YBM 고등 심화 영어 독해 II 신정현 - 1학기
158 카드 | ybmadmin
세트공유
evolutionary
a. 진화의, 발달의
In evolutionary terms, selfless behavior to the potential benefit of others is quite absurd.
groundbreaking
a. 획기적인
Mutual passion can even help create things that are truly groundbreaking.
conjure
v. 생각해내다, 출연시키다
We are inclined to conjure an image of a character like Einstein, who wears an untidy suit.
stumble upon
~을 마주치다, 우연히 만나다
He, almost accidentally, stumbles upon his next “big idea.”
strain
v. 안간힘을 쓰다
They strained themselves to extract secrets from the solitary creative person.
novel
a. 새로운, 신기한
Creative people are very good at coming up with lots of novel ideas.
chronicle
n. 연대기
The Chronicles of Narnia and The Lord of the Rings were not solo works, authored by lone geniuses.
ideological
a. 이데올로기의, 관념학의
Tolkien was in a political and ideological struggle with his colleagues.
weird
a. 기묘한, 이상한
They also felt different because they had a weird hobby.
intimation
n. 암시
The Inklings is a pun showing that the members were both writers and people who were searching for “vague or imperfect intimations and ideas.”
in progress
진행 중인
They read aloud from their own works in progress.
provoke
v. (감정 따위를) 일으키다
Members soon became friends and critics simultaneously, encouraging, provoking, and enlightening one another.
scarcity
n. 부족, 결핍
The scarcity of similar souls set limits to the enlargement of the circle.
initially
ad. 처음으로, 최초로
The themes initially emerged during the Inklings meetings.
enthralling
a. 매혹하는, 사로잡는
Without the Inklings, these enthralling stories might not exist.
coherent
a. 시종 일관된, 통일성이 있는
It was the Inklings that converted Tolkien’s mythical ideas into a coherent narrative.
hangout
n. 단골집, 소굴
Café Guerbois was the favorite hangout for painters and intellectuals in Paris.
reminisce
v. 추억하다; 회상하다
Monet reminisces "You always went home afterwards better steeled for the fight, with a new sense of purpose and a clearer head."
perpetual
a. 끊임없는, 영속하는
Nothing could be more stimulating than the talks we had, with their perpetual clashes of opinion.
disinterested
a. 사욕이 없는
You spurred the others on to pursue genuine and disinterested inquiry.
contentious
a. 논쟁을 불러일으키는
It was in these contentious arguments that the group members were collectively provoked into achieving consensus about their emerging vision.
incorporate
v. 통합하다, 섞다
Monet incorporated the innovations into his paintings the most boldly.
definitive
a. 결정적인; 최종적인
The discoveries Monet and Renoir made while painting together are considered the definitive elements of the Impressionist style.
abound with
~로 그득하다, 풍부하다, 충만하다
History abounds with cases of fruitful collaboration.
summon
v. 소환하다, 소집하다
Scratching out line after line and filling in ideas for a new text, Pound helped summon the poem into being.
conceivable
a. 생각〔상상〕할 수 있는
These ideas were not conceivable without an extensive network of colleagues.
embed in
~에 끼워 넣다, ~에 뿌리박다
Albert Einstein’s contributions to modern physics were firmly embedded in international teams of scientists.
breakthrough
n. 획기적인 발견, 성공
It is group genius that generates breakthroughs and innovations.
cluster
v. (사람·짐승이) 모여들다, 몰려들다
Walking through Times Square, I was astonished to see about 1,000 people all clustered and staring up at something.
addiction
n. 중독
We might talk about the “me” generation, the addiction to selfies, or a general self-centered character in relation to all of these terms.
intriguing
a. 흥미를〔호기심을〕 자아내는
This would ignore their important differences and flatten out all the intriguing features of the landscape of the self.
indispensable
a. 없어서는 안 될, 절대 필요한
He thought that self-esteem was indispensable to us.
undertaking
n. (떠맡은) 일, 사업
In his writing, he called for sufficient self-respect or self-confidence to fit us for the undertakings that enrich our lives or those of others.
legitimately
ad. 합법적으로, 적법하게
There is such a thing as proper pride: the pleasure one might legitimately take in having accomplished something good.
contempt
n. 경멸, 모욕
Pride turns wicked only when it slips into an elevation of one’s self above others and a corresponding contempt for them.
indulge in
(취미·욕망 따위에) 빠지다, 탐닉하다
The vain person indulges in being flattered, even if the flattery is empty.
reassurance
n. 확신
A fear of falling short in the eyes of others results in a constant demand for reassurance.
censure
n. 비난, 질책
Vanity is often a better target for sympathy or pity than for censure.
resentment
n. 노함, 분개
We develop resentment about those who dispute our self-worth.
insecurity
n. 불안정, 불확실
Vanity is being overly concerned with the admiration of others and often arises from a fundamental insecurity.
conceited
a. 자만심이 강한, 잘난 체하는, 우쭐한
The conceited person is so sure of himself that reassurance from others becomes irrelevant.
hubris
n. 과도한 자부〔자만〕
Arrogance, excessive self-confidence, and hubris mark the path of conceit.
ensnare
v. 올가미에 걸다, 함정에 빠뜨리다
We encounter conceited people who are all too often ensnared by their own claims to leadership, wisdom, insight, and ability.
drive out
몰아내다, 추방하다
Self-love has driven out all other social emotions and concerns.
solipsistic
a. 자기중심적인
The narcissist is not so much conceited—where there is a relationship of arrogance or contempt towards other people—as solipsistic.
fantasize
v. 공상에 빠지다
We like to fantasize about being wealthy and famous, and we become easily dissatisfied with our less luxurious lives.
lavishly
ad. 낭비 버릇이 있게, 사치스럽게
Many of us in today’s society envy celebrities, yearning to live and spend lavishly.
mesmerize
v. ~에게 최면술을 걸다, 홀리게 하다, 매혹시키다
Perhaps we are all narcissists, mesmerized by our own image.
altruism
n. 이타주의
It is possible to imagine a reversal, a world where modesty and altruism reign.
crave
v. 열망〔갈망〕하다
For now, we can start to resist vanity by learning to live without craving the constant admiration of others.
condemnation
n. 비난
The word vanity itself carries its own condemnation.
virtuous
a. 덕행이 있는, 고결한
With a little effort, we can cultivate a virtuous sense of self-worth without submitting to an excess of self-love.
profound
a. 깊은; 심오한
Palladio's impact on architecture has been profound and far-reaching.
symmetrical
a. (인체·디자인·사물 등이) 대칭적인
Hundreds of thousands of houses with symmetrical fronts and applied columns topped by a pediment descend from the designs of Palladio.
patron
n. (화가·작가 등에 대한) 후원자
When he met Count Gian Giorgio Trissino, a poet, diplomat, and architectural patron in Vicenza, he switched to architecture.
burgeoning
a. 급성장하는, 증가하는
Recognizing the young Palladio’s burgeoning talent, Trissino took him into his household and educated him in art.
humdrum
a. 단조로운; 따분한
Palladio gradually transformed Vicenza from a humdrum backwater into a small city of exceptional grace.
legacy
n. 유산
Palladio left a vast legacy that includes San Giorgio Maggiore, Villa Saraceno, and numerous other remarkable buildings.
aesthetic
a. 심미적, 미학적
It was Goethe in his Italian Journey who most famously praised the aesthetic value of Palladio’s work in Vicenza.
monument
n. 기념비적인 건축물; 기념물
It is only with these monuments before our eyes that we can understand their great value.
culmination
n. 정점, 최고조
The Teatro Olimpico is the culmination of Palladio’s artistic genius.
commission
v. 의뢰〔위탁〕하다; n. 의뢰〔주문〕
The Teatro Olimpico was commissioned by the Olympic Academy for the purpose of staging performances and intellectual debates.
aristocrat
n. 귀족
Following his growing reputation in Vicenza, Palladio received more and more commissions from wealthy and prominent aristocrats in Venice.
appoint
v. 임명하다
For his masterful work as well as through his powerful patrons, Palladio was appointed chief architect of the Venetian Republic.
sanctity
n. 거룩함, 존엄성, 신성함
San Giorgio Maggiore embodies a perfect mixture of a classical Roman temple with the sanctity of a Christian church.
evoke
v. (감정·기억·이미지를) 떠올리다, 되살리다
Its magnificent white facade, composed of two temple fronts of different sizes, evokes a sense of order, balance, and harmony.
adhere to
~을 고수하다
The inside similarly adheres to a classical use of mathematical formulas and geometric ratios.
sublime
a. (감탄할 만큼) 숭고한, 장엄한
The view from a distance is sublime.
monastic
a. 수도원의, 수도승의
Every building Palladio designed, from a simple farmhouse to his grand monastic churches, is a treasure.
marvel at
~에 놀라다
When young, Palladio followed Trissino to Rome, where the young architect marveled at the ancient ruins of Roman buildings.
pared-down
a. 삭감〔긴축〕한
The villa is a quietly magnificent building that looks and feels like a Roman temple, despite being a pared-down, almost ordinary farmhouse.
triumphal
a. 승리를 축하하는, 개선의
The three arches of the loggia resemble Roman triumphal arches.
surge
v. 급증하다, 갑자기 높아지다
Like imperial Roman buildings, the villa, which is placed high on a basement podium, surges proudly upward.
contemplate
v. 응시하다; 심사숙고하다
Each of the loggias is itself a place from which one can contemplate the ever-changing spectacle of nature without being exposed to the sun.
exert
v. (권력·영향을) 행사하다
Palladio exerted a great influence long after his death in 1580.
in awe of
~을 경외하여
It is not surprising that the brightest British Modern Movement architects of the 1930s were as in awe of Palladio as they were of Le Corbusier.
enduring
a. 지속적인, 영구적인
What was it that made Palladio’s influence so enduring around the world?
unpretentious
a. 잘난 체 하지 않는, 가식 없는
Palladio offered a practical, perfectly proportioned, unpretentious form of classical design.
innate
a. 타고난
Behind Palladio’s designs is a complex architectural chemistry that is beautifully resolved through an innate understanding of proportion.
friction
n. 갈등; 마찰
Sometimes these differences cause friction between people from different cultures or countries.
commodity
n. 상품, 물품, 원자재
The societies view time as a precious, even scarce commodity.
irreversibly
ad. 되돌릴 수 없게, 영구적으로
According to this view, time is always flowing quickly by, and once it has passed, it is irreversibly gone.
idle
a. 게으른, 나태한
People with a linear view of time cannot bear to be idle.
seize
v. 꽉 잡다, 장악하다
In linear time, the past is over, but you can seize the present and make it work for you in the immediate future.
monochronic
a. 단일 과제 지향적인
People who adopt a linear view of time also tend to be monochronic.
equate
v. 동일시하다
They also equate working time with success.
capacity
n. 능력, 역량
If you have 40 years of earning capacity and you want to make $4 million, that means you need to earn $100,000 per year.
adjust
v. 조절하다; 적응하다
People who view time as flexible readily adjust deadlines.
punctual
a. 시간을 잘 지키는
Nurturing one’s relationships with others is far more important than being punctual and sticking to strict schedules.
subscribe to
(의견·이론 등을) 동의〔지지〕하다
Those who subscribe to flexible time may go through the motions of observing schedules and deadlines.
disposal
n. 처리, 처분권
For those following linear time, time is clock- and calendar-related, divided for their convenience, measurement, and disposal.
dictate
v. ~을 좌우하다, ~에 영향을 주다
Time is an objective truth that dictates one’s actions.
subjective
a. 주관적인
For those living in the world of flexible time, time is subjective and event-related.
manipulate
v. 조종〔조작〕하다
Time can be shaped, stretched, or manipulated, regardless of what the clock says.
submissive
a. 순종적인, 고분고분한
People living in flexible time would scorn this submissive attitude to schedules.
abide by
지키다, 따르다
Those who abide by cyclical time are likely to make business decisions in very different ways.
contextual
a. 전후 관계의, 맥락상의
The past forms the contextual background of the present decision in cyclical time.
slip away
사라지다
Those living in cyclical time do not see time as slipping away into the past.
sequential
a. 순차적인
Instead of tackling problems immediately in sequential fashion, they might circle around them for a few days or weeks before committing themselves.
envisage
v. 상상하다; 예상하다
Contemplation of the whole scene has indicated that task G, perhaps not even envisaged at all earlier on, might be the most significant of all.
succeed
v. (자리·지위 등의) 뒤를 잇다
Governments and rulers will succeed each other.
catastrophe
n. 참사, 재앙
Floods, earthquakes and other catastrophes will be repeated.
anticipate
v. 예상하다
We are often surprised to discover that people behave in completely different ways from what we anticipated.
assumption
n. 추정, 가정
It just goes to show that we can never be too sure of our assumptions.
on the brink of
~의 직전에
We stand on the brink of a technological revolution that will severely alter the way we live, work, and relate to one another.
unfold
v. 펼쳐지다; 펴다
We do not yet know just how the revolution will unfold.
ubiquitous
a. 어디에나 있는, 아주 흔한
A Fourth Industrial Revolution is rearing its head, armed with a much more ubiquitous and mobile Internet.
inflection point
n. 변곡점
Many innovations are still in their infant stages, but some of them are already reaching an inflection point in their development.
advent
n. 출현, 도래
Today’s transformations represent not merely an extension of the Third Industrial Revolution but rather the advent of a Fourth one.
precedent
n. 선례
The speed of current breakthroughs has no historical precedent.
exponentially
ad. 급격하게, 기하급수적으로
While previous industrial revolutions moved at a linear pace, the Fourth Industrial Revolution is evolving exponentially.
humanoid
a. 인간을 닮은, 인간에 가까운
Artificial intelligence is all around us: driverless cars, humanoid robots, and even software that translates and invests.
symbiosis
n. 공생(관계)
Engineers, designers, and architects pioneer a symbiosis between microorganisms, our bodies, and even the buildings we inhabit.
simultaneous
a. 동시에 일어나는
The great progress of the Fourth Industrial Revolution has included advances in natural language processing, simultaneous localization and mapping, and many other areas.
substantive
a. 실질적인, 중요한
Countless AI-equipped devices assist us in areas ranging from trivial to substantive to life-changing.
impaired
a. 손상된
Innovators at an Israeli company enabled the visually impaired to experience the key aspects of sight.
conduct
v. (열·전기·음파 등을) 전도하다, 전달하다
The speaker that works by conducting sound waves through the cranial bones.
outpace
v. 앞지르다, 능가하다
Reading text in varying fonts has historically been yet another area where humans have outpaced even the most advanced hardware and software.
quadriplegic
n. 사지마비 환자
Digital technologies are enhancing mobility for quadriplegics with wheelchairs controlled by thoughts.
at one’s disposal
마음대로 이용하는
Industrialized countries have long been used to having libraries, telephones, and computers at their disposal.
subscription
n. 가입, 구독
In 2000, there were approximately seven hundred million mobile phone subscriptions in the world.
coastal
a. 연안의, 근해의
Between 1997 and 2001 the economist Robert Jensen studied a set of coastal villages in Kerala, India, where fishing was the main industry.
stabilize
v. 안정시키다; 견고하게 하다
Fish prices stabilized immediately after phones were used.
eliminate
v. 제거하다, 배제하다
They were able to eliminate the waste that occurred when they took their fish to markets that already had enough supply for the day.
overall
a. 종합적인, 일반적인
The overall economic well-being of both buyers and sellers improved.
potential
a. 잠재적인, ~할 가능성이 있는
It will bring billions of people into the community of potential problem solvers and innovators.
insight
n. 식견, 통찰(력)
They can share their insights on social media.
sophisticated
a. 정교한, 복잡한
They can even conduct sophisticated database analyses using cloud resources.
privileged
a. 특권이 있는
Until quite recently, overseas broadcasting, rapid communication, information acquisition, and knowledge sharing were essentially limited to the planet’s privileged people.
egalitarian
a. 인류평등주의의
They are much more democratic and egalitarian now, and they are becoming more so all the time.
divine
v. (직관으로) 추측하다
While we cannot divine exactly what new insights, products, and solutions will arrive in the future, we are fully confident that they will be astonishing.
address
v. (어려운 문제 등을) 다루다, 대처하다
We tend to assume that technological devices created to address special needs in developing countries are not good enough to compete against existing solutions.
revolutionary
a. 혁명적인, 대개혁을 일으키는
In the early 1990s, Dr. Therdchai Jivacate of the Prostheses Foundation of Thailand began working on a revolutionary idea.
reasonable
a. 비싸지 않은, 적정한
What made this idea revolutionary was how reasonable the prices actually were.
convert
v. 전환하다〔바꾸다〕
Thanks to his innovative spirit he was able to convert a smart idea into reality.
sturdy
a. 튼튼한; 건장한
Using recycled materials like pull-tabs, Dr. Jivacate’s foundation makes sturdy replacement legs and feet.
counterintuitive
a. 직관에 반(反)한
As counterintuitive as it may seem, the quality demanded by poor people tends to be higher than the quality demanded by the rich.
durable
a. 오래 견디는, 내구력이 있는
This is why their prostheses should be stronger, more durable, and more manageable.
ingenuity
n. (기발한) 재주, 창의력
Govindarajan created the term “reverse innovation” to describe these brilliant bursts of ingenuity.
tribulation
n. 고난, 고생
Some of the victims of the Boston Marathon attack suffer all kinds of tribulation to pay for prostheses.
viable
a. 실행 가능한, 실용적인
The victims of land mines in Laos, Myanmar, Malaysia, and Thailand have fresh and viable solutions that fit both their legs and their finances.
affordable
a. (값이) 알맞은
The innovation department of a US corporation developed an affordable electrocardiogram machine for people in rural India.
daunting
a. (일 따위가) 벅찬, 어려운
Health care is a daunting, stressful challenge in low-resource places.
conflict
v. 상반〔상충〕되다
Existing designs conflict with shortages of electricity and drinking water, scarcity of funds, and insufficient policy innovation in resource-poor settings.
pittance
n. 약간의 돈
Now, innovators in the poorest regions of the world are devising their own technological solutions for a pittance.
tailor
v. (요구·조건·필요에) 맞추어 만들다
These solutions are perfectly tailored to their needs and, thanks to their efficiency, are exportable to the developed world.
decent
a. (수준·질이) 괜찮은
Because of the low incomes in the developing world, conditions are appropriate for innovations that offer decent quality at an extremely low price.
detect
v. 알아내다, 탐지하다
In India, diapers containing smart chips that detect deadly diseases through contact with feces are already being used.
advocate
n. 지지자, 옹호자
Recently, an invention of Argentine Jorge Odon that helps with complicated births is gaining advocates.
forceps
n. (의료용) 핀셋
Everything indicates that it will lead to harmful forceps being retired forever.
delivery
n. 분만
The Odon device protects women in labor when the delivery continues for a long time.
resuscitation
n. 소생, 의식의 회복
Thanks to a breathing device for the resuscitation of newborns that does not need electricity, the mortality of infants has been reduced by 47%.
robust
a. 튼튼한, 강건한
Devices should be cheap, fast, robust, user friendly, and workable without needing to connect to the electric grid.
reminiscent
a. 생각나게 하는; 추억에 잠기는
These initiatives are reminiscent of the projects that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is funding.
contraceptive
n. 피임기구; 피임약
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is funding a new generation of cheap, unbreakable, and sensitive contraceptives.
sanitation
n. 위생 (시설)
It is funding a new generation for the efficient disposal of organic waste in populations without sanitation or sewage systems.
impetus
n. 추진력; 자극
Reverse innovation illustrates an impetus and a bubbly enthusiasm both individually and nationally for pushing global health.
activate
v. 활성화하다
There is a large global movement destined to activate the real potential of low- and middle-income countries.
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