YBM 고등 영어Ⅱ 한상호 1학기
129 카드 | ybmadmin
세트공유
cluster
n. 군집
These creatures are clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as on the surface or in the deep layers of the skin, in the mouth and the nose, and in the lungs and the stomach.
reside
v. 살다, 거주하다
The greatest number of bacteria, about 100 trillion that weigh up to 2 kg, reside in the gut.
gut
n. (내)장
The greatest number of bacteria, about 100 trillion that weigh up to 2 kg, reside in the gut.
crucial
a. 중대한
This may sound somewhat frightening, but these bacteria have a crucial and positive influence on our health.
microbe
n. 미생물
The first scientist who paid attention to these microbes in the gut and their importance was Ilya Mechinikov, who won the Nobel Prize in 1908 for his studies on the immune system.
immune
a. 면역의
The first scientist who paid attention to these microbes in the gut and their importance was Ilya Mechinikov, who won the Nobel Prize in 1908 for his studies on the immune system.
sweep
v. 휩쓸다
He was living in Paris in the late 19th century when thousands of people were suffering from cholera, a disease that was sweeping the European continent.
intrigue
v. 흥미를 돋우다
Intrigued, he decided to increase his sample size and recruited a colleague to do the same.
recruit
v. 모집하다
Intrigued, he decided to increase his sample size and recruited a colleague to do the same.
microscope
n. 현미경
By studying cholera under the microscope, Mechinikov found that certain species of bacteria from the human gut supported and stimulated the cholera’s growth, while other species prevented it.
species
n. (생물 분류상의) 종
By studying cholera under the microscope, Mechinikov found that certain species of bacteria from the human gut supported and stimulated the cholera’s growth, while other species prevented it.
stimulate
v. 자극하다
By studying cholera under the microscope, Mechinikov found that certain species of bacteria from the human gut supported and stimulated the cholera’s growth, while other species prevented it.
antibiotic
n. 항생제
A decade later, antibiotics were discovered.
germ
n. 세균
Antibiotics have saved countless lives by giving doctors and scientists the means to kill harmful germs that infect wounds, cause deadly diseases, and spread through food.
infect
v. 감염시키다
Antibiotics have saved countless lives by giving doctors and scientists the means to kill harmful germs that infect wounds, cause deadly diseases, and spread through food.
wage
v. (전쟁 등을) 벌이다
A war has been waged on microbes, and people have spent almost a century trying to kill them.
deficiency
n. 결핍
Unfortunately, this attitude has had harmful effects on health, resulting in a rise in allergies and immune deficiencies.
occupy
v. 차지하다
By occupying our bodies first, they prevent harmful germs from growing there.
facilitate
v. 증진시키다, 촉진하다
They also facilitate our immune system by distinguishing between good substances that should be allowed into our bodies and harmful ones that should be rejected.
distinguish
v. 구별하다
They also facilitate our immune system by distinguishing between good substances that should be allowed into our bodies and harmful ones that should be rejected.
reject
v. 거절하다, 거부하다
They also facilitate our immune system by distinguishing between good substances that should be allowed into our bodies and harmful ones that should be rejected.
insufficient
a. 불충분한
Therefore, having insufficient germs or losing important ones leads to various health problems.
absorb
v. 흡수하다
If they are absent, it is difficult to absorb certain vegetables and milk, which eventually leads to an unbalanced diet and poorer health.
toxic
a. 유독한, 독성의
Some microbes in the gut determine whether particular drugs are toxic to the liver and whether or not other drugs will work to combat a heart condition.
combat
v. (나쁜 일을 방지하기 위해) 싸우다
Some microbes in the gut determine whether particular drugs are toxic to the liver and whether or not other drugs will work to combat a heart condition.
regulate
v. 규제하다
Other microbes regulate the appetite hormone, which makes a person feel full or hungry.
appetite
n. 식욕
Other microbes regulate the appetite hormone, which makes a person feel full or hungry.
transplant
v. 이식하다
One recent study found that transplanting a lean mouse’s gut bacteria into an overweight mouse’s stomach made the overweight mouse lose weight.
diarrhea
n. 설사
There were people who had a terrible form of diarrhea, so they had to go to the bathroom up to 20 times a day.
donor
n. 기증자
Researchers transplanted some of the good microbes from a healthy donor into these patients’ guts.
cultivate
v. 기르다, 재배하다
By eating foods that contain beneficial bacteria, such as yogurt, gimchi, and natto, or choosing a diet packed with good, fresh nutrients, such as garlic, onions, and unprocessed grains rich in fiber, we can cultivate good microbes.
be abundant with
…이 풍부하다
Places with diverse life forms, such as woods, beaches, parks, or even small farms and gardens, are abundant with diverse bacteria that germ-free urban environments lack.
urban
a. 도시의
Places with diverse life forms, such as woods, beaches, parks, or even small farms and gardens, are abundant with diverse bacteria that germ-free urban environments lack.
eliminate
v. 제거하다
Although antibiotics play a crucial role in keeping us healthy by eliminating dangerous germs, they cannot tell good bacteria from bad ones.
tell ... from ~
~으로부터 …을 구별하다
Although antibiotics play a crucial role in keeping us healthy by eliminating dangerous germs, they cannot tell good bacteria from bad ones.
get rid of
없애다
Therefore, whenever we use antibiotics, we inevitably damage beneficial bacteria as well as the harmful bacteria that we want to get rid of.
make sense
말이 되다, 이치에 맞다
If we can affect microbes and they can affect our bodies, it doesn't make sense to talk about the two separately.
separately
ad. 따로, 별도로
If we can affect microbes and they can affect our bodies, it makes little sense to talk about the two separately.
neuron
n. 뉴런, 신경 세포
We need to start thinking of the microbes in our guts as a part of our bodies, like the blood cells and the neurons, and take care of them just as we take care of our skin and our teeth.
undergo
v. 겪다, 경험하다
Just like any other organisms, individual bacteria can undergo random mutations.
mutation
n. 돌연변이
Just like any other organisms, individual bacteria can undergo random mutations.
resistant
a. 저항력이 있는
However, sometimes the mutation makes the bacteria resistant to a certain antibiotic.
prosper
v. 번영하다
As the non-resistant bacteria are killed off by the antibiotics we use, there is more room for the resistant ones to prosper.
multiply
v. 증식하다
Over time, as the resistant genes among bacteria multiply, super bacteria that can resist multiple antibiotics can emerge.
novel
a. 새로운
Scientists are trying to develop novel antibiotics that can kill super bacteria.
transmit
v. 전염시키다
Giving animals antibiotics to prevent illness or promote growth can generate resistance in animal bacteria that can later be transmitted to humans.
antibacterial
a. 항균의
In the home, antibacterial cleaning products such as household cleaners or bath products can lead to antibiotic resistance.
outdated
a. 구시대적인, 구식의
Swedish people would find it surprising that this outdated man tried to rob a bank at all.
debit
n. 인출액, 차변
People in Sweden now need to use a debit card, a credit card, or a payment app instead of cash.
charity
n. 자선단체
Cards and apps are used for everything in Sweden, including buying snacks on the street and giving small donations to charity.
transaction
n. 거래
In 2015, cash transactions accounted for barely 20% of all payments made in Sweden.
account for
(부분∙비율을) 차지하다
In 2015, cash transactions accounted for barely 21% of all payments made in Sweden.
suspicion
n. 의혹, 의심
Carrying around too much cash or trying to use it too often raises suspicions.
shift
n. 변화, 전환
The shift toward cash-free transactions is a global trend.
trigger
v. 촉발시키다, 유발하다
The increase in the number of non-cash transactions has been triggered by the advancement of ICT (Information and Communication Technology).
advancement
n. 발전, 진보
The increase in the number of non-cash transactions has been triggered by the advancement of ICT (Information and Communication Technology).
give rise to
∙∙∙을 일으키다, 야기하다
New technologies have given rise to more convenient means of payment.
bring about
∙∙∙을 일으키다, 초래하다
The invention of the Internet has brought about an explosive increase in the use of credit cards by making it possible for banks, sellers, and customers to exchange information instantly.
explosive
a. 폭발적인
The invention of the Internet has brought about an explosive increase in the use of credit cards by making it possible for banks, sellers, and customers to exchange information instantly.
sophisticated
a. 정교한, 복잡한
As the Internet became more popular and computer-programming technology became more sophisticated, Internet banking and Internet payment systems emerged.
inevitable
a. 불가피한, 피할 수 없는
It seems that the global shift to a cash-free economy is inevitable.
commit
v. 저지르다, 범하다
Because electronic transactions are easier to track than cash payments, it makes crimes involving cash harder to commit and easier to discover.
evasion
n. 회피, 기피
Limiting the use of cash can reduce tax evasion, trafficking, smuggling, robbery, and bribery.
trafficking
n. 밀매
Limiting the use of cash can reduce tax evasion, trafficking, smuggling, robbery, and bribery.
smuggling
n. 밀수
Limiting the use of cash can reduce tax evasion, trafficking, smuggling, robbery, and bribery.
bribery
n. 뇌물 수수
Limiting the use of cash can reduce tax evasion, trafficking, smuggling, robbery, and bribery.
phase out
단계적으로 중단[폐지]하다
India decided to phase out all 500 rupee and 1,000 rupee bills in the hope of reducing tax evasion and decreasing black markets.
represent
v. 나타내다, 보여주다
Making a coin often costs more money than the value represented by the coin.
visible
a. 가시적인, 보이는
Some also argue that becoming cash-free makes the national economy more visible; it is easier to see whether or not the government is using money correctly.
convince
v. 확신시키다, 납득시키다
Others are convinced that a cash-free economy must never happen.
traceable
a. 추적할 수 있는
If all transactions are done electronically, they can all be technically traceable by the government.
frightening
a. 두려운, 위협적인
This is frightening for anyone who does not believe that the government will use this power wisely and within limits.
disadvantaged
a. 혜택 받지 못한
Will people who are not familiar with modern technology, such as old people, be further disadvantaged?
criminal
n. 범죄자
Already criminals are adapting to new technologies, using electronic card readers to steal money and robbing banks by hacking.
adapt
v. 적응하다
Already criminals are adapting to new technologies, using electronic card readers to steal money and robbing banks by hacking.
bet
v. 확신하다, 단언하다
You can bet that in the future, they will have new ways to use money that we cannot even imagine now.
along with
∙∙∙와 함께
Along with these new ways, they will have new problems, as well as new solutions.
attract
v. 이끌다, 유인하다
The popularity of social media has also attracted criminals.
unsuspecting
a. 의심하지 않는
Social media are ideal sources for criminals to obtain personal information from unsuspecting people.
post
v. 게시하다
Information that you post publicly can be stored by anyone who finds it, and your private communications might be discovered and read by advertisers, news organizations, governments, and criminals.
play out
일어나다
Internet-initiated crime does not always play out online.
admit
v. 시인하다, 인정하다
78 percent of burglars admit that they use social media to seek out their victims.
property
n. 부동산, 재산
Online street views allow burglars to check out their victims’ properties over the Internet.
secure
a. 안전한
Try to be careful about what information you post online, keep all of your software updated, and make secure passwords that are different for each site you log on to.
disable
v. 작동 못 하게 하다, 사용 불가능하게 하다
It is highly recommended that you disable the functions on your smartphone that show your location, at least when it comes to the social networking apps you use.
when it comes to
∙∙∙에 관한 한
It is highly recommended that you disable the functions on your smartphone that show your location, at least when it comes to the social networking apps you use.
prodigy
n. 신동, 영재
Do you think you would be happy being a child prodigy, someone who is truly gifted in something at a very young age?
gifted
a. 타고난 재능이 있는
Do you think you would be happy being a child prodigy, someone who is truly gifted in something at a very young age?
track
v. 추적하다, 뒤쫓다
One is simply to track the achievements of precocious kids.
precocious
a. 조숙한, (성격·지식 등이) 발달이 빠른
A study of 200 highly accomplished adults found that just 34 percent had been considered precocious as children.
fate
n. 운명
The fate of the Hunter College child geniuses in the study was not greatness.
adjust
v. 적응하다, 조절하다
Thirty years down the road, the Hunter graduates were all doing pretty well and were reasonably well adjusted and happy.
prominent
a. 중요한, 유명한
None of the Hunter graduates became CEOs of world-famous corporations, prominent politicians, well-known writers, or Nobel Prize winners
rank
v. (등급 ·순위를) 매기다, 평가하다
There were 15 nationally-ranked runners who were 13 and 14 years old.
ordinary
a. 보통의, 평범한
There is a long list of historical geniuses who were quite ordinary as children.
tricky
a. 다루기 힘든, 까다로운
Precocity is a trickier subject than people may ordinarily think.
mastery
n. 숙련, 숙달
The benefits of earlier mastery are often overestimated.
overestimate
v. 과대평가하다
The benefits of earlier mastery are often overestimated.
end up
결국 (어떤 처지에) 처하게 되다
There are many people who either started out good and went bad or started bad and ended up good.
acquisition
n. 습득
Early acquisition of skills, which is often what we mean by precocity, may be a misleading indicator of later success.
misleading
a. 오해의 소지가 있는
Early acquisition of skills, which is often what we mean by precocity, may be a misleading indicator of later success.
indicator
n. 지표, 척도
Early acquisition of skills, which is often what we mean by precocity, may be a misleading indicator of later success.
inaccurate
a. 부정확한, 틀린
When we call a child precocious, we have a very inaccurate definition of what we mean.
have a lot to do with
···와 많은 관련이 있다
Adult success has a lot to do with more than that.
obsession
n. 집착, 사로잡힘
In our obsession with precocity, we are exaggerating the importance of being talented.
exaggerate
v. 과장하다
In our obsession with precocity, we are exaggerating the importance of being talented.
deliberate
a. 의도적인, 계획적인; 신중한
Deliberate practice toward a goal is much more important than natural-born ability.
cite
v. (이유·예를) 들다, 언급하다
People often cite Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart as a child prodigy.
arrangement
n. 편곡
Mozart's childhood works are basically arrangements of works by other composers.
go all out
전력을 다하다, 모든 것을 내걸다
Leopold was the 18th-century version of a modern day parent who goes all out to make his or her child a star.
attribute
v. (···을 ~의) 결과로[덕분으로] 보다
Young Mozart’s incredible musical ability might better be attributed to practice.
compel
v. 강요하다, ···하게 만들다
{Compelled] to practice three hours a day from age three on, by age six, the young Wolfgang had practiced an astonishing 3,500 hours.
astonishing
a. 정말 놀라운, 믿기 힘든
Compelled to practice three hours a day from age three on, by age six, the young Wolfgang had practiced an astonishing 3,500 hours.
remarkable
a. 주목할 만한, 놀랄만한
Einstein displayed no remarkable native intelligence as a child.
personality trait
성격적 특성
His success seems to have come from certain habits and personality traits — curiosity, resolve, and determination.
component
n. 구성 요소
Curiosity, resolve, and determination are not particularly fascinating, but they are the more essential components of genius.
based on
···에 근거하여
Predictions from childhood about adult performance cannot be made based on relatively fixed traits such as IQ and early acquisition of skills.
relatively
ad. 상대적으로, 비교적
Predictions from childhood about adult performance cannot be made based on relatively fixed traits such as IQ and early acquisition of skills.
fixed
a. 고정된, 확고한
Predictions from childhood about adult performance cannot be made based on relatively fixed traits such as IQ and early acquisition of skills.
variable
a. 가변적인, 변화를 줄 수 있는
Many of the traits that really matter in predicting adult success are variable traits like creativity, determination, and leadership.
reorganize
v. 재조직하다
Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences.
cell
n. 세포
Till recently it was believed that growing new brain cells was simply impossible.
prevailing
a. 우세한, 지배적인
The prevailing scientific view was that a person is born with a particular number of neurons, or brain cells, which only decrease with age.
cognitive
a. 인지적인
Even a mature brain can grow new neuron by performing cognitive tasks, such as learning and problem solving.
mature
a. 성숙한, 완전히 자란
Kaplan found that stem cells are transformed into brain cells, not the mature neurons reproducing.
reproduce
v. 번식하다, 재생하다
Kaplan found that stem cells are transformed into brain cells, not the mature neurons reproducing.
innovative
a. 혁신적인, 획기적인
Synapses are the key to intelligence, creativity, and innovative thinking.
rewire
v. 배선을 바꾸다, 전선을 갈다
Learning new things stimulates the brain and encourages it to rewire itself and change throughout life.
flexible
a. 융통성 있는, 탄력적인, 유연한
The brain is a remarkably flexible and dynamic organ.
학생
가장 빠르게 암기하도록 도와주는 암기학습 〉
제대로 외웠나 바로 확인하는 리콜학습 〉
철자까지 외우려면 스펠학습 〉
재미있게 복습하려면 매칭 게임 〉
주관식으로도 재미있는 복습, 크래시 게임 〉
선생님
수업 중 이 단어장을 보고 듣고 질문하는 슬라이드 〉
수업시간이 들썩 들썩 퀴즈배틀 (로그인) 〉
클릭만으로 종이낭비 없이 시험지 인쇄 (로그인) 〉
필요한 세트를 직접 만드는 단어장 만들기 (로그인) 〉
선생님들이 만드신 30만개 단어장 검색하기 〉