고등 영어I YBM 한상호 종합
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세트공유
inevitable
a. 피할 수 없는
Unlike the average person, Edison saw these mistakes not as failures but as an inevitable part of the invention process.
rescue
v. 구조하다
When the oxygen tank in Apollo 13 exploded on its way to the moon in 1970, its entire crew was rescued, and they were able to return home safely.
celebrity
n. 유명 인사
Vera Wang is a world-famous designer whose elegant dresses are sought after by celebrities the world over.
disaster
n. 재앙, 재난
As a result, the always successful person or organization could suddenly encounter a disaster.
passion
n. 열정
While staying in Paris, she happened to discover her passion for and talent in fashion design.
postpone
v. 미루다, 연기하다
Right before the launch, engineers expressed concerns about mechanical malfunctions and advised that the launching be postponed.
mechanical
a. 기계적인
Right before the launch, engineers expressed concerns about mechanical malfunctions and advised that the launching be postponed.
launch
v. 발사하다
In 1968, it launched Apollo 8, the first manned spacecraft to fly around the moon.
mission
n. 임무
Between the 1960s and the 1980s, NASA completed one successful mission after another with no significant failure.
spacecraft
n. 우주선
In 1968, it launched Apollo 8, the first manned spacecraft to fly around the moon.
crew
n. 승무원
Challenger broke apart 73 seconds after it was launched, which resulted in the deaths of its seven crew members.
arrogance
n. 오만, 거만함
All success with no failure often leads a person to arrogance and carelessness.
orbit
n. 궤도
In 1986, NASA planned to send its second space shuttle, Challenger, into orbit.
indispensable
a. 없어서는 안 될, 필수적인
We should view failure not as the opposite of success, but as an indispensable step on the path to reach success.
risk
v. ~의 위험을 무릅쓰다, 각오하고 해보다
By risking and confronting failures and learning from them, we can become wiser and stronger.
inventor
n. 발명가
Edison was one of the world’s greatest inventors, and he acquired over 1,000 patents.
astronaut
n. 우주 비행사
In 1969, Apollo 11 landed on the moon, and the NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first person in history to walk on the moon.
succeed
v. 성공하다
We all want to succeed in everything we try and to avoid failure.
invention
n. 발명
Unlike the average person, Edison saw these mistakes not as failures but as an inevitable part of the invention process.
path
n. 길, 행로
The fashion designer Vera Wang found a path to success, thanks to her failure.
lead to
…로 이끌다, 이어지다
Sometimes failure can lead us to success by showing us that we are not good at something.
significant
a. 중대한, 중요한
Between the 1960s and the 1980s, NASA completed one successful mission after another with no significant failure.
letdown
n. 실망
Vera Wang failed to make the U.S. Olympic team when she was 19 and experienced a brutal letdown.
brutal
a. 혹독한
Vera Wang failed to make the U.S. Olympic team when she was 19 and experienced a brutal letdown.
not only … but also ~
…뿐만 아니라 ~도 역시
Failures can {not only motivate us to find a successful way to accomplish our goal but also} help us to grow in wisdom and in spirit.
spirit
n. 정신, 정신력
Failures can not only motivate us to find a successful way to accomplish our goal but also help us to grow in wisdom and in spirit.
tremendous
a. 엄청난, 굉장한
Edison also faced tremendous difficulties.
motivate
v. 동기를 부여하다
Failures can not only motivate us to find a successful way to accomplish our goal but also help us to grow in wisdom and in spirit.
successful
a. 성공한, 성공적인
In fact, the most successful people are often people who have experienced many more failures than others.
continue
v. 계속되다
This continued series of successes made the decision-makers at NASA too self-assured and unable to imagine failure.
encourage
v. 용기를 북돋아주다, 격려하다
All her hardships added depth to her novels and encouraged her to improve her writing skills.
masterpiece
n. 걸작, 명작
Later in her life, Morrison wrote masterpieces such as Song of Solomon, Beloved, and Jazz.
seek
v. ~을 찾다, 구하다, 얻으려고 하다
When he was seeking a team to play for, he was rejected by several teams because of his height.
in response to
~에 대한 응답으로, ~에 답하여
In response to a question about his errors, he once said, “I have not failed 9,999 times. I’ve successfully found 9,999 ways that will not work.”
confront
v. (문제나 힘든 상황에) 마주하다, 맞서다
By risking and confronting failures and learning from them, we can become wiser and stronger.
encounter
v. 만나다, 마주치다
As a result, the always successful person or organization could suddenly encounter a disaster.
end up -ing
결국 ~하게 되다
Developing her career for about 20 years, she eventually ended up designing clothes on her own.
elegant
a. 우아한
Vera Wang is a world-famous designer whose elegant dresses are sought after by celebrities the world over.
suffer
v. (고통·슬픔을) 겪다, 당하다
Edison, Morrison, and Wang all suffered big failures, but they never gave up.
organization
n. 조직, 기관
As a result, the always successful person or organization could suddenly encounter a disaster.
malfunction
n. 오작동, 결함
The malfunction of the computer seems to be caused by the unstable new software.
triumph
n. 성공, 업적
They learned from their mistakes and went on to experience even greater triumphs.
depth
n. 깊이
All her hardships added depth to her novels and encouraged her to improve her writing skills.
publish
v. 출판하다
At 39, Morrison published her first novel, The Bluest Eye, which received mixed reviews and did not sell well.
hardship
n. 어려움, 고난
All her hardships added depth to her novels and encouraged her to improve her writing skills.
novel
n. 소설
However, all her hardships added depth to her novels and encouraged her to improve her writing skills.
opposite
n. 반대
We should view failure not as the opposite of success, but as an indispensable step on the path to reach success.
occasion
n. 때, 경우
Thus, people took pictures mostly on special occasions, such as weddings, graduations, and trips to exotic places.
photography
n. 사진촬영 기술, 사진촬영 기법
People who know next to nothing about photography can still produce high-quality photographs.
discard
v. 버리다, 폐기하다
When they return home, they can choose the shots they want to keep and discard the rest.
preoccupy
v. 마음을 빼앗다, 열중[몰두]하게 하다
Some people worry that these changes have made us preoccupied with taking pictures and flooding the Internet with too many unimportant images.
flood
v. 넘쳐나다, 범람시키다
Some people worry that these changes have made us preoccupied with taking pictures and flooding the Internet with too many unimportant images.
reassemble
v. 다시 모으다, 새로 짜 맞추다
While they are hiding and waiting for rescue, the enemy reassembles the torn pieces of the photographs to find out what the escapees look like.
reconstruct
v. 재구성하다, 복원시키다
The staff members must leave the country before their photographs are reconstructed.
essential
a. 매우 중요한, 필수적인
Technology today has made photography an essential part of our culture.
composition
n. (그림·사진의) 구도, 구성
A photographer needed to learn how to decide an adequate composition for the picture, to adjust the focal length, and to set the film and the shutter speed before shooting.
exotic
a. 이국적인
Thus, people took pictures mostly on special occasions, such as weddings, graduations, and trips to exotic places.
integrate
v. 결합시키다, 통합하다
By integrating the mobile phone and the camera, the smartphone has further transformed the way we use and think about photography.
float
v. 정처없이 떠돌다, 떠다니다
There would be too many pictures floating around on the Internet to find and erase.
incident
n. 사건, 사고
If a similar incident happened today, it would be impossible for the embassy employees to destroy their photographs in time.
infinitely
ad. 무한히, 한없이, (비교급 앞에서) 훨씬
There are infinitely more photographs and amateur photographers now than there were 40 years ago.
astonishingly
ad. 놀랍게도
The digital camera has made it astonishingly easy to take photographs by making all the shooting processes automatic.
adequate
a. 적절한
A photographer needed to learn how to decide an adequate composition for the picture, to adjust the focal length, and to set the film and the shutter speed before shooting.
journalist
n. 기자
Thanks to citizen journalists, inappropriate behaviors, such as leaving one’s pet’s droppings on the street or abusing a bus driver, are quickly photographed and reported online.
amateur
a. 아마추어의, 취미로 하는, 비전문가인
There are infinitely more photographs and amateur photographers now than there were 40 years ago.
along with
~와 함께, 더불어
To prevent the enemy from identifying them, they attempt to eliminate all the photographs inside the embassy along with all embassy documents.
inconsiderate
a. 사려 깊지 못한, 경솔한, 배려가 없는
Rarely can a quick and inconsiderate response make things better.
inappropriate
a. 부적절한, 부적합한
Thanks to citizen journalists, inappropriate behaviors, such as leaving one’s pet’s droppings on the street or abusing a bus driver, are quickly photographed and reported online.
eliminate
v. 없애다, 제거하다
To prevent the enemy from identifying them, they attempt to eliminate all the photographs inside the embassy along with all embassy documents.
evolve
v. 진화하다, 발전하다
At the center of this change is the evolving technology of the camera.
practice
n. 연습
Furthermore, taking a photograph required knowledge, skill, and practice.
feature
n. 특징, 특성
These features of the smartphone have resulted in new picture-taking habits.
transition
n. 전환, 변환
The transition from the film camera to the digital camera has changed our idea about what to take pictures of.
transform
v. 완전히 바꿔놓다, 변형하다, 탈바꿈시키다
By integrating the mobile phone and the camera, the smartphone has further transformed the way we use and think about photography.
crucial
a. 중요한, 중대한, 결정적인
Internationally, citizen journalism has played a crucial role in letting the world know the realities of major world events, such as the earthquake in Haiti and the Arab Spring.
escape
v. 탈출하다, 벗어나다, 도망치다
In the movie Argo, a group of American embassy staff members try to escape from a foreign country before the enemy finds them.
embassy
n. 대사관
To prevent the enemy from identifying them, they attempt to eliminate all the photographs inside the embassy along with all embassy documents.
mainstream
n. 주류, 대세
The smartphone also enables ordinary people to gather, report, and spread news without relying on the mainstream media, such as newspapers or television.
next to nothing
없는 것과 다름없는, 아주 약간
People who know next to nothing about photography can still produce high-quality photographs.
abuse
v. ~을 폭행하다, 학대하다
Thanks to citizen journalists, inappropriate or inconsiderate behaviors, such as leaving one’s pet’s droppings on the street or abusing a bus driver, are quickly photographed and reported online.
furthermore
ad. 뿐만 아니라, 게다가
Furthermore, taking a photograph required knowledge, skill, and practice.
capture
v. (사진이이나 글로) 포착하다, 담아내다
The film camera captured an image on a piece of film every time we took a picture.
adjust
v. 조절하다, 조정하다
In the past, a photographer needed to learn how to adjust the focal length, and to set the film speed before shooting.
enable ... to ~
…가 ~할 수 있게 하다
The smartphone also enables ordinary people to gather, report, and spread news without relying on the mainstream media, such as newspapers or television.
practically
ad. 사실상, 실제로
Taking pictures with a digital camera is practically free.
eventually
ad. 결국
During his 11 years in New York, Kim Whanki’s style eventually reached complete abstraction.
ideal
n. 이상
The painting was praised by art critics for combining Asian concepts and ideals with abstraction.
survive
v. 살아남다
He tried to find a way to survive in New York as an artist.
object
n. 사물, 대상
Paintings like Jars and Plum Blossoms and Jar and Moon represent his love of Korean pottery and other traditional objects.
porcelain
n. 도자기
He especially loved large white porcelain moon jars.
break out
발발하다
When the Korean War broke out in 1950, he went to Busan for safety.
promising
a. 유망한
After Korea achieved its independence from Japan, he became both a promising painter and respected professor at an art college in Seoul.
pass away
사망하다
Kim Whanki passed away in New York in 1974.
resign
v. 사임하다
In 1956, he resigned from the college and went to Paris.
exhibition
n. 전시회
A group of paintings were lost during an exhibition.
simplify
v. 단순화하다
Viewers could see certain forms in his paintings although the objects were simplified.
adolescent
a. 청소년의
During the Japanese occupation, he spent most of his adolescent years in Seoul and then studied painting in Japan.
occupation
n. 점령
During the Japanese occupation, he spent most of his adolescent years in Seoul and then studied painting in Japan.
financial
a. 금전의
With loneliness and financial difficulty, he tried to find a way to survive in New York as an artist.
entire
a. 전체의
Throughout his entire life, his artistic passion never grew old or became weak.
review
n. 비평, 감상
In the beginning, he received negative reviews from critics.
critic
n. 비평가
The painting was praised by art critics for combining Asian concepts and ideals with abstraction.
cease
v. 중지하다; 중지되다
He was a man who never ceased to challenge himself and grow as an artist.
combine ... with ~
~와 …을 결합하다
The painting was praised by art critics for combining Asian concepts and ideals with abstraction.
concentrate on
~에 집중하다
He concentrated on delivering the beauty of traditional Korean objects on canvas to the people of France.
challenge
v. 도전하다
He decided to go to New York to challenge himself and extend his artistic boundaries.
boundary
n. 경계(선)
He decided to go to New York to challenge himself and extend his artistic boundaries.
characteristic
a. 특징적인
Most of these paintings were in his characteristic blue tones.
eternal
a. 영원한
In his famous work Song of Eternity, he included natural objects from the sipjangsaeng, the 10 symbols of eternal life, such as water, stones, mountains, clouds, and pine trees.
long for
~을 갈망하다
The whole nation is longing for the end of dispute and the prospect of peace.
give in to
~에 굴복하다
If we give in to external force, we cannot initiate even the initial phase of reformation.
negative
a. 부정적인
In the beginning, he received negative reviews from critics.
represent
v. 나타내다
Most of these paintings were in his characteristic blue tones, which represented the color of the sea near his hometown.
independence
n. 독립
After Korea achieved its independence from Japan, he became both a promising painter and respected professor at an art college in Seoul.
outstanding
a. 뛰어난
He was not satisfied with being an outstanding painter only within Korea.
dot
n. 점
He gradually took away figures and filled his canvases with basic elements such as dots and lines.
abstract
a. 추상적인
During this period, objects were given more simplified shapes, and his art became more abstract.
subject
n. 대상, 소재
Along with jars, he often included mountains, plum blossoms, and the moon as subjects in his paintings.
prominent
a. 저명한
Kim Whanki returned to Seoul in 1959 and quickly regained his fame as a prominent artist.
portray
v. 그리다, 묘사하다
His paintings Shanty and Refugee Train portrayed the hard life of the common people during wartime.
pottery
n. 도자기 (그릇들)
He collected old Korean paintings and pottery.
countless
a. 수많은
In dot paintings, he filled big canvases with countless dots.
beloved
a. 사랑받는, 사랑하는
Kim Whanki, one of the most beloved Korean artists, is considered the leading figure in the first generation of Korean Abstract painters.
devote … to -ing
…을 ~에 바치다[헌신하다]
All his life, he devoted himself to discovering the essence of Korean beauty.
unique
a. 독특한
He began to use only dots and created his own unique style called “dot painting.”
element
n. 요소
He gradually took away figures and filled his canvases with basic elements such as dots and lines.
blossom
n. 꽃
Along with jars, he often included mountains, plum blossoms, and the moon as subjects in his paintings.
immigrant
n. 이민자
It is called that because many Armenian immigrants moved to this district in the 19th century.
slightly
ad. 약간
The colorfulness and slightly different decorations of the buildings made the whole street look really delightful.
be known as
~라고 알려져 있다
Penang Street Market is known as the best place to see local crafts.
name after
~의 이름을 따서 짓다
Its capital, George Town, was built by British settlers in the late 18th century and named after King George III.
trader
n. 상인
They did not stay long, and soon Chinese traders replaced them.
stall
n. 노점
After having lunch at a food stall, we left for the airport.
destination
n. 목적지
Hawaii is a popular tourist destination many people visit.
in need of
~이 필요한
Although there were many white buildings, some badly in need of paint, there were also many other buildings painted in yellow, pink, orange, and brick-red.
tropical
a. 열대의
Penang is a tropical island located off the northwest coast of Malaysia.
artistically
ad. 예술적으로
Some of them were quite realistic, while others were artistically simplified or somewhat abstract.
weave
v. 짜다
It really was full of beautiful ethnic goods, including clothes, shoes, wood carvings, woven baskets, and much more.
ethnic
a. 민족 전통적인, 민족의
It really was full of beautiful ethnic goods, including clothes, shoes, wood carvings, woven baskets, and much more.
have ... in common
~라는 공통점이 있다
I thought that Malaysia and Korea might have more in common than I had originally imagined.
decoration
n. 장식
The colorfulness and slightly different decorations of the buildings made the whole street look really delightful.
atmosphere
n. 분위기
The atmosphere was so lively and exciting that the entire event felt more like a small festival than a market.
luxurious
a. 화려한, 사치스러운
My favorite was Blue Mansion, a large, luxurious house built in the 19th century.
settler
n. 정착민
Its capital, George Town, was built by British settlers in the late 18th century and named after King George III.
multicultural
a. 다문화의
Malaysia is a multicultural country, where Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and traditional Malay cultures coexist with European influences.
architecture
n. 건축
Painted in vivid blue and built in a style that combined Chinese and European architecture, it was both beautiful and unique at the same time.
mural
n. 벽화
People are painting a mural on the wall.
diverse
a. 다양한
Our city is becoming more and more diverse in race and cultural background.
tragic
a. 비극의
Like Korea, Malaysia was occupied by other countries but overcame this tragic history to achieve economic and cultural development.
vivid
a. (빛·색깔이) 선명한
Painted in vivid blue and built in a style that combined Chinese and European architecture, it was both beautiful and unique at the same time.
blend
v. 섞다, 혼합하다
Laksa is a spicy noodle soup that blends Chinese and Malay cuisine.
sculpture
n. 조각품
My parents bought a small wooden sculpture of a monkey.
cuisine
n. 요리법, 요리
Laksa is a spicy noodle soup that blends Chinese and Malay cuisine.
replace
v. 대신하다, 대체하다
They did not stay long, and soon Chinese traders replaced them.
local
a. 지역의
I was surprised to learn that these works of art were created not only by local people but also by artists from all parts of the world.
embrace
v. 포용하다
I was deeply impressed by how the Malaysians have embraced their diversity and how it has made its culture richer.
inhabitant
n. 주민
The seller explained that it was traditional artwork made by the Orang Asli, the inhabitants who have lived in Malaysia longer than anyone else.
mixture
n. 혼합물
Many buildings looked neither completely Western nor completely Eastern but a mixture of the two.
craft
n. 공예품
Penang Street Market is known as the best place to see local crafts.
impressive
a. 인상적인
The next day, we went to see some impressive historical temples.
be struck by
~에 감명받다, 끌리다
As soon as we entered George Town, I was struck by its unique beauty.
carving
n. 조각품
We went to see Sri Maha Mariamman Temple, which is covered with colorful carvings of countless Hindu gods and goddesses.
coexist
v. 공존하다
Malaysia is a multicultural country, where Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and traditional Malay cultures coexist with European influences.
starve to death
굶어 죽다
The average European not only often went hungry, but sometimes even starve to death.
deadly
a. 치명적인, 죽음의
Irish famine was one of the deadliest famines in history.
roast
v. (오븐이나 불에) 굽다
Instead of French fries, the French have traditionally enjoyed roasted potatoes with chicken.
steamship
n. 증기선
In Colorado, potato beetle attacked potatoes and spread quickly when potatoes were shipped to other parts of the country on trains and steamships.
unfamiliar
a. 낯선, 익숙하지 않은
At first, European did not like this unfamiliar and alien food.
average
a. 보통의, 평균적인
The average European not only often went hungry, but sometimes even starve to death.
devil
n. 악마
Some believed that potatoes were created by devils.
insignificant
a. 중요하지 않은, 사소한
Often, the course of history is changed by seemingly insignificant things.
pest
n. 해충
A farmer accidentally found a chemical material that kills pests.
colonize
v. ∙∙∙를 식민지로 만들다
With the larger populations and more advanced technologies, European nations became powerful enough to venture into other parts of the world and colonize them.
affect
v. ∙∙∙에게 영향을 주다
Many countries were affected, but Ireland suffered the most.
take over
v. 점령하다, 차지하다
By the end of the 18th century, potatoes had taken over most European farms, and famine had become a rare and unusual incident.
relatively
ad. 비교적, 상대적으로
The potato has become such an important part of Western food culture that it is hard to believe that it has had such a relatively short history in Europe.
decade
n. 10년
Many countries sufferred nationwide famines at least once every decade.
feed
v. ∙∙∙를 먹이다
At long last, Europe was able to feed itself.
venture
v. 모험하다
With the larger populations and more advanced technologies, European nations became powerful enough to venture into other parts of the world and colonize them.
serve
v. 제공하다, (음식을) 차려 내다
French fries, which are often served with fast foods, are one of the best known American side dishes.
crop
n. 경작물, 농작물
It was easier to grow potatoes than many other crops, so fewer people were needed for farming.
vulnerable
a. 취약한, 영향받기 쉬운
American farmers had only planted a few varieties of potatoes, and the potatoes that they planted were extremely vulnerable to the pest.
defenseless
a. 무방비의, 방어할 수 없는
Farmers were practically defenseless against the potato beetle.
rare
a. 드문, 희귀한
By the end of the 18th century, potatoes had taken over most European farms, and famine had become a rare and unusual incident.
excessively
ad. 지나치게, 과도하게
Because the people of Ireland were excessively dependent upon the potato for food, when a potato disease hit Europe in 1845, it led to a disastrous situation.
manufacture
v. 제조하다
People who no longer worked on farms came to the cities and became factory workers, which enabled new manufacturing industries to grow more quickly.
substance
n. 물질
Scientists began to do research and discover chemicals and substances that were effective for many different agricultural problems.
seemingly
ad. 겉보기에는, 표면적으로
Often, the course of history is changed by seemingly insignificant things.
chemical
n. 화학 물질
Chemists decided to try other chemicals for other problems.
agricultural
a. 농업의
The major agricultural product of this region is corn.
steadily
ad. 꾸준하게, 지속적으로
The potato gradually but steadily spread across Europe, as people learned how it could help them in times of war, bad weather, and desperate hunger.
beetle
n. 딱정벌레(와 비슷한 곤충)
In the 1860s, the potato beetle was carried by horses and cows from Mexico to the state of Colorado in the United States.
alien
a. 생경한, 이질적인, 외래의
At first, European did not like this unfamiliar and alien food.
wipe out
휩쓸다, 완전히 파괴하다
In two months, a potato disease wiped out almost half of the potato crop in Ireland.
nutrition
n. 영양(분)
Throughout Europe, potatoes quicly became the main source of nutrition for the majority of common people.
outcome
n. 결과
Despite the terrible outcome of the potato disease in Europe, it was perhaps less important in the potato's history than the Colorado potato beetle was in North America.
desperate
a. 절망적인, 필사적인
After a series of desperate attempts, one man eventually found that Paris green, a toxic chemical used for making green paint, killed the beetles.
migrate
v. 이주하다
By 1852, two million Irish people had fled Ireland, and almost three-quarters of them had migrated to the United States.
inexpensive
a. 값싼, 비싸지 않은
Thanks to the fact that the potato was inexpensive and nutritious, many Europeans escaped famines, and the populations in European nations increased rapidly during the 19th century.
famine
n. 기근
The new variety of rice contributed to ending famine in this region.
majority
n. 대다수, 대부분
Throughout Europe, potatoes quicly became the main source of nutrition for the majority of common people.
instead of
∙∙∙ 대신에
Instead of French fries, the French have traditionally enjoyed roasted potatoes with chicken.
impact
n. 영향
The impact of the potato in Europe was not entirely positive.
swallow
v. (다른 대상을) 완전히 가리다,
집어삼키다
Some sinkholes are large enough to swallow entire buildings.
widespread
a. 널리 퍼진, 광범위한
Sinkholes are not widespread events like hurricanes or earthquakes.
prior to
~보다 앞서
Thorough soil testing prior to construction is the best way to prevent the formation of a sinkhole in the middle of a city.
collapse
v. 붕괴하다, 무너지다
In 2010, in Guatemala City, an area approximately 20 meters wide and 30 meters deep collapsed, killing 15 people.
seep
v. 스며들다, 배다
When rainwater seeps down through surface soil, it eventually reaches the bedrock below.
typically
ad. 전형적으로, 일반적으로
Sinkholes typically occur in areas where the rock beneath the surface soil is limestone, carbonate rock, or sandstone.
groundwater
n. 지하수
Sinkholes may occur because of the removal of groundwater.
underwater
ad. 물속에서, 수면 아래에서
Underwater sinkholes are called blue holes.
desperately
ad. 필사적으로, 절망적으로
Jeremy desperately tried to rescue him.
vanish
v. 사라지다
Seeing that Jeff and all his furnishings had vanished into the earth, Jeremy desperately tried to rescue him.
spot
n. (특정한) 장소
If you live in an area where sinkholes have happened before, look around for possible warnings, such as rainwater collecting in unusual spots.
attract
v. 끌다, 유혹하다
Some sinkholes attract tourists who are interested in the mystery of nature.
indirectly
ad. 간접적으로
Most sinkholes we are seeing these days are indirectly related to human activities.
maintain
v. 유지하다, 관리하다
Thorough soil testing and maintaining the underground water and plumbing systems are the best ways to prevent the formation of a sinkhole in the middle of a city.
result in
~을 야기하다
Many sinkholes have opened up in urban areas around the world, sometimes resulting in tragic accidents.
ruinous
a. 파멸을 가져올, 파괴적인
Not all sinkholes are dangerous, destructive, and ruinous.
form
v. 형성되다, 형성시키다
Sinkholes can form underwater.
lean
v. 기울어지다
If you live in an area where sinkholes have happened before, look around for possible warnings, such as leaning trees.
gradually
ad. 서서히
As the process continues, the soil above is gradually washed into the cracks.
urban
a. 도시의
Many sinkholes have opened up in urban areas around the world, sometimes resulting in tragic accidents.
carelessness
n. 부주의
Sinkholes caused by human carelessness can often be prevented.
notable
a. 주목할 만한, 유명한
Some notable sinkholes include Sima Humboldt in Venezuela and Xiaozhai Tiankeng in China.
passageway
n. 통로
It is said that the ancient Maya believed sinkholes were passageways to the world of the dead.
vary
v. 달라지다, 다르다
Sinkholes vary in size from 1 to 600 meters deep.
ignore
v. 무시하다
We should not ignore the possibility of sinkholes.
localize
v. 국한시키다
Sinkholes are not widespread events. They are very localized.
properly
ad. 올바르게, 적절히
If you live in an area where sinkholes have happened before, look around for possible warnings, such as doors or windows that don’t close properly.
erode
v. 침식하다
Rainwater erodes the bedrock, creating cracks underground.
furnishing
n. 가구, 비품
Seeing that Jeff and all his furnishings had vanished into the earth, Jeremy desperately tried to rescue him.
destructive
a. 파괴적인
Not all sinkholes are dangerous, destructive, and ruinous.
trigger
v. 유발하다, 일으키다
The most common factor that triggers a collapse is a change in underground water levels.
bedrock
n. 기반암
Bedrock is the rock in the ground that supports all the soil above it.
bring about
초래하다, 일으키다
Heavy weight on soft soil can bring about an unpredictable collapse.
crack
n. 균열
Rainwater erodes the bedrock, creating cracks underground.
wear away
마모시키다, 닳다
Soft rock is easily worn away by water.
spectacular
a. 멋진, 장관의
The Great Blue Hole in Belize is one of the most spectacular.
surface
n. 표면
A sinkhole is caused by a collapse of the land surface.
dramatically
ad. 극적으로, 인상적으로
A sudden heavy rain can add dramatically to the weight of the surface soil.
factor
n. 요인, 원인
The most common factor that triggers a collapse is a change in underground water levels.
possibility
n. 가능성
We should not ignore the possibility of sinkholes.
sanitation
n. 위생
If sufficient water for sanitation were available, these children would be saved.
divert
v. (방향을) 전환시키다
One large-scale approach has been to divert the flow of water from regions where it is plentiful to where it is scarce.
specific
a. 특정한
Even within specific countries, such as Brazil, some regions have more than enough fresh, unpolluted water while other regions often suffer from droughts.
be in want of
~이 필요하다
The Middle East, North Africa, and many other regions are always in want of water.
drought
n. 가뭄
Even within specific countries, such as Brazil, some regions have more than enough fresh, unpolluted water while other regions often suffer from droughts.
enormous
a. 막대한, 거대한
Agricultural irrigation consumes enormous quantities of water; in developing countries, irrigation often exceeds 80 percent of total water use.
operate
v. 작동하다
Desalination plants are expensive to build and require lots of energy to operate.
distillation
n. 증류
Some current projects have produced inexpensive distillation units that can remove toxic elements from any water source.
overcome
v. 극복하다, 이겨내다
Overcoming the water crisis is one of the toughest human challenges of the early 21st century.
glacier
n. 빙하
Of the fresh water that remains, over two thirds is locked away in ice caps and glaciers.
infrastructure
n. 사회(공공)기반시설
It is a small distillation unit, which is a particularly attractive approach in rural and low-income areas where the lack of infrastructure makes it hard to distribute water efficiently and economically.
trap
v. 가두다
Most of the rest is trapped in the soil or underground.
desalination
n. 담수화
Desalination is extracting the salt from seawater.
deposit
v. 비축하다, 쌓이게 하다
Because groundwater, mostly deposited in earlier times, is being exhausted far faster than it is being replaced.
ice cap
n. 빙원, 만년설
Of the fresh water that remains, over two thirds is locked away in ice caps and glaciers.
availability
n. 이용 가능성
Today, the availability of water for drinking and other uses is a critical problem in many areas of the world.
household
a. 세대 가정용의
Water for drinking and personal use is only a small portion of society’s total water needs — household water usually accounts for less than 5 percent of total water use.
exceed
v. 초과하다, 넘다
Agricultural irrigation consumes enormous quantities of water; in developing countries, irrigation often exceeds 80 percent of total water use.
suitable
a. 적합한
Desalination plants are expensive to build and require lots of energy to operate, which makes desalination suitable mainly for seaside cities in rich countries.
conservation
n. 보존, 보호
Traditional approaches to water use and conservation cannot solve the water crisis of the future.
extract
v. 추출하다
Desalination is extracting the salt from seawater.
purification
n. 정화
Effective purification methods and thorough safeguards are necessary to ensure the safety of recycled water.
irrigation
n. 관개
Agricultural irrigation consumes enormous quantities of water.
imaginative
a. 창의적인, 상상력이 풍부한
The world’s water problems can only be solved by better technologies and more imaginative innovations.
scarce
a. 부족한, 드문
Is water really scarce?
nowadays
ad. 요즘에는
Nowadays, the lack of clean water causes more deaths than war.
domestic
a. 국내의
Israel uses desalination technology to provide about a fourth of its domestic water needs.
account for
~를 차지하다
Household water usually accounts for less than 5 percent of total water use.
sophisticated
a. 복잡한, 정교한
Today, we need more sophisticated and controlling water supply methods that do not only meet our increased needs but also prevent damage to the environment and ecosystems.
ecological
a. 생태계의
Water is also inevitably needed for ecological processes not directly related to human use.
drip
v. (액체를) 뚝뚝 흘리다
Improved technologies can drip water directly onto plants.
crisis
n. 위기
Overcoming the water crisis is one of the toughest human challenges of the early 21st century.
distribute
v. 분배하다
It is a small distillation unit, which is a particularly attractive approach in rural and low-income areas where the lack of infrastructure makes it hard to distribute water efficiently and economically.
explosive
a. 폭발적인
Another problem is that diverting water to some people often means less for others, and this can become an explosive political issue potentially.
abundant
a. 풍부한
If desalination is going to be a realistic source of fresh water, countries need either abundant, cheap energy or a way to make the process more efficient.
exhaust
v. 고갈시키다
Because groundwater, mostly deposited in earlier times, is being exhausted far faster than it is being replaced.
cleanse
v. 세척하다
However, this is not a perfect solution because it does not provide enough water to cleanse the soil.
safeguard
n. 안전장치
Effective purification methods and thorough safeguards are necessary to ensure the safety of recycled water.
access
n. 접근, 접근 방법(수단, 기회)
One out of every six people living today does not have adequate access to water.
critical
a. 중요한, 주요한
Today, the availability of water for drinking and other uses is a critical problem in many areas of the world.
sufficient
a. 충분한
If sufficient water for sanitation were available, these children would be saved.
ensure
v. 보장하다, 확실하게 하다
Effective purification methods and thorough safeguards are necessary to ensure the safety of recycled water.
학생
가장 빠르게 암기하도록 도와주는 암기학습 〉
제대로 외웠나 바로 확인하는 리콜학습 〉
철자까지 외우려면 스펠학습 〉
재미있게 복습하려면 매칭 게임 〉
주관식으로도 재미있는 복습, 크래시 게임 〉
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수업 중 이 단어장을 보고 듣고 질문하는 슬라이드 〉
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