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ad. 비교적, 상대적으로
recent in geological time.
v. 압축하다; 누르다
If all of earth’s history were
into an hour, flowering plants would exist for only the last 90 seconds.
v. ~보다 수가 많다
Today, flowering plant species
by twenty to one those of ferns and cone-bearing trees, or conifers.
“Before flowering plants appeared,” says Dale Russell, a
, “the world was like a Japanese garden."
n. 심피(암술을 구성하는 잎)
Each fruit contains one or more
, chambers that protect and nourish the seeds.
n. 거점; 발판
These botanical newcomers managed to get a
in areas of ecological disturbance, such as volcanic regions.
The genome of Amborella, a small shrub
to New Caledonia, provides evidence that the ancestor of all flowering plants evolved following a “genome doubling event.”
The most obvious is the
that we associate with flowering plants.
n. (세포의) 수용기
Eventually these grains come to rest on another flower’s stigma, a tiny pollen
a. 호환이 되는, 양립할 수 있는
Softened by moisture, the pollen grain releases proteins that detect whether the new plant is genetically
v. 자라기 시작하다, 커지다
If so, the pollen grain
and grows a tube down through the style and ovary and into the ovule.
v. 상쇄하다, 메우다
Because the wind is pretty unpredictable, gymnosperms
by producing lots of pollen.
An angiosperm’s ovary protects its embryo from
and physical harm.
n. 꽃가루 매개자
Insects were among the most important animal
that began visiting angiosperms as soon as they appeared.
a. 눈부신, 화려한
Flowering plants developed colorful and
petals some time between 70 and 100 million years ago.
n. (아름다운) 장식; 화려함
In their new
, once overlooked angiosperms began to stand out in the landscape.
n. 숨긴 것
From a bee’s-eye-view, the ultraviolet colors and patterns on a flower’s petals dramatically announce the flower’s
of nectar and pollen.
The patterns on flowers—such as the lines on petals called
—serve as a sort of air traffic control system for bees.
v. 밀어 버리다, 밀고 나가다
through ancient forests, unconsciously clearing new ground for angiosperms.
They survived for another 65 million years, which was sufficient time for the big
to adapt to a new diet that included angiosperms.
Flowering plants, in turn, got the benefit of seed
n. 음식, 먹을 것; 지지, 유지
Through agriculture, angiosperms met our need for
a. 전례 없는
We in turn have taken certain species like corn and rice and given them
every non-meat food we eat starts as a flowering plant.
v. 유지하다, 지속하다
and enrich our lives.
n. 범위, 영역
Flowers reign over a
sought by artists, poets, and everyday people in search of inspiration, comfort, or the simple pleasure of seeing a blossom.
v. 멈추다, 정지시키다
It is possible to
and even reverse this process through better agricultural policies and practices.
a. 지속할 수 없는, 유지할 수 없는
farming methods are a main contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.
n. 큰 피해, 대파괴
Modern techniques have also caused
throughout the environment, having severe effects on the soil, water, and atmosphere.
Intense plowing has introduced more oxygen into the soil, increasing the number of
that convert organic matter into carbon dioxide.
v. 짜다, 비틀다
The desire to
every last dollar out of fields has put pressure on farmers to rely on chemical fertilizers.
That loss has significantly
soil health, reducing our ability to grow food.
n. 중간(값)의, 평균의
crop yields are likely to decline by about 2 percent per decade through 2100.
It is a suite of agricultural practices and crops that
carbon in the soil.
It includes modifications to current cropping systems, the use of
crops, and more.
n. 쌓임, 축적
Under the right conditions, farming can encourage the
of carbon in the ground.
n. 방법, 비결
Innovative carbon farmers already know the
a. 합성의; 인조의
Carbon farmers compost, reduce plowing, and eschew
chemicals like nitrogen fertilizers.
v. 밀어 올리다, 증가시키다
Farmers can also
their income by selling some of their cover crops.
farming would increase the fertility of the land.
v. 발생시키다, 만들어 내다
Fields full of carbon
more productive crops, cutting expenses for farmers.
v. 전파하다, 퍼뜨리다
The science is new and has not yet been widely
n. 유인책; 동기
Most of the
built into agricultural policies are based on maximizing yield, often at the expense of soil health.
n. 보조금; 장려금
Farmers are denied full crop insurance, price supports, and
if they grow cover crops beyond a specified period of time.
n. 방해(물); 장애
Viewing cover crops as a benefit instead of an
to cash crops would be the kind of climate-smart policy we need.
As farmers have learned, some cover crops can also be
n. (사람·집단 사이의) 큰 차이, 간극
Incentives for carbon farming could bridge the political
between ranchers and farmers.
Even those farmers and ranchers who do not care about climate change desire healthy soil, high productivity, and
There is a rich opportunity here to completely
the politics of agricultural and environmental policy.
The government successfully responded by implementing new policies to
With the crisis more serious than ever, we should
policies like this that reward practices which restore carbon to the soil.
n. 이상함, 특이함
that we all perceive most readily is its spelling, which is indeed a nightmare.
n. 일치, 부합
For a normal language, there is a reliable
between the way words are spelled and how they are pronounced.
There is no other language that is close enough to English for us to understand without training or with only
a. 분명치 않은, 모호한
The closest thing to a sister language that an Anglophone can find is the
Northern European language called Frisian.
n. 성가심, 귀찮음
We think it is a
that so many European languages assign gender to nouns for no reason.
v. 부정〔부인〕하다, 무효화하다
Try naming another language where you have to slip do into sentences to
or question something.
a. 무리가 있는, 억지의
Old English is so unlike the modern version that it seems
to think of them as the same language.
v. ~에 살다, 거주하다
Originally, England was mostly
by the native speakers of Celtic languages.
v. 정복하다, 예속시키다
Celts quickly adopted the conqueror’s language.
a. 지울 수 없는, 지워지지 않는
While doing so, they also made
marks on Old English.
v. (생각·태도 등을) 심다, 이식하다
These look familiar now, but it was the Celts who
those weird grammar patterns in their own translation of Old English.
n. (동사의) 활용, 어형 변화
The Vikings mastered only one part of a complex
a. 세련된; 복잡한
Starting in the 16th century, educated Anglophones began to develop English as a vehicle for
It was thanks to this
from French and Latin that English acquired the likes of crucified, definition, and conclusion.
a. 허세를 부리는
When they were new, many persons of letters in the 1500s considered them irritatingly
and 10 intrusive.
n. 형식적임, 격식
One result was triplets that allow us to express ideas with varying degrees of
Especially interesting here are the
Generally in Norman England, English-speaking laborers did the
for rich French speakers at the table.
n. 혼성, 잡종
is high on the scale compared with most European languages.
n. 주입, 불어넣음
Because of this
of words from different languages, we English speakers also have to contend with two different ways of accenting words.
Clip on a
to the word wonder, and you get wonderful.
n. 사나운 비바람, 폭풍우
French and Latin endings pull the accent closer—
a. 별난, 이상한
It became peculiar because of the
of outrageous history.
v. 떨어지게 하다, 분리하다
An uninhabited house of two stories stood at the blind end,
from its neighbors in a square ground.
a. 침착한, 태연한, 동요하지 않는
The other houses of the street gazed at one another with brown
n. 소작인, 임차인
of our house, a priest, had died in the back drawing room.
The waste room behind the kitchen was
with old useless papers.
a. 뿔뿔이 흩어져 나아가는
The wild garden behind the house contained a central apple tree and a few
n. 땅거미, 황혼
When the short days of winter came,
fell before we had eaten our dinners.
We left our shadow and walked up to Mangan’s steps
Every morning I lay on the floor in the front
watching her door.
v. 잡다, 붙들다, 꽉 움켜지다
I ran to the hall,
my books and followed her.
v. 갈리다, 분기하다
When we came near the point at which our ways
, I quickened my pace and passed her.
a. 적대적인, 호의적이 아닌
Her image accompanied me even in places the most
n. 애모, 동경
I did not know how I could tell her of my confused
a. 끊임없는, 그칠 새 없는
Through one of the broken windows I heard the rain hit upon the earth, the fine
needles of water playing in the sodden beds.
I pressed the
of my hands together.
v. ~에게 말을 하다
the first words to me, I was so confused that I did not know what to answer.
There would be a
that week in her convent.
a. 눈에 보이는
It fell over one side of her dress and caught the white border of a petticoat, just
as she stood at ease.
I wished to
the tedious intervening days.
n. 엄격함, 단호함
I watched my master’s face pass from gentleness to
v. 벗어나다, 자유롭게 하다
The high cold empty gloomy rooms
Their cries reached me weakened and
n. 전당포 주인
She was an old talkative woman, a
n. 바깥문의 열쇠
At nine o’clock I heard my uncle’s
in the hall door.
When I left the kitchen, he was about to
the opening lines of the piece to my aunt.
It crept onward among
houses and over the shining river.
v. ~에 널리 퍼지다, 보급되다
I recognized a silence like that which
a church after a service.
I went over to one of the stalls and examined
vases and flowered tea sets.
v. ~에 주목하다; ~을 알아차리다
their English accents and listened vaguely to their conversation.
ad. 초라하게, 풀죽어서
at the great jars that stood like eastern guards at either side of the dark entrance to the stall.
v. (우물쭈물) 오래 머무르다, 떠나지 못하다
before her stall, though I knew my stay was useless.
v. 조롱하다, 비웃다
Gazing up into the darkness, I saw myself as a creature driven and
a. 놀라운, 비범한
The world has been making
progress in lifting people out of extreme poverty.
Growth, if any, has
benefited higher income groups.
a. 가정, 가구
have been left behind.
v. (평판을) 더럽히다, 손상시키다
Inequality is beginning to
growth and prosperity throughout the world.
n. 번성, 번영
Four experts provide their views regarding the effects of inequality on growth and
형편이 더 나은
What we need is to help people to be
a. 지독한, 형편없는
The percentage of people in the world living on $2 a day—an
level of income—has been halved in the last 30 years.
is not the problem; it’s the solution.
Over the past 200 years, the growth of the average real income per person has been
Millions more have gas heating, cars, medical services, doubled
, and much more.
n. 경기 침체
“I was a member of the President’s economics group during the worst
we’ve had since the Great Depression.
v. 깎아내리다, 약화시키다
The inequality between growth and the income of working families
the basic incentive that hard work will be rewarded.
n. 차입 자본 이용
That creates large
bubbles which explode and hurt growth.
You have lots of low income people stuck in tough neighborhoods that are
by income and race.
n. 연관 관계; 인연
You begin to see this
between high levels of inequality and barriers to opportunity.
n. (비유적인 의미의) 문턱
We don’t have a
level for how much inequality is too much.
a. 눈에 띄는, 구별된
There was a
and quite significant increase in income inequality.
v. 규제를 없애다
Sometimes you need to have a little bit more inequality in order to get growth going as part of
of your economy.
conj. 만약 ~라면
that was the case, I wouldn’t be overly concerned that a given level of inequality was causing great harm.
The countries have enjoyed bursts of growth but then have
a. 화합하는, 결합력이 있는
In societies that are more socially
, governments can take measures that are acceptable for the population at large.
a. 화폐의, 통화의; 금융의
We know that
rewards are really crucial.
We should not forget that inequality is
for the development of a society.
n. 침체, 정체
We have essentially a
of middle class incomes in rich countries.
v. 불안정하게 하다
That is a very interesting and a potentially politically
n. 금권 정치 (국가)
We could end up with a kind of a global
방심한, 무방비 상태로
A number of viruses have caught the world
, even though they should not have.
n. 장애; 결점, 결함
Its possible connection to birth
compelled the WHO to declare an international public health emergency.
n. 변형 (과정)
from a sleeping virus to a global crisis is all too familiar.
n. 발생, 발발
With every new
, the same repeated flaw in the approach to infectious disease control is exposed.
a. 적극적인, 진취적인
, aggressive elimination efforts got rid of the Aedes aegypti mosquito in 23 countries.
n. 무관심, 냉담
Gubler noted that our comfort in victory kicked off a period of “increasing
a. 외딴, 먼
Mosquitoes that had once spread diseases in
, less-populated areas had millions more human hosts to bite and infect.
Advances in global transportation made the world smaller and further
the ability of viruses to expand their reach.
A respond-to-an-emergency approach cannot keep up with the ability of viruses to
n. 유행병, 전염병
In 2007, a Zika
swept through Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia.
n. 경계, 경보
In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization issued an
about the transmission of Zika virus in Brazil.
Part of our problem is that we have the
of looking at these viruses as one species.
a. 활동하지 않는
We should learn from this that just because a virus is lying
does not mean it is less of a threat to the world’s populations.
a. 영향을 받기 쉬운; 감염되기 쉬운
With half the world’s population living in areas
to infectious diseases, a virus that has gone quiet can easily come roaring back.
a. 철저한, 완전한
Building a more
global network of early detection centers around the world is also essential for a proactive approach to infectious disease.
n. 징조, 조짐
is important, and it gives us the ability to take measures right away.
n. 생태학; 생태 환경
We need to look at culture, epidemiology, economics, and
at a local level and develop strategies from there.
a. 둘(이상)의 학문 분야에 걸치는
Infectious disease researchers are pushing toward a more
approach to predict outbreaks.
connect the dots
다양한 사실에서 결론을 도출하다
Jonathan Patz is doing research to
connect the dots
between climate change and global health.
n. 급증, 급등
There is a silver lining in the
a. 완전한; 순전한
It brings the
connectedness of humanity into sharp focus.
a. 오래 지속하는
Outbreaks are forcing us to break
lines of division.
v. 받아들이다, 포용하다
Outbreaks are forcing us to
the fact that we are one species.
n. 페트리 접시
We’re all in the same
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미국인들이 매일 쓰는 언어 part 1-2
과일 단어 1
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고객센터, 2018.07.07 12:32:33
앞서 질문에 대한 답글입니다. 감사합니다.앞서 질문에 대한 답글 입니다. 감사합니다.앞서 질문에 대한 답글입니다. 앞서 질문에 대한 답글입니다.
최대한 신속히 답변을 드리겠습니다.
생성된 세트는 클래스에 추가됩니다.
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