YBM 고등 영어Ⅱ 한상호 2학기
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세트공유
philosopher
n. 철학자
French philosopher Descartes said, “Except our own thoughts, there is nothing absolutely in our power.”
rationally
ad. 이성적으로, 합리적으로
You only had to think rationally, unaffected by biases and emotions.
rely on
…에 의존하다
In fact, the human brain is structured in a way that it often prefers relying on a set of illogical thinking patterns instead of following reason all the time.
judgment
n. 판단, 평가
The brain’s illogical thinking patterns that make unsound judgments are called cognitive bias.
cognitive
a. 인지의
The brain’s illogical thinking patterns that make unsound judgments are called cognitive bias.
bias
n. 편견, 편향
The brain’s illogical thinking patterns that make unsound judgments are called cognitive bias.
confirmation
n. 확신, 확증
The confirmation bias is a type of cognitive bias that involves favoring information that confirms previously existing beliefs or biases.
vegetarian
n. 채식주의자
I’m a vegetarian, and I’m convinced that my decision not to eat meat is rational and based on objective research.
convince
v. 확신시키다, 설득하다
I’m a vegetarian, and I’m convinced that my decision not to eat meat is rational and based on objective research.
unreliable
a. 신뢰할 수 없는
Studies in favor of eating meat seem few and unreliable.
advocate
n. 옹호자, 지지자
I’m a strong advocate for a balanced meat and plant diet.
interpret
v. 해석하다
The confirmation bias impacts both how people gather information and how they interpret and recall it.
unconsciously
ad. 무의식적으로
The confirmation bias makes people unconsciously seek information that matches their own opinions.
contradict
v. 모순되다; 반박하다
When people encounter evidence that contradicts their view, the confirmation bias helps them to interpret it in a way that supports their existing opinion or to dismiss it as unreliable.
dismiss
v. 무시하다
When people encounter evidence that contradicts their view, the confirmation bias helps them to interpret it in a way that supports their existing opinion or to dismiss it as unreliable.
faulty
ad. 결점 있는, 불완전한
The confirmation bias prevents us from looking at situations objectively, leading us to make poor or faulty choices.
attribute
n. 속성, 특성
Racism is a dangerous human attribute that is essentially found in all societies.
firm
a. 확고한
We even become firm in our loyalty to political parties and view them simply in “us” or “them” terms.
loyalty
n. 충성(심)
We even become firm in our loyalty to political parties and view them simply in “us” or “them” terms.
trap
n. 덫, 함정
Charles Darwin came up with a golden rule to avoid falling into the trap of the confirmation bias.
discredit
v. 신임을 떨어뜨리다, 의심하다
Paying extra attention to claims that challenge your opinions and attempting to discredit your own beliefs allow you to come to a conclusion in a more objective way.
bandwagon
n. 밴드왜건(악대를 실은 마차); 시류를 탄 움직임
The term “bandwagon” refers to a wagon that carried a band through the crowd.
psychology
n. 심리, 심리학
In psychology, the bandwagon effect refers to a phenomenon in which people do something primarily because other people are doing it, regardless of their own beliefs.
phenomenon
n. 현상
In psychology, the bandwagon effect refers to a phenomenon in which people do something primarily because other people are doing it, regardless of their own beliefs.
conform
v. 따르다, 순응하다
Since human beings are social animals, the desire to conform is a part of our nature.
political
a. 정치의
It may cause people to vote for an already popular political candidate without carefully examining his or her character and policies.
candidate
n. 후보자
It may cause people to vote for an already popular political candidate without carefully examining his or her character and policies.
broadcast
n. 방송 프로그램
When the Nazi party was new and unknown, he used radio broadcasts to make his party appear important and popular.
horrible
a. 끔찍한, 무서운
People wanted to support the popular party because their friends supported the party, in spite of its horrible beliefs and actions.
advisable
a. 타당한, 현명한, 바람직한
That is why it is advisable to be aware of the bandwagon effect and guard yourself against it, even if you eventually decide that “most people” are right.
reflect
v. 곰곰이 생각하다, 심사숙고하다
As Mark Twain said, “Whenever you find yourself on the side of the majority, it is time to pause and reflect.”
manipulation
n. 조작
When manipulation of information succeeds in altering the audience’s decisions or judgments, it is called the framing effect.
alter
v. 바꾸다
When manipulation of information succeeds in altering the audience’s decisions or judgments, it is called the framing effect.
decisive
a. 결정적인, 중대한
The framing effect is also common in the mass media, where it often has a decisive impact on public opinion.
migrant
n. 이주자
A newspaper may have a headline saying “EU migrants cost the UK government ₤408.12 per second in public expenditures."
expenditure
n. 경비, 비용
A newspaper may have a headline saying “EU migrants cost the UK government ₤408.12 per second in public expenditures.
contribute
v. 기여하다, 공헌하다
Another newspaper may write “EU migrants contribute ₤463.35 per second in revenue” as a headline.
revenue
n. 수입, 수익
Another newspaper may write “EU migrants contribute ₤463.35 per second in revenue” as a headline.
hostile
a. 적대적인, 냉담한
A newspaper may have a headline saying “EU migrants cost the UK government ₤408.12 per second in public expenditures,” which will immediately lead many readers to have a hostile attitude toward immigrants.
immigrant
n. 이민자
A newspaper may have a headline saying “EU migrants cost the UK government ₤408.12 per second in public expenditures,”, which will immediately lead many readers to have a hostile attitude toward immigrants.
generate
v. 발생시키다, 야기하다
Another newspaper may write “EU migrants contribute ₤463.35 per second in revenue” as a headline and put the rest later, which will generate a completely different response among its readers.
calculate
v. 계산하다
You can calculate how much a gym membership would cost per month or per year even though the gym owner advertises it as 1,370 won a day.
option
n. 선택, 선택사항
Another way is to consider options and possibilities that are not included in the information.
unfair
a. 불공평한
What makes cognitive biases dangerous is that they prevent us from realizing how unreasonable and unfair ideas may be.
deliberate
a. 신중한, 의도적인
The product of 17 and 24, however, uses System 2 — slow, deliberate thinking that you have to practice.
intuitive
a. 직관적인
System 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional.
immediate
a. 즉각적인
It is most helpful in familiar situations when time is short and immediate action is required.
ahead
ad. 미리, 앞에
You have to plan ahead and consider all your options.
take over
대체하다
System 2 takes over when System 1 runs into difficulty.
impulse
n. 충동, 자극
Another task of System 2 is to overcome the impulses and habitual patterns of System 1 when System 1 makes us feel overconfident about what we know and fails to acknowledge our ignorance.
ignorance
n. 무지, 무시
Another task of System 2 is to overcome the impulses and habitual patterns of System 1 when System 1 makes us feel overconfident about what we know and fails to acknowledge our ignorance.
second-guess
v. (결과 등을) 예측하다
System 2 is in charge of second-guessing and controlling our impulses.
superior
a. 우월한
According to Kahneman, System 2 clearly produces the superior answers in most situations.
impractical
a. 비실용적인
As a way to live our lives, however, constant control by System 2 is not necessarily good, and it is certainly impractical.
avoid
v. 피하다, 모면하다
The best we can do is to learn to recognize situations in which mistakes are likely and try to avoid these mistakes.
astronaut
n. 우주 비행사
In the movie The Martian, the hero Mark Watney is an astronaut struggling to stay alive on Mars.
soil
n. 토양, 흙
In order to survive, he grows potatoes in the Martian soil.
confined
a. 제한된, 폐쇄된
We have been growing plants in space in the confined environments of various spacecraft for several years.
spacecraft
n. 우주선
In the early days of space travel, plants were grown on spacecraft primarily for research purposes.
function
v. 기능하다, 작용하다
In the early days of space travel, plants were grown on spacecraft primarily for research purposes – to better understand how they functioned and how they grew under different conditions, such as in microgravity and closed environments.
microgravity
n. 극미 중력
In the early days of space travel, plants were grown on spacecraft primarily for research purposes – to better understand how they functioned and how they grew under different conditions, such as in microgravity and closed environments.
investigate
v. 조사하다
NASA has seriously started investigating the potential of space-grown plants as a food source for astronauts.
potential
n. 잠재력, 가능성
NASA has seriously started investigating the potential of space-grown plants as a food source for astronauts.
inject
v. ∙∙∙을 주입하다, ∙∙∙을 (~에) 불어 넣다
Plants are a living, growing piece of Earth; therefore, their smell and color can inject a bit of sensory variety into an artificial lifeless environment.
sensory
a. 감각의
Plants are a living, growing piece of Earth; therefore, their smell and color can inject a bit of sensory variety into an artificial lifeless environment.
artificial
a. 인공적인
Plants are a living, growing piece of Earth; therefore, their smell and color can inject a bit of sensory variety into an artificial lifeless environment.
transpiration
n. 증산(작용)
While it is not yet happening on a large scale, plants grown on a spacecraft may be used to potentially reduce carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, as well as provide water for drinking through transpiration.
habitable
a. 거주할 수 있는, 살기에 적합한
Growing plants in space may help to provide a more habitable environment for humans.
gravity
n. 중력
Plants must have water, soil, gravity, and light, all of which are in short supply on a spacecraft.
requirement
n. 요건, 조건
Experiments over the years have been slowly but surely developing ways of growing plants in space with very little of essential requirements.
scarce
a. 부족한, 희귀한
Water is especially scarce on the ISS, and the amount used is controlled and recycled as much as possible.
reclaim
v. (자원을) 재생(이용)하다
About 93 percent of all water on the ISS is reclaimed from the collected breath, sweat, and even urine of the ISS inhabitants.
inhabitant
n. 거주자
About 93 percent of all water on the ISS is reclaimed from the collected breath, sweat, and even urine of the ISS inhabitants.
mass
n. 덩어리
A spacecraft is not going to be able to carry around masses of heavy, dirty stuff that can be used to grow plants in.
specifically
ad. 특별히, 특수하게
NASA has developed a special container called a Veggie, which is specifically designed for space-gardening on the ISS.
flourish
v. 잘 자라다, 성장하다
The Veggie creates a suitable artificial environment for plants to grow and flourish under conditions of weightlessness.
weightlessness
n. 무중력 (상태)
The Veggie creates a suitable artificial environment for plants to grow and flourish under conditions of weightlessness.
reservoir
n. 저장고, 저장실
The Veggie contains plant pillows and a reservoir.
fertilizer
n. 비료
Plant pillows are bags of dirt, fertilizer, and nutrients.
wick
n. 심지
Small wicks that seeds are glued onto are inserted into the bags to soak up the water.
glue
v. (접착제로) 붙이다
Small wicks that seeds are glued onto are inserted into the bags to soak up the water.
insert
v. 끼워 넣다, 삽입하다
Small wicks that seeds are glued onto are inserted into the bags to soak up the water.
soak
v. 흡수하다, 젖다
Small wicks that seeds are glued onto are inserted into the bags to soak up the water.
fabric
n. 직물, 천
A reservoir of water is at the Veggie’s base, and it is covered with a fabric that allows the water to pass through it.
as long as
∙∙∙하는 한
Plants grow more slowly, but as long as they have a light source above them, they are able to grow in the right direction.
sufficiently
ad. 충분히
The light sourceneeds to be sufficiently strong and directed.
intense
a. 강한, 극도의
This intense light source is indispensable for photosynthesis.
indispensable
a. 필수적인, 불가결한
This intense light source is indispensable for photosynthesis.
radiation
n. (열∙빛의) 복사, 방사
In a spacecraft, the sun’s solar radiation is usually not best for plant growth because the position of the vehicle is constantly changing.
emit
v. 발산하다, 방출하다
LEDs emit little heat, so moving them closer to the plants won’t cause the plants to dry out or be burned.
agriculture
n. 농업
Experiments with plant production on the ISS have also proven valuable for agriculture on Earth, especially for areas in which water is scarce, soil is poor, or space is limited.
vertical
a. 수직의
Vertical farming with an electric light source is now widely used in many countries.
insight
n. 통찰력, 이해, 식견
Continued experiments in space gardening will give more insight into how plants can be grown successfully in challenging environments.
orbit
v. (천체의) 주위를 궤도를 그리며 돌다
Some of space trash float in space; much of it orbits Earth.
term
n. 용어
Both terms identify the same items – man-made objects remaining in space though they no longer serve any useful purpose.
launch
v. 발사하다; 시작하다, 착수하다
Mankind’s journey into space began in 1957 when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite.
satellite
n. (인공)위성
Mankind’s journey into space began in 1957 when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite.
estimate
v. 추정하다
It is estimated that more than 500,000 pieces of trash are now floating through our region of the solar system.
collision
n. 충돌
Rocket boosters, pieces that came loose from spacecraft, and particles created by space collisions or explosions are other examples of the types of trash orbiting around Earth.
explosion
n. 폭발, 파열
Rocket boosters, pieces that came loose from spacecraft, and particles created by space collisions or explosions are other examples of the types of trash orbiting around Earth.
crack
n. 균열, 깨진 틈
One crack was about 1 millimeter in size and was caused by a “space trash particle” about 100 microns in size hitting the window at a high speed.
inspection
n. 점검, 검사
Scientists have created a space inspection network.
cooperative
a. 협력하는
Future plans include a cooperative effort among the governments of many nations to stop leaving trash in space and to possibly clean up the trash already there.
occupation
n. 직업
Who knows, an occupation for the near future might be as a space trash collector.
collector
n. 수집가
Who knows, an occupation for the near future might be as a space trash collector.
mermaid
n. 인어
To be honest, they look nothing like the young, pretty mermaids in legends.
show off
과시하다
They are a group of elderly women who have little interest in showing off their fair skin or flowing long hair.
native to
…에 고유한, …가 원산인
These are the Korean haenyeo, women divers or "women of the sea," native to Jeju Island.
harvest
v. 수확하다
Moving gently underwater in their black wetsuits and weighted belts, these sea-worn women slide along the ocean floor to harvest seafood by hand.
flipper
n. 오리발
With only flippers and underwater goggles but no breathing equipment, the haenyeo have braved the waters for ages.
goggle
n. 고글, (물)안경
With only flippers and underwater goggles but no breathing equipment, the haenyeo have braved the waters for ages.
significance
n. 중요성
Here is the story of their history, their eco-friendly culture, and the significance of their disappearing yet meaningful traditions.
exclusively
ad. 오로지, 배타적으로
All over the world, diving has long been considered an exclusively male profession.
tribute
n. 공물, 조공
Similarly, on Jeju Island during the Joseon era, it was a man's job to dive deep enough to pick abalone for royal tribute.
exploit
v. 착취하다
As time passed, the amount of abalone demanded as tribute kept increasing, and local officials exploited divers to meet the demand of the government.
outnumber
v. …보다 수가 많다
This is how, by the 1800s, the female divers of Jeju Island had come to outnumber their male counterparts.
counterpart
n. 상대, 대응 관계에 있는 사람
This is how, by the 1800s, the female divers of Jeju Island had come to outnumber their male counterparts.
gross income
총소득, 총수입
It is estimated that the haenyeo were responsible for more than half of the gross income earned by the island's marine industry during the 1960s.
marine
a. 해양의
It is estimated that the haenyeo were responsible for more than half of the gross income earned by the island's marine industry during the 1960s.
rubber
n. 고무
It was not until the 1970s that the haenyeo began to wear the rubber wetsuits instead of mulsojungi, the traditional white tops and shorts made of cotton.
relatively
ad. 비교적, 상대적으로
The black rubber wetsuit she wears is a relatively new invention.
shellfish
n. 조개류
The haenyeo use an L-shaped tool called a kkakkuri to harvest seafood, such as shellfish, abalone, conch, and seaweed from the ocean floor.
cling to
…에 매달리다
After one or two minutes underwater, they swim to the top and put their catch into a net clinging to a tewak.
flotation
n. (물 위에) 뜸, 부유
Tewak refers to a round flotation device, often orange in color, that floats on the surface of the water to mark each diver's location.
division
n. 구분, 분할
The haenyeo maintain strict class divisions.
capability
n. 능력, 재능, 성능
They are divided into three groups, depending on their experience and capability: sanggun (top league), junggun (middle league), and hagun (bottom league).
colleague
n. 동료
Although the haenyeo have a strict class relationship and work system, they are colleagues who look out for each other in their rough work environment.
look out for
…를 보살피다, …를 지키다
Although the haenyeo have a strict class relationship and work system, they are colleagues who look out for each other in their rough work environment.
ensure
v. 보장하다, 확실하게 하다
They always follow a set route that ensures their own safety as well as the protection of the marine ecosystem.
ecosystem
n. 생태계
They always follow a set route that ensures their own safety as well as the protection of the marine ecosystem.
promote
v. 촉진하다, 증진하다
The haenyeo culture has promoted environmental sustainability with its eco-friendly methods of fishing.
sustainability
n. 지속가능성
The haenyeo culture has promoted environmental sustainability with its eco-friendly methods of fishing.
forbid ... from ~
…가 ~하는 것을 금지하다
When certain sea creatures are reproducing, the haenyeo forbid themselves from taking any of those creatures.
grasp
v. 이해하다, 파악하다; 꽉 붙잡다
Without knowing about the haenyeo, a visitor to Jeju Island cannot fully grasp the society, culture, and history of the island.
revival
n. 부활, 재유행
The recent opening of the Jeju Island Haenyeo Museum and multiple haenyeo schools is a step forward in the revival of the haenyeo culture.
be prone to
…에 빠지기[걸리기] 쉽다
In a country that is prone to rapid change, the traditional roles of these amazing women may one day fade away.
fade away
사라지다
In a country that is incredibly prone to rapid change, the traditional roles of these amazing women may one day fade away.
volcanic
a. 화산의
Apart from its soil, many other results of volcanic activity of the past can be seen across the island.
erupt
v. (화산 따위가) 분출하다, 폭발하다
By looking closely, you can see where an underwater volcano erupted and pushed volcanic rock into the layers of the soil deposits.
deposit
n. 퇴적물, 침전물
By looking closely, you can see where an underwater volcano erupted and pushed volcanic rock into the layers of the soil deposits.
trace
n. 흔적
Traces of volcanic activity can be clearly seen in Suwolbong.
lava
n. 용암
Black represents hyeonmuam made during the rapid cooling process of lava.
scenic
a. 경치가 좋은
The jusangjeolli cliffs on the southern coast of Jeju offer visitors a scenic view and are characteristic of the island.
column
n. 기둥
The jusangjeolli cliffs are stone columns, which are 30 - 40 meters tall and extend for about 1 kilometer along the coast.
extend
v. 뻗다
The jusangjeolli cliffs are stone columns, which are 30 - 40 meters tall and extend for about 1 kilometer along the coast.
theory
n. 이론
In the novel, Albert Einstein is a young scientist who is troubled by dreams as he works on his theory of relativity in 1905.
conception
n. 개념
What conception of time do we live in here and now?
precisely
ad. 정확히
The world repeats itself, precisely, endlessly.
treasure
v. 소중히 여기다, 귀하게 여기다
Parents treasure the first laugh from their child as if they will not hear it again.
temporary
a. 일시적인
How could they know that nothing is temporary, that all will happen again?
vaguely
ad. 흐릿하게, 어렴풋이
Some few people in every town, in their dreams, are vaguely aware that everything has already occurred in the past.
misjudgment
n. 그릇된 판단, 오판
These are the people with unhappy lives, and they sense that their misjudgments and wrong acts and bad luck have all taken place in a previous circle of time.
cursed
a. 저주받은
These cursed citizens struggle with their bed-sheets, unable to rest, stricken with the knowledge that they cannot change a single action, a single gesture.
sigh
n. 한숨
In each town, late at night, the empty streets fill up with their sighs of sadness.
split
v. 나뉘다, 갈라지다
The forest path splits into two at this point.
infinite
a. 무한한, 한계가 없는
It is said that there might be an infinite number of planets in the universe.
enterprise
n. 사업, 기업
When a man starts a business, he feels compelled to talk it over with his grandparents to learn from their errors, for no new enterprise is new.
turn to
…에 의지하다
Sons and daughters cannot turn to parents for confident advice.
indefinite
a. 분명히 규정되지 않은, 애매한, 막연한
Where every action must be proven one million times, life is indefinite.
consultation
n. 협의, 상의
The grocer’s stocks of salt, fish, and beef change with every change of mind, every consultation.
engagement
n. 약혼
Engagements end just days before weddings.
peer
v. 유심히 보다, 응시하다
On the avenues and streets, people turn their heads and peer behind their backs to see who might be watching.
immortality
v. 영생, 불멸
Everything must be proven over and over again. As a result, people feel uneasy, and this becomes the cost of their immortality.
flock
n. 무리, 떼
Suddenly a flock of birds fly overhead.
sneak
v. 살금살금 가다, 몰래 가다
Coming home late, she had to sneak into the house in order not to wake her family up.
swiftly
ad. 신속히, 재빨리
The bird swiftly merges with the flock.
merge
v. 합치다, 융합되다
The bird swiftly merges with the flock.
entrap
v. 덫으로 잡다, 함정에 빠트리다
Without entrapping a bird, she drops her jar to the ground and begins to cry.
halt
v. 멈추다, 세우다
The elderly desperately wish to halt time, but they are much too slow and too tired to entrap any bird.
long to
…하기를 갈망하다
They long to capture a single minute at the breakfast table drinking tea.
capture
v. 붙잡다, 포획하다
They long to capture a single minute at the breakfast table drinking tea.
delicate
a. 우아한, 섬세한
At first, the catchers delight in the moment so frozen but soon discover that the nightingale dies, its clear, delicate song diminishes to silence.
fade
v. 서서히 사라지다, 점점 희미해지다
At first, the catchers delight in the moment so frozen but soon discover that the nightingale dies and the trapped moment fades and dies.
학생
가장 빠르게 암기하도록 도와주는 암기학습 〉
제대로 외웠나 바로 확인하는 리콜학습 〉
철자까지 외우려면 스펠학습 〉
재미있게 복습하려면 매칭 게임 〉
주관식으로도 재미있는 복습, 크래시 게임 〉
선생님
수업 중 이 단어장을 보고 듣고 질문하는 슬라이드 〉
수업시간이 들썩 들썩 퀴즈배틀 (로그인) 〉
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