YBM 고등 영어Ⅱ 한상호 종합
297 카드 | ybmadmin
세트공유
species
n. (생물 분류상의) 종
By studying cholera under the microscope, Mechinikov found that certain species of bacteria from the human gut supported and stimulated the cholera’s growth, while other species prevented it.
infect
v. 감염시키다
Antibiotics have saved countless lives by giving doctors and scientists the means to kill harmful germs that infect wounds, cause deadly diseases, and spread through food.
be abundant with
…이 풍부하다
Places with diverse life forms, such as woods, beaches, parks, or even small farms and gardens, are abundant with diverse bacteria that germ-free urban environments lack.
urban
a. 도시의
Places with diverse life forms, such as woods, beaches, parks, or even small farms and gardens, are abundant with diverse bacteria that germ-free urban environments lack.
occupy
v. 차지하다
By occupying our bodies first, they prevent harmful germs from growing there.
cultivate
v. 기르다, 재배하다
By eating foods that contain beneficial bacteria, such as yogurt, gimchi, and natto, or choosing a diet packed with good, fresh nutrients, such as garlic, onions, and unprocessed grains rich in fiber, we can cultivate good microbes.
donor
n. 기증자
Researchers transplanted some of the good microbes from a healthy donor into these patients’ guts.
mutation
n. 돌연변이
Just like any other organisms, individual bacteria can undergo random mutations.
eliminate
v. 제거하다
Although antibiotics play a crucial role in keeping us healthy by eliminating dangerous germs, they cannot tell good bacteria from bad ones.
crucial
a. 중대한
This may sound somewhat frightening, but these bacteria have a crucial and positive influence on our health.
resistant
a. 저항력이 있는
However, sometimes the mutation makes the bacteria resistant to a certain antibiotic.
neuron
n. 뉴런, 신경 세포
We need to start thinking of the microbes in our guts as a part of our bodies, like the blood cells and the neurons, and take care of them just as we take care of our skin and our teeth.
cluster
n. 군집
These creatures are clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as on the surface or in the deep layers of the skin, in the mouth and the nose, and in the lungs and the stomach.
deficiency
n. 결핍
Unfortunately, this attitude has had harmful effects on health, resulting in a rise in allergies and immune deficiencies.
antibacterial
a. 항균의
In the home, antibacterial cleaning products such as household cleaners or bath products can lead to antibiotic resistance.
facilitate
v. 증진시키다, 촉진하다
They also facilitate our immune system by distinguishing between good substances that should be allowed into our bodies and harmful ones that should be rejected.
appetite
n. 식욕
Other microbes regulate the appetite hormone, which makes a person feel full or hungry.
transplant
v. 이식하다
One recent study found that transplanting a lean mouse’s gut bacteria into an overweight mouse’s stomach made the overweight mouse lose weight.
make sense
말이 되다, 이치에 맞다
If we can affect microbes and they can affect our bodies, it doesn't make sense to talk about the two separately.
prosper
v. 번영하다
As the non-resistant bacteria are killed off by the antibiotics we use, there is more room for the resistant ones to prosper.
germ
n. 세균
Antibiotics have saved countless lives by giving doctors and scientists the means to kill harmful germs that infect wounds, cause deadly diseases, and spread through food.
separately
ad. 따로, 별도로
If we can affect microbes and they can affect our bodies, it makes little sense to talk about the two separately.
reside
v. 살다, 거주하다
The greatest number of bacteria, about 100 trillion that weigh up to 2 kg, reside in the gut.
absorb
v. 흡수하다
If they are absent, it is difficult to absorb certain vegetables and milk, which eventually leads to an unbalanced diet and poorer health.
intrigue
v. 흥미를 돋우다
Intrigued, he decided to increase his sample size and recruited a colleague to do the same.
distinguish
v. 구별하다
They also facilitate our immune system by distinguishing between good substances that should be allowed into our bodies and harmful ones that should be rejected.
undergo
v. 겪다, 경험하다
Just like any other organisms, individual bacteria can undergo random mutations.
transmit
v. 전염시키다
Giving animals antibiotics to prevent illness or promote growth can generate resistance in animal bacteria that can later be transmitted to humans.
multiply
v. 증식하다
Over time, as the resistant genes among bacteria multiply, super bacteria that can resist multiple antibiotics can emerge.
sweep
v. 휩쓸다
He was living in Paris in the late 19th century when thousands of people were suffering from cholera, a disease that was sweeping the European continent.
tell ... from ~
~으로부터 …을 구별하다
Although antibiotics play a crucial role in keeping us healthy by eliminating dangerous germs, they cannot tell good bacteria from bad ones.
recruit
v. 모집하다
Intrigued, he decided to increase his sample size and recruited a colleague to do the same.
microbe
n. 미생물
The first scientist who paid attention to these microbes in the gut and their importance was Ilya Mechinikov, who won the Nobel Prize in 1908 for his studies on the immune system.
reject
v. 거절하다, 거부하다
They also facilitate our immune system by distinguishing between good substances that should be allowed into our bodies and harmful ones that should be rejected.
gut
n. (내)장
The greatest number of bacteria, about 100 trillion that weigh up to 2 kg, reside in the gut.
antibiotic
n. 항생제
A decade later, antibiotics were discovered.
stimulate
v. 자극하다
By studying cholera under the microscope, Mechinikov found that certain species of bacteria from the human gut supported and stimulated the cholera’s growth, while other species prevented it.
regulate
v. 규제하다
Other microbes regulate the appetite hormone, which makes a person feel full or hungry.
microscope
n. 현미경
By studying cholera under the microscope, Mechinikov found that certain species of bacteria from the human gut supported and stimulated the cholera’s growth, while other species prevented it.
diarrhea
n. 설사
There were people who had a terrible form of diarrhea, so they had to go to the bathroom up to 20 times a day.
get rid of
없애다
Therefore, whenever we use antibiotics, we inevitably damage beneficial bacteria as well as the harmful bacteria that we want to get rid of.
combat
v. (나쁜 일을 방지하기 위해) 싸우다
Some microbes in the gut determine whether particular drugs are toxic to the liver and whether or not other drugs will work to combat a heart condition.
wage
v. (전쟁 등을) 벌이다
A war has been waged on microbes, and people have spent almost a century trying to kill them.
toxic
a. 유독한, 독성의
Some microbes in the gut determine whether particular drugs are toxic to the liver and whether or not other drugs will work to combat a heart condition.
novel
a. 새로운
Scientists are trying to develop novel antibiotics that can kill super bacteria.
insufficient
a. 불충분한
Therefore, having insufficient germs or losing important ones leads to various health problems.
immune
a. 면역의
The first scientist who paid attention to these microbes in the gut and their importance was Ilya Mechinikov, who won the Nobel Prize in 1908 for his studies on the immune system.
suspicion
n. 의혹, 의심
Carrying around too much cash or trying to use it too often raises suspicions.
criminal
n. 범죄자
Already criminals are adapting to new technologies, using electronic card readers to steal money and robbing banks by hacking.
post
v. 게시하다
Information that you post publicly can be stored by anyone who finds it, and your private communications might be discovered and read by advertisers, news organizations, governments, and criminals.
along with
∙∙∙와 함께
Along with these new ways, they will have new problems, as well as new solutions.
bribery
n. 뇌물 수수
Limiting the use of cash can reduce tax evasion, trafficking, smuggling, robbery, and bribery.
admit
v. 시인하다, 인정하다
78 percent of burglars admit that they use social media to seek out their victims.
sophisticated
a. 정교한, 복잡한
As the Internet became more popular and computer-programming technology became more sophisticated, Internet banking and Internet payment systems emerged.
explosive
a. 폭발적인
The invention of the Internet has brought about an explosive increase in the use of credit cards by making it possible for banks, sellers, and customers to exchange information instantly.
trafficking
n. 밀매
Limiting the use of cash can reduce tax evasion, trafficking, smuggling, robbery, and bribery.
visible
a. 가시적인, 보이는
Some also argue that becoming cash-free makes the national economy more visible; it is easier to see whether or not the government is using money correctly.
convince
v. 확신시키다, 납득시키다
Others are convinced that a cash-free economy must never happen.
inevitable
a. 불가피한, 피할 수 없는
It seems that the global shift to a cash-free economy is inevitable.
disadvantaged
a. 혜택 받지 못한
Will people who are not familiar with modern technology, such as old people, be further disadvantaged?
advancement
n. 발전, 진보
The increase in the number of non-cash transactions has been triggered by the advancement of ICT (Information and Communication Technology).
smuggling
n. 밀수
Limiting the use of cash can reduce tax evasion, trafficking, smuggling, robbery, and bribery.
account for
(부분∙비율을) 차지하다
In 2015, cash transactions accounted for barely 21% of all payments made in Sweden.
disable
v. 작동 못 하게 하다, 사용 불가능하게 하다
It is highly recommended that you disable the functions on your smartphone that show your location, at least when it comes to the social networking apps you use.
traceable
a. 추적할 수 있는
If all transactions are done electronically, they can all be technically traceable by the government.
adapt
v. 적응하다
Already criminals are adapting to new technologies, using electronic card readers to steal money and robbing banks by hacking.
bet
v. 확신하다, 단언하다
You can bet that in the future, they will have new ways to use money that we cannot even imagine now.
bring about
∙∙∙을 일으키다, 초래하다
The invention of the Internet has brought about an explosive increase in the use of credit cards by making it possible for banks, sellers, and customers to exchange information instantly.
phase out
단계적으로 중단[폐지]하다
India decided to phase out all 500 rupee and 1,000 rupee bills in the hope of reducing tax evasion and decreasing black markets.
represent
v. 나타내다, 보여주다
Making a coin often costs more money than the value represented by the coin.
when it comes to
∙∙∙에 관한 한
It is highly recommended that you disable the functions on your smartphone that show your location, at least when it comes to the social networking apps you use.
property
n. 부동산, 재산
Online street views allow burglars to check out their victims’ properties over the Internet.
play out
일어나다
Internet-initiated crime does not always play out online.
commit
v. 저지르다, 범하다
Because electronic transactions are easier to track than cash payments, it makes crimes involving cash harder to commit and easier to discover.
frightening
a. 두려운, 위협적인
This is frightening for anyone who does not believe that the government will use this power wisely and within limits.
debit
n. 인출액, 차변
People in Sweden now need to use a debit card, a credit card, or a payment app instead of cash.
attract
v. 이끌다, 유인하다
The popularity of social media has also attracted criminals.
charity
n. 자선단체
Cards and apps are used for everything in Sweden, including buying snacks on the street and giving small donations to charity.
trigger
v. 촉발시키다, 유발하다
The increase in the number of non-cash transactions has been triggered by the advancement of ICT (Information and Communication Technology).
evasion
n. 회피, 기피
Limiting the use of cash can reduce tax evasion, trafficking, smuggling, robbery, and bribery.
give rise to
∙∙∙을 일으키다, 야기하다
New technologies have given rise to more convenient means of payment.
secure
a. 안전한
Try to be careful about what information you post online, keep all of your software updated, and make secure passwords that are different for each site you log on to.
unsuspecting
a. 의심하지 않는
Social media are ideal sources for criminals to obtain personal information from unsuspecting people.
outdated
a. 구시대적인, 구식의
Swedish people would find it surprising that this outdated man tried to rob a bank at all.
transaction
n. 거래
In 2015, cash transactions accounted for barely 20% of all payments made in Sweden.
shift
n. 변화, 전환
The shift toward cash-free transactions is a global trend.
cite
v. (이유·예를) 들다, 언급하다
People often cite Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart as a child prodigy.
overestimate
v. 과대평가하다
The benefits of earlier mastery are often overestimated.
compel
v. 강요하다, ···하게 만들다
{Compelled] to practice three hours a day from age three on, by age six, the young Wolfgang had practiced an astonishing 3,500 hours.
relatively
ad. 상대적으로, 비교적
Predictions from childhood about adult performance cannot be made based on relatively fixed traits such as IQ and early acquisition of skills.
inaccurate
a. 부정확한, 틀린
When we call a child precocious, we have a very inaccurate definition of what we mean.
rank
v. (등급 ·순위를) 매기다, 평가하다
There were 15 nationally-ranked runners who were 13 and 14 years old.
based on
···에 근거하여
Predictions from childhood about adult performance cannot be made based on relatively fixed traits such as IQ and early acquisition of skills.
prevailing
a. 우세한, 지배적인
The prevailing scientific view was that a person is born with a particular number of neurons, or brain cells, which only decrease with age.
component
n. 구성 요소
Curiosity, resolve, and determination are not particularly fascinating, but they are the more essential components of genius.
attribute
v. (···을 ~의) 결과로[덕분으로] 보다
Young Mozart’s incredible musical ability might better be attributed to practice.
obsession
n. 집착, 사로잡힘
In our obsession with precocity, we are exaggerating the importance of being talented.
innovative
a. 혁신적인, 획기적인
Synapses are the key to intelligence, creativity, and innovative thinking.
go all out
전력을 다하다, 모든 것을 내걸다
Leopold was the 18th-century version of a modern day parent who goes all out to make his or her child a star.
reorganize
v. 재조직하다
Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences.
prominent
a. 중요한, 유명한
None of the Hunter graduates became CEOs of world-famous corporations, prominent politicians, well-known writers, or Nobel Prize winners
flexible
a. 융통성 있는, 탄력적인, 유연한
The brain is a remarkably flexible and dynamic organ.
reproduce
v. 번식하다, 재생하다
Kaplan found that stem cells are transformed into brain cells, not the mature neurons reproducing.
ordinary
a. 보통의, 평범한
There is a long list of historical geniuses who were quite ordinary as children.
gifted
a. 타고난 재능이 있는
Do you think you would be happy being a child prodigy, someone who is truly gifted in something at a very young age?
mastery
n. 숙련, 숙달
The benefits of earlier mastery are often overestimated.
track
v. 추적하다, 뒤쫓다
One is simply to track the achievements of precocious kids.
rewire
v. 배선을 바꾸다, 전선을 갈다
Learning new things stimulates the brain and encourages it to rewire itself and change throughout life.
arrangement
n. 편곡
Mozart's childhood works are basically arrangements of works by other composers.
fate
n. 운명
The fate of the Hunter College child geniuses in the study was not greatness.
have a lot to do with
···와 많은 관련이 있다
Adult success has a lot to do with more than that.
remarkable
a. 주목할 만한, 놀랄만한
Einstein displayed no remarkable native intelligence as a child.
astonishing
a. 정말 놀라운, 믿기 힘든
Compelled to practice three hours a day from age three on, by age six, the young Wolfgang had practiced an astonishing 3,500 hours.
deliberate
a. 의도적인, 계획적인; 신중한
Deliberate practice toward a goal is much more important than natural-born ability.
acquisition
n. 습득
Early acquisition of skills, which is often what we mean by precocity, may be a misleading indicator of later success.
adjust
v. 적응하다, 조절하다
Thirty years down the road, the Hunter graduates were all doing pretty well and were reasonably well adjusted and happy.
indicator
n. 지표, 척도
Early acquisition of skills, which is often what we mean by precocity, may be a misleading indicator of later success.
misleading
a. 오해의 소지가 있는
Early acquisition of skills, which is often what we mean by precocity, may be a misleading indicator of later success.
end up
결국 (어떤 처지에) 처하게 되다
There are many people who either started out good and went bad or started bad and ended up good.
tricky
a. 다루기 힘든, 까다로운
Precocity is a trickier subject than people may ordinarily think.
fixed
a. 고정된, 확고한
Predictions from childhood about adult performance cannot be made based on relatively fixed traits such as IQ and early acquisition of skills.
mature
a. 성숙한, 완전히 자란
Kaplan found that stem cells are transformed into brain cells, not the mature neurons reproducing.
cell
n. 세포
Till recently it was believed that growing new brain cells was simply impossible.
exaggerate
v. 과장하다
In our obsession with precocity, we are exaggerating the importance of being talented.
prodigy
n. 신동, 영재
Do you think you would be happy being a child prodigy, someone who is truly gifted in something at a very young age?
personality trait
성격적 특성
His success seems to have come from certain habits and personality traits — curiosity, resolve, and determination.
cognitive
a. 인지적인
Even a mature brain can grow new neuron by performing cognitive tasks, such as learning and problem solving.
variable
a. 가변적인, 변화를 줄 수 있는
Many of the traits that really matter in predicting adult success are variable traits like creativity, determination, and leadership.
precocious
a. 조숙한, (성격·지식 등이) 발달이 빠른
A study of 200 highly accomplished adults found that just 34 percent had been considered precocious as children.
unfair
a. 불공평한
What makes cognitive biases dangerous is that they prevent us from realizing how unreasonable and unfair ideas may be.
impractical
a. 비실용적인
As a way to live our lives, however, constant control by System 2 is not necessarily good, and it is certainly impractical.
second-guess
v. (결과 등을) 예측하다
System 2 is in charge of second-guessing and controlling our impulses.
migrant
n. 이주자
A newspaper may have a headline saying “EU migrants cost the UK government ₤408.12 per second in public expenditures."
ignorance
n. 무지, 무시
Another task of System 2 is to overcome the impulses and habitual patterns of System 1 when System 1 makes us feel overconfident about what we know and fails to acknowledge our ignorance.
vegetarian
n. 채식주의자
I’m a vegetarian, and I’m convinced that my decision not to eat meat is rational and based on objective research.
confirmation
n. 확신, 확증
The confirmation bias is a type of cognitive bias that involves favoring information that confirms previously existing beliefs or biases.
impulse
n. 충동, 자극
Another task of System 2 is to overcome the impulses and habitual patterns of System 1 when System 1 makes us feel overconfident about what we know and fails to acknowledge our ignorance.
psychology
n. 심리, 심리학
In psychology, the bandwagon effect refers to a phenomenon in which people do something primarily because other people are doing it, regardless of their own beliefs.
revenue
n. 수입, 수익
Another newspaper may write “EU migrants contribute ₤463.35 per second in revenue” as a headline.
interpret
v. 해석하다
The confirmation bias impacts both how people gather information and how they interpret and recall it.
advocate
n. 옹호자, 지지자
I’m a strong advocate for a balanced meat and plant diet.
bias
n. 편견, 편향
The brain’s illogical thinking patterns that make unsound judgments are called cognitive bias.
calculate
v. 계산하다
You can calculate how much a gym membership would cost per month or per year even though the gym owner advertises it as 1,370 won a day.
decisive
a. 결정적인, 중대한
The framing effect is also common in the mass media, where it often has a decisive impact on public opinion.
horrible
a. 끔찍한, 무서운
People wanted to support the popular party because their friends supported the party, in spite of its horrible beliefs and actions.
broadcast
n. 방송 프로그램
When the Nazi party was new and unknown, he used radio broadcasts to make his party appear important and popular.
unreliable
a. 신뢰할 수 없는
Studies in favor of eating meat seem few and unreliable.
discredit
v. 신임을 떨어뜨리다, 의심하다
Paying extra attention to claims that challenge your opinions and attempting to discredit your own beliefs allow you to come to a conclusion in a more objective way.
expenditure
n. 경비, 비용
A newspaper may have a headline saying “EU migrants cost the UK government ₤408.12 per second in public expenditures.
judgment
n. 판단, 평가
The brain’s illogical thinking patterns that make unsound judgments are called cognitive bias.
candidate
n. 후보자
It may cause people to vote for an already popular political candidate without carefully examining his or her character and policies.
hostile
a. 적대적인, 냉담한
A newspaper may have a headline saying “EU migrants cost the UK government ₤408.12 per second in public expenditures,” which will immediately lead many readers to have a hostile attitude toward immigrants.
bandwagon
n. 밴드왜건(악대를 실은 마차); 시류를 탄 움직임
The term “bandwagon” refers to a wagon that carried a band through the crowd.
alter
v. 바꾸다
When manipulation of information succeeds in altering the audience’s decisions or judgments, it is called the framing effect.
unconsciously
ad. 무의식적으로
The confirmation bias makes people unconsciously seek information that matches their own opinions.
ahead
ad. 미리, 앞에
You have to plan ahead and consider all your options.
advisable
a. 타당한, 현명한, 바람직한
That is why it is advisable to be aware of the bandwagon effect and guard yourself against it, even if you eventually decide that “most people” are right.
loyalty
n. 충성(심)
We even become firm in our loyalty to political parties and view them simply in “us” or “them” terms.
immediate
a. 즉각적인
It is most helpful in familiar situations when time is short and immediate action is required.
philosopher
n. 철학자
French philosopher Descartes said, “Except our own thoughts, there is nothing absolutely in our power.”
option
n. 선택, 선택사항
Another way is to consider options and possibilities that are not included in the information.
immigrant
n. 이민자
A newspaper may have a headline saying “EU migrants cost the UK government ₤408.12 per second in public expenditures,”, which will immediately lead many readers to have a hostile attitude toward immigrants.
generate
v. 발생시키다, 야기하다
Another newspaper may write “EU migrants contribute ₤463.35 per second in revenue” as a headline and put the rest later, which will generate a completely different response among its readers.
reflect
v. 곰곰이 생각하다, 심사숙고하다
As Mark Twain said, “Whenever you find yourself on the side of the majority, it is time to pause and reflect.”
avoid
v. 피하다, 모면하다
The best we can do is to learn to recognize situations in which mistakes are likely and try to avoid these mistakes.
manipulation
n. 조작
When manipulation of information succeeds in altering the audience’s decisions or judgments, it is called the framing effect.
contradict
v. 모순되다; 반박하다
When people encounter evidence that contradicts their view, the confirmation bias helps them to interpret it in a way that supports their existing opinion or to dismiss it as unreliable.
phenomenon
n. 현상
In psychology, the bandwagon effect refers to a phenomenon in which people do something primarily because other people are doing it, regardless of their own beliefs.
intuitive
a. 직관적인
System 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional.
trap
n. 덫, 함정
Charles Darwin came up with a golden rule to avoid falling into the trap of the confirmation bias.
faulty
ad. 결점 있는, 불완전한
The confirmation bias prevents us from looking at situations objectively, leading us to make poor or faulty choices.
conform
v. 따르다, 순응하다
Since human beings are social animals, the desire to conform is a part of our nature.
rely on
…에 의존하다
In fact, the human brain is structured in a way that it often prefers relying on a set of illogical thinking patterns instead of following reason all the time.
superior
a. 우월한
According to Kahneman, System 2 clearly produces the superior answers in most situations.
rationally
ad. 이성적으로, 합리적으로
You only had to think rationally, unaffected by biases and emotions.
contribute
v. 기여하다, 공헌하다
Another newspaper may write “EU migrants contribute ₤463.35 per second in revenue” as a headline.
take over
대체하다
System 2 takes over when System 1 runs into difficulty.
firm
a. 확고한
We even become firm in our loyalty to political parties and view them simply in “us” or “them” terms.
dismiss
v. 무시하다
When people encounter evidence that contradicts their view, the confirmation bias helps them to interpret it in a way that supports their existing opinion or to dismiss it as unreliable.
political
a. 정치의
It may cause people to vote for an already popular political candidate without carefully examining his or her character and policies.
habitable
a. 거주할 수 있는, 살기에 적합한
Growing plants in space may help to provide a more habitable environment for humans.
soil
n. 토양, 흙
In order to survive, he grows potatoes in the Martian soil.
reclaim
v. (자원을) 재생(이용)하다
About 93 percent of all water on the ISS is reclaimed from the collected breath, sweat, and even urine of the ISS inhabitants.
collision
n. 충돌
Rocket boosters, pieces that came loose from spacecraft, and particles created by space collisions or explosions are other examples of the types of trash orbiting around Earth.
sensory
a. 감각의
Plants are a living, growing piece of Earth; therefore, their smell and color can inject a bit of sensory variety into an artificial lifeless environment.
microgravity
n. 극미 중력
In the early days of space travel, plants were grown on spacecraft primarily for research purposes – to better understand how they functioned and how they grew under different conditions, such as in microgravity and closed environments.
indispensable
a. 필수적인, 불가결한
This intense light source is indispensable for photosynthesis.
explosion
n. 폭발, 파열
Rocket boosters, pieces that came loose from spacecraft, and particles created by space collisions or explosions are other examples of the types of trash orbiting around Earth.
mass
n. 덩어리
A spacecraft is not going to be able to carry around masses of heavy, dirty stuff that can be used to grow plants in.
emit
v. 발산하다, 방출하다
LEDs emit little heat, so moving them closer to the plants won’t cause the plants to dry out or be burned.
agriculture
n. 농업
Experiments with plant production on the ISS have also proven valuable for agriculture on Earth, especially for areas in which water is scarce, soil is poor, or space is limited.
astronaut
n. 우주 비행사
In the movie The Martian, the hero Mark Watney is an astronaut struggling to stay alive on Mars.
insert
v. 끼워 넣다, 삽입하다
Small wicks that seeds are glued onto are inserted into the bags to soak up the water.
satellite
n. (인공)위성
Mankind’s journey into space began in 1957 when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite.
investigate
v. 조사하다
NASA has seriously started investigating the potential of space-grown plants as a food source for astronauts.
launch
v. 발사하다; 시작하다, 착수하다
Mankind’s journey into space began in 1957 when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite.
reservoir
n. 저장고, 저장실
The Veggie contains plant pillows and a reservoir.
estimate
v. 추정하다
It is estimated that more than 500,000 pieces of trash are now floating through our region of the solar system.
gravity
n. 중력
Plants must have water, soil, gravity, and light, all of which are in short supply on a spacecraft.
spacecraft
n. 우주선
In the early days of space travel, plants were grown on spacecraft primarily for research purposes.
vertical
a. 수직의
Vertical farming with an electric light source is now widely used in many countries.
insight
n. 통찰력, 이해, 식견
Continued experiments in space gardening will give more insight into how plants can be grown successfully in challenging environments.
inhabitant
n. 거주자
About 93 percent of all water on the ISS is reclaimed from the collected breath, sweat, and even urine of the ISS inhabitants.
function
v. 기능하다, 작용하다
In the early days of space travel, plants were grown on spacecraft primarily for research purposes – to better understand how they functioned and how they grew under different conditions, such as in microgravity and closed environments.
soak
v. 흡수하다, 젖다
Small wicks that seeds are glued onto are inserted into the bags to soak up the water.
specifically
ad. 특별히, 특수하게
NASA has developed a special container called a Veggie, which is specifically designed for space-gardening on the ISS.
confined
a. 제한된, 폐쇄된
We have been growing plants in space in the confined environments of various spacecraft for several years.
fertilizer
n. 비료
Plant pillows are bags of dirt, fertilizer, and nutrients.
collector
n. 수집가
Who knows, an occupation for the near future might be as a space trash collector.
inspection
n. 점검, 검사
Scientists have created a space inspection network.
intense
a. 강한, 극도의
This intense light source is indispensable for photosynthesis.
crack
n. 균열, 깨진 틈
One crack was about 1 millimeter in size and was caused by a “space trash particle” about 100 microns in size hitting the window at a high speed.
term
n. 용어
Both terms identify the same items – man-made objects remaining in space though they no longer serve any useful purpose.
fabric
n. 직물, 천
A reservoir of water is at the Veggie’s base, and it is covered with a fabric that allows the water to pass through it.
wick
n. 심지
Small wicks that seeds are glued onto are inserted into the bags to soak up the water.
potential
n. 잠재력, 가능성
NASA has seriously started investigating the potential of space-grown plants as a food source for astronauts.
requirement
n. 요건, 조건
Experiments over the years have been slowly but surely developing ways of growing plants in space with very little of essential requirements.
artificial
a. 인공적인
Plants are a living, growing piece of Earth; therefore, their smell and color can inject a bit of sensory variety into an artificial lifeless environment.
inject
v. ∙∙∙을 주입하다, ∙∙∙을 (~에) 불어 넣다
Plants are a living, growing piece of Earth; therefore, their smell and color can inject a bit of sensory variety into an artificial lifeless environment.
occupation
n. 직업
Who knows, an occupation for the near future might be as a space trash collector.
glue
v. (접착제로) 붙이다
Small wicks that seeds are glued onto are inserted into the bags to soak up the water.
scarce
a. 부족한, 희귀한
Water is especially scarce on the ISS, and the amount used is controlled and recycled as much as possible.
flourish
v. 잘 자라다, 성장하다
The Veggie creates a suitable artificial environment for plants to grow and flourish under conditions of weightlessness.
cooperative
a. 협력하는
Future plans include a cooperative effort among the governments of many nations to stop leaving trash in space and to possibly clean up the trash already there.
transpiration
n. 증산(작용)
While it is not yet happening on a large scale, plants grown on a spacecraft may be used to potentially reduce carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, as well as provide water for drinking through transpiration.
sufficiently
ad. 충분히
The light sourceneeds to be sufficiently strong and directed.
radiation
n. (열∙빛의) 복사, 방사
In a spacecraft, the sun’s solar radiation is usually not best for plant growth because the position of the vehicle is constantly changing.
as long as
∙∙∙하는 한
Plants grow more slowly, but as long as they have a light source above them, they are able to grow in the right direction.
weightlessness
n. 무중력 (상태)
The Veggie creates a suitable artificial environment for plants to grow and flourish under conditions of weightlessness.
orbit
v. (천체의) 주위를 궤도를 그리며 돌다
Some of space trash float in space; much of it orbits Earth.
gross income
총소득, 총수입
It is estimated that the haenyeo were responsible for more than half of the gross income earned by the island's marine industry during the 1960s.
colleague
n. 동료
Although the haenyeo have a strict class relationship and work system, they are colleagues who look out for each other in their rough work environment.
mermaid
n. 인어
To be honest, they look nothing like the young, pretty mermaids in legends.
scenic
a. 경치가 좋은
The jusangjeolli cliffs on the southern coast of Jeju offer visitors a scenic view and are characteristic of the island.
division
n. 구분, 분할
The haenyeo maintain strict class divisions.
ensure
v. 보장하다, 확실하게 하다
They always follow a set route that ensures their own safety as well as the protection of the marine ecosystem.
ecosystem
n. 생태계
They always follow a set route that ensures their own safety as well as the protection of the marine ecosystem.
volcanic
a. 화산의
Apart from its soil, many other results of volcanic activity of the past can be seen across the island.
significance
n. 중요성
Here is the story of their history, their eco-friendly culture, and the significance of their disappearing yet meaningful traditions.
extend
v. 뻗다
The jusangjeolli cliffs are stone columns, which are 30 - 40 meters tall and extend for about 1 kilometer along the coast.
native to
…에 고유한, …가 원산인
These are the Korean haenyeo, women divers or "women of the sea," native to Jeju Island.
exploit
v. 착취하다
As time passed, the amount of abalone demanded as tribute kept increasing, and local officials exploited divers to meet the demand of the government.
rubber
n. 고무
It was not until the 1970s that the haenyeo began to wear the rubber wetsuits instead of mulsojungi, the traditional white tops and shorts made of cotton.
outnumber
v. …보다 수가 많다
This is how, by the 1800s, the female divers of Jeju Island had come to outnumber their male counterparts.
flotation
n. (물 위에) 뜸, 부유
Tewak refers to a round flotation device, often orange in color, that floats on the surface of the water to mark each diver's location.
shellfish
n. 조개류
The haenyeo use an L-shaped tool called a kkakkuri to harvest seafood, such as shellfish, abalone, conch, and seaweed from the ocean floor.
promote
v. 촉진하다, 증진하다
The haenyeo culture has promoted environmental sustainability with its eco-friendly methods of fishing.
tribute
n. 공물, 조공
Similarly, on Jeju Island during the Joseon era, it was a man's job to dive deep enough to pick abalone for royal tribute.
erupt
v. (화산 따위가) 분출하다, 폭발하다
By looking closely, you can see where an underwater volcano erupted and pushed volcanic rock into the layers of the soil deposits.
goggle
n. 고글, (물)안경
With only flippers and underwater goggles but no breathing equipment, the haenyeo have braved the waters for ages.
capability
n. 능력, 재능, 성능
They are divided into three groups, depending on their experience and capability: sanggun (top league), junggun (middle league), and hagun (bottom league).
revival
n. 부활, 재유행
The recent opening of the Jeju Island Haenyeo Museum and multiple haenyeo schools is a step forward in the revival of the haenyeo culture.
sustainability
n. 지속가능성
The haenyeo culture has promoted environmental sustainability with its eco-friendly methods of fishing.
deposit
n. 퇴적물, 침전물
By looking closely, you can see where an underwater volcano erupted and pushed volcanic rock into the layers of the soil deposits.
exclusively
ad. 오로지, 배타적으로
All over the world, diving has long been considered an exclusively male profession.
be prone to
…에 빠지기[걸리기] 쉽다
In a country that is prone to rapid change, the traditional roles of these amazing women may one day fade away.
marine
a. 해양의
It is estimated that the haenyeo were responsible for more than half of the gross income earned by the island's marine industry during the 1960s.
harvest
v. 수확하다
Moving gently underwater in their black wetsuits and weighted belts, these sea-worn women slide along the ocean floor to harvest seafood by hand.
flipper
n. 오리발
With only flippers and underwater goggles but no breathing equipment, the haenyeo have braved the waters for ages.
trace
n. 흔적
Traces of volcanic activity can be clearly seen in Suwolbong.
forbid ... from ~
…가 ~하는 것을 금지하다
When certain sea creatures are reproducing, the haenyeo forbid themselves from taking any of those creatures.
counterpart
n. 상대, 대응 관계에 있는 사람
This is how, by the 1800s, the female divers of Jeju Island had come to outnumber their male counterparts.
fade away
사라지다
In a country that is incredibly prone to rapid change, the traditional roles of these amazing women may one day fade away.
lava
n. 용암
Black represents hyeonmuam made during the rapid cooling process of lava.
look out for
…를 보살피다, …를 지키다
Although the haenyeo have a strict class relationship and work system, they are colleagues who look out for each other in their rough work environment.
cling to
…에 매달리다
After one or two minutes underwater, they swim to the top and put their catch into a net clinging to a tewak.
column
n. 기둥
The jusangjeolli cliffs are stone columns, which are 30 - 40 meters tall and extend for about 1 kilometer along the coast.
show off
과시하다
They are a group of elderly women who have little interest in showing off their fair skin or flowing long hair.
grasp
v. 이해하다, 파악하다; 꽉 붙잡다
Without knowing about the haenyeo, a visitor to Jeju Island cannot fully grasp the society, culture, and history of the island.
consultation
n. 협의, 상의
The grocer’s stocks of salt, fish, and beef change with every change of mind, every consultation.
temporary
a. 일시적인
How could they know that nothing is temporary, that all will happen again?
conception
n. 개념
What conception of time do we live in here and now?
delicate
a. 우아한, 섬세한
At first, the catchers delight in the moment so frozen but soon discover that the nightingale dies, its clear, delicate song diminishes to silence.
capture
v. 붙잡다, 포획하다
They long to capture a single minute at the breakfast table drinking tea.
vaguely
ad. 흐릿하게, 어렴풋이
Some few people in every town, in their dreams, are vaguely aware that everything has already occurred in the past.
long to
…하기를 갈망하다
They long to capture a single minute at the breakfast table drinking tea.
enterprise
n. 사업, 기업
When a man starts a business, he feels compelled to talk it over with his grandparents to learn from their errors, for no new enterprise is new.
treasure
v. 소중히 여기다, 귀하게 여기다
Parents treasure the first laugh from their child as if they will not hear it again.
split
v. 나뉘다, 갈라지다
The forest path splits into two at this point.
sneak
v. 살금살금 가다, 몰래 가다
Coming home late, she had to sneak into the house in order not to wake her family up.
flock
n. 무리, 떼
Suddenly a flock of birds fly overhead.
infinite
a. 무한한, 한계가 없는
It is said that there might be an infinite number of planets in the universe.
precisely
ad. 정확히
The world repeats itself, precisely, endlessly.
engagement
n. 약혼
Engagements end just days before weddings.
fade
v. 서서히 사라지다, 점점 희미해지다
At first, the catchers delight in the moment so frozen but soon discover that the nightingale dies and the trapped moment fades and dies.
theory
n. 이론
In the novel, Albert Einstein is a young scientist who is troubled by dreams as he works on his theory of relativity in 1905.
halt
v. 멈추다, 세우다
The elderly desperately wish to halt time, but they are much too slow and too tired to entrap any bird.
entrap
v. 덫으로 잡다, 함정에 빠트리다
Without entrapping a bird, she drops her jar to the ground and begins to cry.
turn to
…에 의지하다
Sons and daughters cannot turn to parents for confident advice.
peer
v. 유심히 보다, 응시하다
On the avenues and streets, people turn their heads and peer behind their backs to see who might be watching.
merge
v. 합치다, 융합되다
The bird swiftly merges with the flock.
swiftly
ad. 신속히, 재빨리
The bird swiftly merges with the flock.
sigh
n. 한숨
In each town, late at night, the empty streets fill up with their sighs of sadness.
indefinite
a. 분명히 규정되지 않은, 애매한, 막연한
Where every action must be proven one million times, life is indefinite.
misjudgment
n. 그릇된 판단, 오판
These are the people with unhappy lives, and they sense that their misjudgments and wrong acts and bad luck have all taken place in a previous circle of time.
cursed
a. 저주받은
These cursed citizens struggle with their bed-sheets, unable to rest, stricken with the knowledge that they cannot change a single action, a single gesture.
immortality
v. 영생, 불멸
Everything must be proven over and over again. As a result, people feel uneasy, and this becomes the cost of their immortality.
학생
가장 빠르게 암기하도록 도와주는 암기학습 〉
제대로 외웠나 바로 확인하는 리콜학습 〉
철자까지 외우려면 스펠학습 〉
재미있게 복습하려면 매칭 게임 〉
주관식으로도 재미있는 복습, 크래시 게임 〉
선생님
수업 중 이 단어장을 보고 듣고 질문하는 슬라이드 〉
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