YBM 고등 영어Ⅱ 박준언 2학기
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세트공유
domain
n. (학문, 사상 등) 분야, 영역
Today, women are displaying their talents and abilities in almost every domain of human effort.
sector
n. (산업 따위의) 부분, 부문
Women compete with men in once male-dominated sectors.
in the course of time
시간이 지나자, 세월이 흐른 후에
In the course of time women’s rights have progressed a lot.
severely
a. 심하게
Women were severely restricted in their working lives due to irrational discrimination against them.
restrict
v. 규제하다
Women were severely restricted in their working lives due to irrational discrimination against them.
irrational
a. 비이성적인, 비합리적인
Women were severely restricted in their working lives due to irrational discrimination against them.
discrimination
n. 차별
Women were severely restricted in their working lives due to irrational discrimination against them.
equality
n. 평등
Equality has long been considered one of the noblest human values in America.
privilege
n. 특권
Women were once not able to enjoy the same rights and privileges as men.
eligible
a. 적격의, 적임의
Women also were not eligible for admissions to Ivy League universities.
admission
n. 입학, 입장
Women also were not eligible for admissions to Ivy League universities.
jury
n. 배심원단
In some states in America women were kept out of jury pools.
fragile
a. 허약한, 연약한
Women were thought to be too fragile to hear the horrible details of crimes.
by nature
천성적으로
Women were thought to be too sympathetic by nature to be able to remain objective about those accused of offenses.
accused of
~로 기소된
Women were thought to be too sympathetic by nature to be able to remain objective about those accused of offenses.
offence
n. 위반, 경범죄
Women were thought to be too sympathetic by nature to be able to remain objective about those accused of offenses.
revolutionary
a. 혁명적인, 혁신적인
During the 1960s revolutionary changes emerged in American society.
initially
a. 애초에, 처음에
Initially, the demands for change were triggered by sustained racial discrimination against African-Americans.
call for
~를 요구하다, 요청하다
The Civil Rights Movement called for all people to receive equal treatment.
suppress
v. 억압하다, 억누르다
People who had been treated unfairly began to organize collective movements to regain their suppressed rights.
regardless of
~와 상관없이
People demanded equality for all people regardless of race, sex, age, disability, national origin, religion, or other characteristics.
disability
n. 장애
People demanded equality for all people regardless of race, sex, age, disability, national origin, religion, or other characteristics.
invisible
a. 보이지 않는
Women begin to challenge both the visible and the invisible restrictions put upon them by outdated societal stereotypes.
societal
a. 사회의
Women begin to challenge both the visible and the invisible restrictions put upon them by outdated societal stereotypes.
stereotype
n. 고정관념, 전형
Women begin to challenge both the visible and the invisible restrictions put upon them by outdated societal stereotypes.
due
a. 마땅한, 당연한
Women struggled to gain their due rights as equals to men.
barrier
n. 장벽, 방해물
A brave female athlete was able to overcome one barrier in the male-dominated athletic culture.
major
n. 소령
Kathrine Switzer was born in Germany, the daughter of a major who was stationed there in the United States Army.
station
v. ~을 주둔시키다
Kathrine Switzer was born in Germany, the daughter of a major who was stationed there in the United States Army.
unofficially
a. 비공식적으로
Switzer trained unofficially with the men’s cross-country team.
intensely
ad. 강하게, 매우
Briggs intensely discouraged Switzer, saying women could not run in the marathon.
discourage
v. 용기를 꺾다, 말리다
Briggs intensely discouraged Switzer, saying women could not run in the marathon.
insistence
n. 고집, 주장, 강조
Upon Switzer's insistence, Briggs finally agreed to let her sign up for the race.
sign up for
~을 신청하다, ~에 등록하다
Upon Switzer's insistence, Briggs finally agreed to let her sign up for the race.
entry
n. 참가, 출전
Switzer and her coach checked the rule book and entry form.
taken for granted
당연시 되는
At that time, it was taken for granted that only men could enter the race.
controversy
n. 논란
To avoid the controversy that would come with her registration as a woman, she entered as “K.V. Switzer.”
registration
n. 등록
To avoid the controversy that would come with her registration as a woman, she entered as “K.V. Switzer.”
bib
n. 참가번호
Switzer was given the bib number 261.
pilgrim
n. 순례자
Switzer was one of the pilgrims.
scream
v. 소리치다, 비명을 지르다
A man in the middle of the road screamed at Switzer.
swipe
v. 휘둘러 치다, 후려치다
Semple continued to swipe at the bib number on Switzer's back.
embarrassment
n. 당황
Having never felt such embarrassment and fear before, Switzer wondered if she should step off the course.
flicker
n. 잠깐 스침
That thought, however, was only a flicker.
be capable of
~할 수 있다
Switzer proved with an official bib number and time that womenare capable of running long distances.
one-off
a. 일회성의
To the male runners it was a one-off event.
doubt
n. 의심
Without a doubt, it was a lot more than that to Switzer.
convince
v. 설득하다
Switzer tried to convince the Boston Athletic Association to allow women to participate in the marathon.
association
n. 협회
Switzer tried to convince the Boston Athletic Association to allow women to participate in the marathon.
participate in
~에 참가하다
Switzer tried to convince the Boston Athletic Association to allow women to participate in the marathon.
ceaseless
a. 부단한, 끊임없는
Switzer's ceaseless efforts to achieve gender equality in the marathon finally led the 1984 Olympic Games to introduce the women’s marathon.
gender
n. 성
Switzer's ceaseless efforts to achieve gender equality in the marathon finally led the 1984 Olympic Games to introduce the women’s marathon.
be inducted into
~에 추대되다, ~에 입성하다
Switzer was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 2011.
Hall of Fame
명예의 전당
Switzer was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 2011.
empower
v. 권능을 부여하다, 힘을 주다
Switzer created a social revolution by empowering women around the world through running.
attention
n. 주목, 주의집중
Switzer once again ran in the marathon, getting the media’s attention globally with the same bib number that was assigned to her in 1967.
assign
v. 부여하다, 할당하다
Switzer once again ran in the marathon, getting the media’s attention globally with the same bib number that was assigned to her in 1967.
acceptance
n. 수락, 인정, 동의
Switzer secured acceptance of the notion that elderly runners should be able to compete with younger ones.
notion
n. 개념
Switzer secured acceptance of the notion that elderly runners should be able to compete with younger ones.
in honor of
~을 기리기 위해
In honor of Switzer’s accomplishment, the Boston Athletic Association announced it would retire bib number 261.
retire
v. 은퇴시키다, 영구 사용중지하다
In honor of Switzer’s accomplishment, the Boston Athletic Association announced it would retire bib number 261.
mascot
n. 마스코트
Buzz the Bee, the famous honeybee mascot of a cereal maker, was gone from the boxes of the maker’s cereals.
diminish
v. 줄다, 감소하다
It was the decision of the cereal maker to remind people that the world’s population of bees is fast diminishing.
out of the blue
갑자기, 느닷없이
The cereal maker’s decision did not come out of the blue.
bumblebee
n. 호박벌
Earlier in that year, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service declared that in the United States the bumblebee was endangered.
endangered
a. 멸종 위기에 처한
Earlier in that year, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service declared that in the United States the bumblebee was endangered.
shrink
v. 줄다, 감소하다
The population of the bumblebee in the U.S. had shrunk by nearly 90 percent since the late 1990s.
phenomenon
n. 현상
Similar phenomena have occurred in other parts of the world.
colony
n. 군락, 군집
In Central Europe, honeybee colonies have declined by 25 percent since 1985.
pollinate
v. 수분하다
In Hanyuan County, China, farmers are forced to pollinate their fruit by hand due to the severe decline in the population of honeybees.
all in all
대체로, 전반적으로
All in all, bees are disappearing all over the world, and that worries scientists and farmers, among others.
pollen
n. 꽃가루
If bees do not move pollen from one blossom to another, one third of the crops we consume would be severely affected.
multiple
a. 다수의, 복합적인
There is general agreement that declines in bee populations are the product of multiple factors that can act alone or in combination.
combination
n. 결합, 복합
There is general agreement that declines in bee populations are the product of multiple factors that can act alone or in combination.
suffer from
~로 고통을 겪다
Bees suffer from their own diseases and from parasites that weaken and often kill them.
parasite
n. 기생충
Bees suffer from their own diseases and from parasites that weaken and often kill them.
beekeeper
n. 양봉가
Many beekeepers agree that the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most serious threat to bees.
feed on
~을 먹고 살다
Varroa is a very small mite that feeds on the blood of the bee and spreads from hive to hive.
stable
a. 안정적인, 안정된
Bees feed on flowers, so they need a stable supply.
diverse
a. 다양한
When there are not enough diverse blooming flowers during the bee season, bees are not able to sufficiently feed themselves.
bloom
v. 꽃이 피다
When there are not enough diverse blooming flowers during the bee season, bees are not able to sufficiently feed themselves.
agriculture
n. 농업
The lack of diverse flowers is in part the result of changes in agriculture.
industrialized
a. 산업화된, 공업화된
Over the past century, agriculture has become increasingly industrialized.
outstanding
a. 뛰어난
One of the outstanding features of industrial agriculture is monoculture.
monoculture
n. 단일 재배
One of the outstanding features of industrial agriculture is monoculture.
nutrient
n. 영양소
Monoculture leads to poor nutrition for bees because a single plant cannot meet their nutrient requirements.
requirement
n. 요구량, 필요량
Monoculture leads to poor nutrition for bees because a single plant cannot meet their nutrient requirements.
habitat
n. 서식지
Large industrial facilities, playgrounds, and golf courses are making matters worse by destroying bee habitats that were once filled with diverse flowers.
be filled with
~로 가득 차다
Large industrial facilities, playgrounds, and golf courses are making matters worse by destroying bee habitats that were once filled with diverse flowers.
suspected
a. 의심스러운, 의심이 가는
One more suspected factor that is contributing to the bees’ poor nutrition is climate change.
contribute to
~에 기여하다
One more suspected factor that is contributing to the bees’ poor nutrition is climate change.
irregular
a. 불규칙적인
Increasing temperatures, changes in rainfall patterns, and more irregular and extreme weather have impacted bee populations.
flight
n. 비행, 날기
Honeybees' first winter flight date has advanced by more than one month during the last 25 years due to increasing temperatures.
shortage
n. 부족
Because patterns of flowering do not always match the bees’ first winter flight, bees are likely to suffer from food shortages.
pesticide
n. 농약, 살충제
Widespread use of pesticides is the third major factor that is leading to the decline of bees.
contaminate
v. 오염시키다
If bees avoid direct contact with pesticides, they can still be contaminated through pollen, the air, water or soil.
deadly
a. 치명적인
Widespread use of pesticides has deadly effects on a bee colony because a contaminated bee transports the pesticide to the colony, in pollen or nectar.
collapse
v. 무너지다, 붕괴하다
The results are often disastrous, and the affected colony eventually collapses.
minimize
v. 최소화하다
To apply pesticides in the evening will minimize the impact of pesticides on bees, as bees take food during the day.
collaboration
n. 협력
There should be national and international collaboration among beekeepers, growers, governments, and pesticide manufacturers.
manufacturer
n. 제조업자
There should be national and international collaboration among beekeepers, growers, governments, and pesticide manufacturers.
organic
a. 유기농의
We can buy and consume more organic produce that is grown without or with minimum use of pesticides.
produce
n. 농산물
We can buy and consume more organic produce that is grown without or with minimum use of pesticides.
take action
행동을 취하다
When we take these seemingly small actions to help bees, we help them make our world healthier.
seemingly
ad. 겉보기에, 언뜻 보기에
When we take these seemingly small actions to help bees, we help them make our world healthier.
frontier
n. 개척지
Modern children have eventually grown up to lead the frontiers of robot technology.
incredible
a. 놀라울 정도의, 놀라운
The incredible history of robots is all about science catching up with human imagination.
catch up with
따라잡다
The incredible history of robots is all about science catching up with human imagination.
fiction
n. 소설, 허구
The incredible history of robots is a constant dialog between imaginative fiction and actual scientific discoveries.
spin
v. 실을 만들다
In The Iliad, Homer tells the myth of Hephaistos who has helpers made of gold that spin and weave.
weave
v. 실을 엮다
In The Iliad, Homer tells the myth of Hephaistos who has helpers made of gold that spin and weave.
inanimate
a. 무생물의
Many ancient stories show that people have long dreamed of inanimate creatures that can do their monotonous or difficult work.
monotonous
a. 단조로운
Many ancient stories show that people have long dreamed of inanimate creatures that can do their monotonous or difficult work.
foundation
n. 토대, 기초
In early modern times, the first invention that laid the foundation for robotics was perfected.
robotics
n. 로봇 공학
In early modern times, the first invention that laid the foundation for robotics was perfected.
mechanism
n. 기계 장치
The mechanisms that ran clocks were called “clockworks.”
automaton
n. 자동 장치, 작은 로봇
The 17th century is known to have been the golden age of “clockwork automatons.”
ancestor
n. 조상, 선조
Walking toy soldiers were distant ancestors to today’s robots.
mechanical
a. 기계의, 기계적인
The moving dolls marked the beginning of modern mechanical engineering.
edge
n. 모서리, 경계
Further advances of mechanical engineering have given sharper edges to the imaginary machines that work for human beings.
imaginary
a. 가상의, 상상의
Further advances of mechanical engineering have given sharper edges to the imaginary machines that work for human beings.
refer to
가리키다
The term “robot,” referring to such artificial creatures, was first coined in Czech writer Karel Capek’s play.
artificial
a. 인공의
The term “robot,” referring to such artificial creatures, was first coined in Czech writer Karel Capek’s play.
coin
v. (말을) 만들다
The term “robot,” referring to such artificial creatures, was first coined in Czech writer Karel Capek’s play.
labor
n. 노동
Robots are specifically made to do the hard labor so that human beings can live lives of leisure and comfort.
repetitive
a. 반복적인
Industrial robots perform repetitive and dangerous tasks.
infinitely
ad. 대단히, 엄청
Products are manufactured infinitely faster and cheaper than before.
volcano
n. 화산
Industrial robots are sent deep into the sea, into volcanoes, and even to other planets.
be about to
막 ~하려는 참이다
For the first time in human history, robots are about to evolve into independent, “living” creatures.
prospect
n. 전망
The prospect seems to have stirred more fears than hopes.
stir
v. 불러일으키다
The prospect seems to have stirred more fears than hopes.
dread
n. 공포
When Google’s AlphaGo beat the world’s elite go players, the shock and dread that robots might finally assume “life” struck the global population.
owe
v. 빚지다
It is called Frankenstein anxiety and owes its name to the novel Frankenstein.
countless
a. 무수히 많은
In the genre of science fiction, countless artificial beings were depicted as becoming dangerous.
depict
v. 묘사하다, 그리다
In the genre of science fiction, countless artificial beings were depicted as becoming dangerous.
be replaced with
~로 대체되다
Human beings were seen to be replaced with their own creation.
wipe off
~를 없애다
In the movie The Terminator, released in the 1980s, highly developed AI robots finally decide to wipe the human race off the face of the earth.
devise
v. 고안하다
The safety measures Asimov devised for his fictional robots were the famous “Three Fundamental Laws of Robotics.”
set the priorities
우선순위를 정하다
The Laws set the priorities for robotic behavior.
at all cost
무슨 수를 써서라도
At all cost, human life should be protected.
insightful
a. 통찰력 있는
Asimov’s fictional vision has proved insightful and has helped global leaders to plan and prepare for the future.
ethical
a. 윤리적인
In 2011, British scientists, engineers, and scholars suggested that designers, builders, and users of robots follow five ethical principles.
principle
n. 원리, 원칙
The principles focus on human safety, making it clear that robots should serve human beings.
resolution
n. 결의안
In February, 2017, the European Parliament approved a resolution calling for the creation of laws on robotics.
undue
a. 과도한
We cannot just stop developing robots because of undue fears.
thorough
a. 철저한
Thorough discussions and constant monitoring are essential in guiding us in the right direction for robot development.
considerate
a. 사려 깊은, 주의 깊은
We should be wiser and more considerate in picturing and planning for a future with robots, carefully weighing many different possibilities.
weigh
v. 따져 보다, 저울질하다
We should be wiser and more considerate in picturing and planning for a future with robots, carefully weighing many different possibilities.
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