고등 영어I YBM 한상호 2학기
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세트공유
multicultural
a. 다문화의
Malaysia is a multicultural country, where Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and traditional Malay cultures coexist with European influences.
coexist
v. 공존하다
Malaysia is a multicultural country, where Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and traditional Malay cultures coexist with European influences.
destination
n. 목적지
Hawaii is a popular tourist destination many people visit.
tropical
a. 열대의
Penang is a tropical island located off the northwest coast of Malaysia.
settler
n. 정착민
Its capital, George Town, was built by British settlers in the late 18th century and named after King George III.
name after
~의 이름을 따서 짓다
Its capital, George Town, was built by British settlers in the late 18th century and named after King George III.
diverse
a. 다양한
Our city is becoming more and more diverse in race and cultural background.
be struck by
~에 감명받다, 끌리다
As soon as we entered George Town, I was struck by its unique beauty.
mixture
n. 혼합물
Many buildings looked neither completely Western nor completely Eastern but a mixture of the two.
blend
v. 섞다, 혼합하다
Laksa is a spicy noodle soup that blends Chinese and Malay cuisine.
cuisine
n. 요리법, 요리
Laksa is a spicy noodle soup that blends Chinese and Malay cuisine.
luxurious
a. 화려한, 사치스러운
My favorite was Blue Mansion, a large, luxurious house built in the 19th century.
vivid
a. (빛·색깔이) 선명한
Painted in vivid blue and built in a style that combined Chinese and European architecture, it was both beautiful and unique at the same time.
architecture
n. 건축
Painted in vivid blue and built in a style that combined Chinese and European architecture, it was both beautiful and unique at the same time.
impressive
a. 인상적인
The next day, we went to see some impressive historical temples.
carving
n. 조각품
We went to see Sri Maha Mariamman Temple, which is covered with colorful carvings of countless Hindu gods and goddesses.
immigrant
n. 이민자
It is called that because many Armenian immigrants moved to this district in the 19th century.
trader
n. 상인
They did not stay long, and soon Chinese traders replaced them.
replace
v. 대신하다, 대체하다
They did not stay long, and soon Chinese traders replaced them.
in need of
~이 필요한
Although there were many white buildings, some badly in need of paint, there were also many other buildings painted in yellow, pink, orange, and brick-red.
slightly
ad. 약간
The colorfulness and slightly different decorations of the buildings made the whole street look really delightful.
decoration
n. 장식
The colorfulness and slightly different decorations of the buildings made the whole street look really delightful.
mural
n. 벽화
People are painting a mural on the wall.
artistically
ad. 예술적으로
Some of them were quite realistic, while others were artistically simplified or somewhat abstract.
local
a. 지역의
I was surprised to learn that these works of art were created not only by local people but also by artists from all parts of the world.
be known as
~라고 알려져 있다
Penang Street Market is known as the best place to see local crafts.
craft
n. 공예품
Penang Street Market is known as the best place to see local crafts.
ethnic
a. 민족 전통적인, 민족의
It really was full of beautiful ethnic goods, including clothes, shoes, wood carvings, woven baskets, and much more.
weave
v. 짜다
It really was full of beautiful ethnic goods, including clothes, shoes, wood carvings, woven baskets, and much more.
atmosphere
n. 분위기
The atmosphere was so lively and exciting that the entire event felt more like a small festival than a market.
sculpture
n. 조각품
My parents bought a small wooden sculpture of a monkey.
inhabitant
n. 주민
The seller explained that it was traditional artwork made by the Orang Asli, the inhabitants who have lived in Malaysia longer than anyone else.
stall
n. 노점
After having lunch at a food stall, we left for the airport.
have ... in common
~라는 공통점이 있다
I thought that Malaysia and Korea might have more in common than I had originally imagined.
tragic
a. 비극의
Like Korea, Malaysia was occupied by other countries but overcame this tragic history to achieve economic and cultural development.
embrace
v. 포용하다
I was deeply impressed by how the Malaysians have embraced their diversity and how it has made its culture richer.
serve
v. 제공하다, (음식을) 차려 내다
French fries, which are often served with fast foods, are one of the best known American side dishes.
instead of
∙∙∙ 대신에
Instead of French fries, the French have traditionally enjoyed roasted potatoes with chicken.
roast
v. (오븐이나 불에) 굽다
Instead of French fries, the French have traditionally enjoyed roasted potatoes with chicken.
relatively
ad. 비교적, 상대적으로
The potato has become such an important part of Western food culture that it is hard to believe that it has had such a relatively short history in Europe.
unfamiliar
a. 낯선, 익숙하지 않은
At first, European did not like this unfamiliar and alien food.
alien
a. 생경한, 이질적인, 외래의
At first, European did not like this unfamiliar and alien food.
devil
n. 악마
Some believed that potatoes were created by devils.
steadily
ad. 꾸준하게, 지속적으로
The potato gradually but steadily spread across Europe, as people learned how it could help them in times of war, bad weather, and desperate hunger.
desperate
a. 절망적인, 필사적인
After a series of desperate attempts, one man eventually found that Paris green, a toxic chemical used for making green paint, killed the beetles.
average
a. 보통의, 평균적인
The average European not only often went hungry, but sometimes even starve to death.
starve to death
굶어 죽다
The average European not only often went hungry, but sometimes even starve to death.
famine
n. 기근
The new variety of rice contributed to ending famine in this region.
decade
n. 10년
Many countries sufferred nationwide famines at least once every decade.
nutrition
n. 영양(분)
Throughout Europe, potatoes quicly became the main source of nutrition for the majority of common people.
majority
n. 대다수, 대부분
Throughout Europe, potatoes quicly became the main source of nutrition for the majority of common people.
take over
v. 점령하다, 차지하다
By the end of the 18th century, potatoes had taken over most European farms, and famine had become a rare and unusual incident.
rare
a. 드문, 희귀한
By the end of the 18th century, potatoes had taken over most European farms, and famine had become a rare and unusual incident.
incident
n. 사건, 사고, 일
By the end of the 18th century, potatoes had taken over most European farms, and famine had become a rare and unusual incident.
feed
v. ∙∙∙를 먹이다
At long last, Europe was able to feed itself.
inexpensive
a. 값싼, 비싸지 않은
Thanks to the fact that the potato was inexpensive and nutritious, many Europeans escaped famines, and the populations in European nations increased rapidly during the 19th century.
escape
v. 벗어나다, 탈출하다
Thanks to the fact that the potato was inexpensive and nutritious, many Europeans escaped famines, and the populations in European nations increased rapidly during the 19th century.
crop
n. 경작물, 농작물
It was easier to grow potatoes than many other crops, so fewer people were needed for farming.
manufacture
v. 제조하다
People who no longer worked on farms came to the cities and became factory workers, which enabled new manufacturing industries to grow more quickly.
venture
v. 모험하다
With the larger populations and more advanced technologies, European nations became powerful enough to venture into other parts of the world and colonize them.
colonize
v. ∙∙∙를 식민지로 만들다
With the larger populations and more advanced technologies, European nations became powerful enough to venture into other parts of the world and colonize them.
impact
n. 영향
The impact of the potato in Europe was not entirely positive.
excessively
ad. 지나치게, 과도하게
Because the people of Ireland were excessively dependent upon the potato for food, when a potato disease hit Europe in 1845, it led to a disastrous situation.
affect
v. ∙∙∙에게 영향을 주다
Many countries were affected, but Ireland suffered the most.
wipe out
휩쓸다, 완전히 파괴하다
In two months, a potato disease wiped out almost half of the potato crop in Ireland.
migrate
v. 이주하다
By 1852, two million Irish people had fled Ireland, and almost three-quarters of them had migrated to the United States.
deadly
a. 치명적인, 죽음의
Irish famine was one of the deadliest famines in history.
outcome
n. 결과
Despite the terrible outcome of the potato disease in Europe, it was perhaps less important in the potato's history than the Colorado potato beetle was in North America.
beetle
n. 딱정벌레(와 비슷한 곤충)
In the 1860s, the potato beetle was carried by horses and cows from Mexico to the state of Colorado in the United States.
steamship
n. 증기선
In Colorado, potato beetle attacked potatoes and spread quickly when potatoes were shipped to other parts of the country on trains and steamships.
vulnerable
a. 취약한, 영향받기 쉬운
American farmers had only planted a few varieties of potatoes, and the potatoes that they planted were extremely vulnerable to the pest.
defenseless
a. 무방비의, 방어할 수 없는
Farmers were practically defenseless against the potato beetle.
pest
n. 해충
A farmer accidentally found a chemical material that kills pests.
chemical
n. 화학 물질
Chemists decided to try other chemicals for other problems.
substance
n. 물질
Scientists began to do research and discover chemicals and substances that were effective for many different agricultural problems.
agricultural
a. 농업의
The major agricultural product of this region is corn.
seemingly
ad. 겉보기에는, 표면적으로
Often, the course of history is changed by seemingly insignificant things.
insignificant
a. 중요하지 않은, 사소한
Often, the course of history is changed by seemingly insignificant things.
swallow
v. (다른 대상을) 완전히 가리다,
집어삼키다
Some sinkholes are large enough to swallow entire buildings.
furnishing
n. 가구, 비품
Seeing that Jeff and all his furnishings had vanished into the earth, Jeremy desperately tried to rescue him.
vanish
v. 사라지다
Seeing that Jeff and all his furnishings had vanished into the earth, Jeremy desperately tried to rescue him.
desperately
ad. 필사적으로, 절망적으로
Jeremy desperately tried to rescue him.
collapse
v. 붕괴하다, 무너지다
In 2010, in Guatemala City, an area approximately 20 meters wide and 30 meters deep collapsed, killing 15 people.
surface
n. 표면
A sinkhole is caused by a collapse of the land surface.
vary
v. 달라지다, 다르다
Sinkholes vary in size from 1 to 600 meters deep.
passageway
n. 통로
It is said that the ancient Maya believed sinkholes were passageways to the world of the dead.
destructive
a. 파괴적인
Not all sinkholes are dangerous, destructive, and ruinous.
ruinous
a. 파멸을 가져올, 파괴적인
Not all sinkholes are dangerous, destructive, and ruinous.
attract
v. 끌다, 유혹하다
Some sinkholes attract tourists who are interested in the mystery of nature.
notable
a. 주목할 만한, 유명한
Some notable sinkholes include Sima Humboldt in Venezuela and Xiaozhai Tiankeng in China.
form
v. 형성되다, 형성시키다
Sinkholes can form underwater.
underwater
ad. 물속에서, 수면 아래에서
Underwater sinkholes are called blue holes.
spectacular
a. 멋진, 장관의
The Great Blue Hole in Belize is one of the most spectacular.
typically
ad. 전형적으로, 일반적으로
Sinkholes typically occur in areas where the rock beneath the surface soil is limestone, carbonate rock, or sandstone.
wear away
마모시키다, 닳다
Soft rock is easily worn away by water.
seep
v. 스며들다, 배다
When rainwater seeps down through surface soil, it eventually reaches the bedrock below.
bedrock
n. 기반암
Bedrock is the rock in the ground that supports all the soil above it.
erode
v. 침식하다
Rainwater erodes the bedrock, creating cracks underground.
crack
n. 균열
Rainwater erodes the bedrock, creating cracks underground.
gradually
ad. 서서히
As the process continues, the soil above is gradually washed into the cracks.
factor
n. 요인, 원인
The most common factor that triggers a collapse is a change in underground water levels.
dramatically
ad. 극적으로, 인상적으로
A sudden heavy rain can add dramatically to the weight of the surface soil.
bring about
초래하다, 일으키다
Heavy weight on soft soil can bring about an unpredictable collapse.
indirectly
ad. 간접적으로
Most sinkholes we are seeing these days are indirectly related to human activities.
trigger
v. 유발하다, 일으키다
The most common factor that triggers a collapse is a change in underground water levels.
groundwater
n. 지하수
Sinkholes may occur because of the removal of groundwater.
urban
a. 도시의
Many sinkholes have opened up in urban areas around the world, sometimes resulting in tragic accidents.
result in
~을 야기하다
Many sinkholes have opened up in urban areas around the world, sometimes resulting in tragic accidents.
lean
v. 기울어지다
If you live in an area where sinkholes have happened before, look around for possible warnings, such as leaning trees.
properly
ad. 올바르게, 적절히
If you live in an area where sinkholes have happened before, look around for possible warnings, such as doors or windows that don’t close properly.
spot
n. (특정한) 장소
If you live in an area where sinkholes have happened before, look around for possible warnings, such as rainwater collecting in unusual spots.
carelessness
n. 부주의
Sinkholes caused by human carelessness can often be prevented.
prior to
~보다 앞서
Thorough soil testing prior to construction is the best way to prevent the formation of a sinkhole in the middle of a city.
maintain
v. 유지하다, 관리하다
Thorough soil testing and maintaining the underground water and plumbing systems are the best ways to prevent the formation of a sinkhole in the middle of a city.
widespread
a. 널리 퍼진, 광범위한
Sinkholes are not widespread events like hurricanes or earthquakes.
localize
v. 국한시키다
Sinkholes are not widespread events. They are very localized.
ignore
v. 무시하다
We should not ignore the possibility of sinkholes.
possibility
n. 가능성
We should not ignore the possibility of sinkholes.
availability
n. 이용 가능성
Today, the availability of water for drinking and other uses is a critical problem in many areas of the world.
critical
a. 중요한, 주요한
Today, the availability of water for drinking and other uses is a critical problem in many areas of the world.
nowadays
ad. 요즘에는
Nowadays, the lack of clean water causes more deaths than war.
access
n. 접근, 접근 방법(수단, 기회)
One out of every six people living today does not have adequate access to water.
sufficient
a. 충분한
If sufficient water for sanitation were available, these children would be saved.
sanitation
n. 위생
If sufficient water for sanitation were available, these children would be saved.
scarce
a. 부족한, 드문
Is water really scarce?
ice cap
n. 빙원, 만년설
Of the fresh water that remains, over two thirds is locked away in ice caps and glaciers.
glacier
n. 빙하
Of the fresh water that remains, over two thirds is locked away in ice caps and glaciers.
trap
v. 가두다
Most of the rest is trapped in the soil or underground.
crisis
n. 위기
Overcoming the water crisis is one of the toughest human challenges of the early 21st century.
deposit
v. 비축하다, 쌓이게 하다
Because groundwater, mostly deposited in earlier times, is being exhausted far faster than it is being replaced.
exhaust
v. 고갈시키다
Because groundwater, mostly deposited in earlier times, is being exhausted far faster than it is being replaced.
be in want of
~이 필요하다
The Middle East, North Africa, and many other regions are always in want of water.
specific
a. 특정한
Even within specific countries, such as Brazil, some regions have more than enough fresh, unpolluted water while other regions often suffer from droughts.
drought
n. 가뭄
Even within specific countries, such as Brazil, some regions have more than enough fresh, unpolluted water while other regions often suffer from droughts.
household
a. 세대 가정용의
Water for drinking and personal use is only a small portion of society’s total water needs — household water usually accounts for less than 5 percent of total water use.
account for
~를 차지하다
Household water usually accounts for less than 5 percent of total water use.
ecological
a. 생태계의
Water is also inevitably needed for ecological processes not directly related to human use.
overcome
v. 극복하다, 이겨내다
Overcoming the water crisis is one of the toughest human challenges of the early 21st century.
sophisticated
a. 복잡한, 정교한
Today, we need more sophisticated and controlling water supply methods that do not only meet our increased needs but also prevent damage to the environment and ecosystems.
divert
v. (방향을) 전환시키다
One large-scale approach has been to divert the flow of water from regions where it is plentiful to where it is scarce.
explosive
a. 폭발적인
Another problem is that diverting water to some people often means less for others, and this can become an explosive political issue potentially.
desalination
n. 담수화
Desalination is extracting the salt from seawater.
extract
v. 추출하다
Desalination is extracting the salt from seawater.
domestic
a. 국내의
Israel uses desalination technology to provide about a fourth of its domestic water needs.
operate
v. 작동하다
Desalination plants are expensive to build and require lots of energy to operate.
suitable
a. 적합한
Desalination plants are expensive to build and require lots of energy to operate, which makes desalination suitable mainly for seaside cities in rich countries.
abundant
a. 풍부한
If desalination is going to be a realistic source of fresh water, countries need either abundant, cheap energy or a way to make the process more efficient.
irrigation
n. 관개
Agricultural irrigation consumes enormous quantities of water.
enormous
a. 막대한, 거대한
Agricultural irrigation consumes enormous quantities of water; in developing countries, irrigation often exceeds 80 percent of total water use.
exceed
v. 초과하다, 넘다
Agricultural irrigation consumes enormous quantities of water; in developing countries, irrigation often exceeds 80 percent of total water use.
drip
v. (액체를) 뚝뚝 흘리다
Improved technologies can drip water directly onto plants.
cleanse
v. 세척하다
However, this is not a perfect solution because it does not provide enough water to cleanse the soil.
purification
n. 정화
Effective purification methods and thorough safeguards are necessary to ensure the safety of recycled water.
safeguard
n. 안전장치
Effective purification methods and thorough safeguards are necessary to ensure the safety of recycled water.
ensure
v. 보장하다, 확실하게 하다
Effective purification methods and thorough safeguards are necessary to ensure the safety of recycled water.
distillation
n. 증류
Some current projects have produced inexpensive distillation units that can remove toxic elements from any water source.
infrastructure
n. 사회(공공)기반시설
It is a small distillation unit, which is a particularly attractive approach in rural and low-income areas where the lack of infrastructure makes it hard to distribute water efficiently and economically.
distribute
v. 분배하다
It is a small distillation unit, which is a particularly attractive approach in rural and low-income areas where the lack of infrastructure makes it hard to distribute water efficiently and economically.
conservation
n. 보존, 보호
Traditional approaches to water use and conservation cannot solve the water crisis of the future.
imaginative
a. 창의적인, 상상력이 풍부한
The world’s water problems can only be solved by better technologies and more imaginative innovations.
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