a potentially politically destabilizing development.
plutocracy
n. 금권 정치 (국가)
We could end up with a kind of a global plutocracy.
off guard
방심한, 무방비 상태로
A number of viruses have caught the world off guard, even though they should not have.
defect
n. 장애; 결점, 결함
Its possible connection to birth defects compelled the WHO to declare an international public health emergency.
transformation
n. 변형 (과정)
Zika’s transformation from a sleeping virus to a global crisis is all too familiar.
outbreak
n. 발생, 발발
With every new outbreak, the same repeated flaw in the approach to infectious disease control is exposed.
proactive
a. 적극적인, 진취적인
Proactive, aggressive elimination efforts got rid of the Aedes aegypti mosquito in 23 countries.
apathy
n. 무관심, 냉담
Gubler noted that our comfort in victory kicked off a period of “increasing apathy and complacency.”
remote
a. 외딴, 먼
Mosquitoes that had once spread diseases in remote, less-populated areas had millions more human hosts to bite and infect.
enhance
v. 강화하다
Advances in global transportation made the world smaller and further enhanced the ability of viruses to expand their reach.
mutate
v. (돌연)변이하다
A respond-to-an-emergency approach cannot keep up with the ability of viruses to mutate and spread.
epidemic
n. 유행병, 전염병
In 2007, a Zika epidemic swept through Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia.
alert
n. 경계, 경보
In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization issued an alert about the transmission of Zika virus in Brazil.
mentality
n. 사고방식
Part of our problem is that we have the mentality of looking at these viruses as one species.
inactive
a. 활동하지 않는
We should learn from this that just because a virus is lying inactive does not mean it is less of a threat to the world’s populations.
susceptible
a. 영향을 받기 쉬운; 감염되기 쉬운
With half the world’s population living in areas susceptible to infectious diseases, a virus that has gone quiet can easily come roaring back.
thorough
a. 철저한, 완전한
Building a more thorough global network of early detection centers around the world is also essential for a proactive approach to infectious disease.
indication
n. 징조, 조짐
Early indication is important, and it gives us the ability to take measures right away.
ecology
n. 생태학; 생태 환경
We need to look at culture, epidemiology, economics, and ecology at a local level and develop strategies from there.
interdisciplinary
a. 둘(이상)의 학문 분야에 걸치는
Infectious disease researchers are pushing toward a more interdisciplinary approach to predict outbreaks.
connect the dots
다양한 사실에서 결론을 도출하다
Jonathan Patz is doing research to connect the dots between climate change and global health.
surge
n. 급증, 급등
There is a silver lining in the surge of outbreaks.
sheer
a. 완전한; 순전한
It brings the sheer connectedness of humanity into sharp focus.
long-standing
a. 오래 지속하는
Outbreaks are forcing us to break long-standing lines of division.
embrace
v. 받아들이다, 포용하다
Outbreaks are forcing us to embrace the fact that we are one species.
petri dish
n. 페트리 접시
We’re all in the same petri dish.
학생
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재미있게 복습하려면 매칭 게임 〉
주관식으로도 재미있는 복습, 크래시 게임 〉
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