YBM 교과서 단어 배틀 - 고등 영어Ⅱ 박준언
378 카드 | ybmadmin
세트공유
renewal
n. 갱신, 재개발
The importance of urban renewal cannot be stressed enough.
organism
n. 유기체
Like any living organism, cities eventually grow old and tired.
infrastructure
n. 토대, 인프라, 사회 기반 시설
New buildings must be constructed and old infrastructure repaired or replaced.
tricky
a. 다루기 힘든, 까다로운
Most cities find it tricky to deal with the issue.
run-down
a. 황폐한, 허물어져 가는
What to do with the run-down parts of a city generates heated debates among interested parties.
generate
v. 발생시키다, 야기하다
What to do with the run-down parts of a city generates heated debates among interested parties.
property
n. 재산, 자산
From local government to private property owners, conservationists to real estate developers, disused city districts are highly fought over.
conservationist
n. 보호론자, 보존주의자
From local government to private property owners, conservationists to real estate developers, disused city districts are highly fought over.
real estate
부동산, 토지
From local government to private property owners, conservationists to real estate developers, disused city districts are highly fought over.
disused
a. 사용되지 않는
From local government to private property owners, conservationists to real estate developers, disused city districts are highly fought over.
district
n. 구역
From local government to private property owners, conservationists to real estate developers, disused city districts are highly fought over.
wipe out
쓸어버리다
A lot of run-down urban areas were entirely wiped out in favor of massive redevelopment.
in favor of
~의 이익이 되도록, ~을 위하여
A lot of run-down urban areas were entirely wiped out in favor of massive redevelopment.
redevelopment
n. 재개발
A lot of run-down urban areas were entirely wiped out in favor of massive redevelopment.
transport
n. 운송
Massive redevelopment would meet the demands of the modern city, for housing, transport, office or commercial space.
tear down
부수다, 파괴하다
Old buildings were torn down and were soon replaced with bright, shining buildings.
profitable
a. 이익이 많은
Massive redevelopment may have been fast, effective, and profitable, but the true cost was ignored.
ignore
v. 무시하다
Massive redevelopment may have been fast, effective, and profitable, but the true cost was ignored.
trace
n. 자취, 흔적
The historical traces of the cityscape were forever erased.
cityscape
n. 도시경관
The historical traces of the cityscape were forever erased.
disregard
n. 무시, 무관심
Because of this disregard for the human aspect, new perspectives to look at urban renewal are being brought into focus.
perspective
n. 관점, 시점
Because of this disregard for the human aspect, new perspectives to look at urban renewal are being brought into focus.
architectural
a. 건축의
New perspectives to look at urban renewal are being brought into focus─more creative, and better at preserving a city’s architectural heritage.
heritage
n. 문화 유산
New perspectives to look at urban renewal are being brought into focus─more creative, and better at preserving a city’s architectural heritage.
metropolitan
a. 대도시의
Today the colorful city is a rising metropolitan economy in Latin America.
shelter
n. 피난처, 은신처
Comuna 13 was once a shelter for armed criminals.
abandon
v. 버리다, 포기하다
Steep roads made it impossible for vehicles to access this poor neighborhood, leaving the community isolated, abandoned by law enforcement.
enforcement
n. 시행, 집행
Steep roads made it impossible for vehicles to access this poor neighborhood, leaving the community isolated, abandoned by law enforcement.
come up with
~을 생각해내다, 발견하다
The city came up with a clever idea to secure access to the areaㅡa 384-meter long series of escalators that scales the mountain.
scale
v. ~을 오르다
The city came up with a clever idea to secure access to the areaㅡa 384-meter long series of escalators that scales the mountain.
speak highly of
~을 칭찬하다
The residents cannot speak highly enough of the simple innovation.
prosperity
n. 번영
The simple innovation has brought peace, pride, and prosperity to a community.
peak
n. 절정, 정점
In recent years Medellin’s crime rate has fallen by more than 80 percent from its peak.
rebirth
n. 부활
The escalators are now a symbol of rebirth and have encouraged international corporations to open new facilities in the area.
corporation
n. 주식회사, 기업
The escalators are now a symbol of rebirth and have encouraged international corporations to open new facilities in the area.
featureless
a. 특색이 없는
Reconstruction architecture was functional and featureless, consisting of cheap grey concrete blocks.
consist of
~으로 구성되어 있다
Reconstruction architecture was functional and featureless, consisting of cheap grey concrete blocks.
concrete
n. 콘크리트
Reconstruction architecture was functional and featureless, consisting of cheap grey concrete blocks.
vitality
n. 활기
The artist transformed the dull concrete buildings into more welcoming, eco-friendly spaces, full of vitality and greenery.
greenery
n. 녹색 식물
The artist transformed the dull concrete buildings into more welcoming, eco-friendly spaces, full of vitality and greenery.
composed of
~로 구성된
The mayor allowed him to create a unique community composed of 52 apartments, common playgrounds, and a medical facility.
tenant
n. 거주자, 주민, 세입자
The trees in the community are treated as regular tenants.
reduction
n. 감소, 인하
The trees pay their share of the rent by providing fresh air and noise reduction.
integrated
a. 통합된
The apartment complex was designed to function as an integrated eco-friendly system.
overwhelming
a. 굉장한, 압도적인
The best thing about the colorful apartment site is its overwhelming beauty and incomparable artistic uniqueness.
incomparable
a. 비할 데가 없는
The best thing about the colorful apartment site is its overwhelming beauty and incomparable artistic uniqueness.
significantly
ad. 중요하게, 상당히
Most significantly, interest in the project has generated similar housing designs by architects from all over the world.
literally
ad. 문자 그대로, 정말로
An artist’s vision has literally changed the entire view of the city.
upcycle
v. 업사이클하다, 더 나은 것으로 만들다
An innovative plan for New York’s old subway line is a representative example of upcycling urban infrastructure.
outdated
a. 구식의, 낡아서 효용이 떨어진
Upcycling or creative reuse of outdated infrastructure can be a great solution.
few and far between
흔하지 않은
Green spaces in densely populated cities are often few and far between.
populous
a. 인구가 많은
In particularly populous cities like New York and Seoul, common space for citizens is never enough.
representative
a. 대표하는
An innovative plan for New York’s old subway line is a representative example of upcycling urban infrastructure.
enormous
a. 거대한
Built at an enormous cost, the High Line soon fell out of favor and began to be closed and brought down.
out of favor
인기 없는, 눈 밖에 나서
Built at an enormous cost, the High Line soon fell out of favor and began to be closed and brought down.
bring down
내리다, 붕괴시키다
Built at an enormous cost, the High Line soon fell out of favor and began to be closed and brought down.
convert
v. 변환시키다
Manhattan residents started an effort to convert the disused rail line into a public park.
revive
v. 회복시키다
The High Line Park has revived the run-down area and breathed new life into the surrounding community.
surrounding
a. 주위의
The High Line Park has revived the run-down area and breathed new life into the surrounding community.
overpass
n. 고가도로
The Seoul Station Overpass was originally designed exclusively for cars.
exclusively
ad. 오로지, 독점적으로
The Seoul Station Overpass was originally designed exclusively for cars.
priority
n. 우선, 우선사항
The priorities of one of the world’s fastest transforming cities have been reordered.
stand for
상징하다
It stands for the slower pace of a nation that seeks to pay greater respect to its history.
pay respect to
~에 경의를 표하다, ~을 존중하다
It stands for the slower pace of a nation that seeks to pay greater respect to its history.
underutilize
v. 충분히 활용하지 않다
Every city has pockets of underused and underutilized land or decaying urban areas.
decay
v. 썩다, 황폐해지다
Every city has pockets of underused and underutilized land or decaying urban areas.
be aware of
~을 알고 있다
Everyone is aware of the importance of urban planning.
miracle
n. 기적
After all 155 people were pulled from the icy waters by rescue boats, a story of a miracle began to emerge.
land
v. 착륙하다, 착지하다
US Airways Flight 1549 landed on New York’s Hudson River on a cold winter’s day.
destined
a. 예정된, ~할 운명의
What seemed destined to be a tragedy became an extraordinary tale of success and survival.
tragedy
n. 비극
What seemed destined to be a tragedy became an extraordinary tale of success and survival.
tale
n. 이야기
What seemed destined to be a tragedy became an extraordinary tale of success and survival.
emerge
v. 나타나다, 드러나다
After all 155 people were pulled from the icy waters by rescue boats, a story of a miracle began to emerge.
coordinated
a. 협력의, 조직화된
It was a miracle created with the coordinated efforts of a highly trained pilot, flight attendants, ferry operators and rescue workers.
takeoff
n. 이륙
It was a normal takeoff in every regard.
in every regard
모든 점에서
It was a normal takeoff in every regard.
cockpit
n. 조종석
Captain Chesley Sullenberger noticed large birds covering the cockpit windows, and they were too close to avoid.
shake
v. 흔들리다
Sullenberger felt the engine shaking, and burned bird smell was being brought into the airplane.
aircraft
n. 항공기
The airplane was about 3,000 feet over New York City when the engines failed, and the aircraft started to descend rapidly.
descend
v. 하강하다
The airplane was about 3,000 feet over New York City when the engines failed, and the aircraft started to descend rapidly.
urgently
ad. 긴급하게
Captain Sullenberger urgently looked for some place to land and contacted air traffic control.
dismiss
v. 거부하다, 묵살하다
The idea of turning back to LaGuardia was quickly dismissed because the distance and altitude required for the return could not be maintained.
altitude
n. 고도
The idea of turning back to LaGuardia was quickly dismissed because the distance and altitude required for the return could not be maintained.
disastrous
a. 비참한, 처참한
If he had turned his plane back to LaGuardia, it would have made the emergency landing disastrous for everyone on board and people on the ground.
on board
승선한
If he had turned his plane back to LaGuardia, it would have made the emergency landing disastrous for everyone on board and people on the ground.
come into sight
시야에 들어오다
And then the Hudson River came into sight on Sullenberger's left.
level
a. 평평한
The only smooth level place sufficiently large enough to land an airplane this size is the river.
sufficiently
ad. 충분히
The only smooth level place sufficiently large enough to land an airplane this size is the river.
co-pilot
n. 부조종사, 부기장
Sullenberger and his co-pilot Jeff Skiles prepared to land on the water.
accomplish
v. 성취하다
A water landing is never an easy job, one that only a few airline pilots have ever accomplished safely.
break into pieces
산산조각이 나다
He recalled an airplane that landed in the Indian Ocean in 1996 and broke into pieces, killing most of the passengers on board.
simultaneously
ad. 동시에
Most importantly, Sullenberger needed to make all these things happen simultaneously.
make an announcement
발표를 하다
Ninety seconds before hitting the water, Captain Sullenberger made an announcement to the passengers and the crew.
brace
v. 대비하다, 버티다
Brace for impact.
impact
n. 충격, 충돌, 영향
Brace for impact.
panic
n. 공포, 불안감
With Captain Sullenberger busy making the complex calculations needed for the emergency water landing, panic spread among the passengers.
superb
a. 최고의, 최상의
Despite Sullenberge's superb control of the plane, the impact was so powerful that it tore a hole under the airplane’s tail.
tear
v. 찢다, 자국을 남기다
Despite Sullenberge's superb control of the plane, the impact was so powerful that it tore a hole under the airplane’s tail.
cabin
n. 선실
Water began to pour into the cabin.
chute
n. 비상 탈출 슬라이드, 활송 장치
The flight attendant opened the door and the chute automatically came out and inflated.
inflate
v. 부풀어 오르다
The flight attendant opened the door and the chute automatically came out and inflated.
command
n. 명령
At the command of Captain Sullenberger to evacuate, passengers started to get out.
evacuate
v. 피난하다
At the command of Captain Sullenberger to evacuate, passengers started to get out.
comfort
v. 위로하다
The flight attendant tried to comfort the man, saying, “Be calm, and just try to breathe.”
turn out
드러나다, 나타나다
It turned out that he had lost his brother, a firefighter, in 9/11.
approach
v. 접근하다
Within minutes after the landing, three New York Waterway ferries approached the airplane.
brutally
ad. 잔인하게, 가차 없이
Scared passengers began to get out of the emergency exits into the brutally cold air and onto the wings of the plane.
pull up
(서서히) 멈추다
The first ferry pulled up alongside the plane and some passengers leaped onto the decks while others were helped aboard by ferry crew.
leap
v. 뛰어오르다
The first ferry pulled up alongside the plane and some passengers leaped onto the decks while others were helped aboard by ferry crew.
deck
n. (배의) 갑판
The first ferry pulled up alongside the plane and some passengers leaped onto the decks while others were helped aboard by ferry crew.
craft
n. 보트, 배, 항공기
Soon, police boats, Coast Guard craft and many other boats covered the scene.
raft
n. 고무보트
Then the captain took a final look at his sinking plane and got on the last life raft, now filled with passengers.
pass away
사망하다
My father could have passed away along with your other passengers, if you had not landed in the river.
credit
v. ~의 공으로 돌리다
The final report by the National Transportation Safety Board on the accident credited the outcome to four factors.
outcome
n. 결과
The final report by the National Transportation Safety Board on the accident credited the outcome to four factors.
life vest
n. 구명조끼
The plane carried life vests and additional rafts and slides, even though they were not required for that route.
suitable
a. 적절한
The fact that the plane carried life vests and additional rafts made it suitable for an extended overwater operation.
extended
a. 오랜 시간의
The fact that the plane carried life vests and additional rafts made it suitable for an extended overwater operation.
crucial
a. 결정적인
The closeness of working boats to the landing site was crucial for a fast response from the ferry operators and emergency workers.
characteristic
n. 특질, 특성
Crying is a human characteristic that other animals do not have.
species
n. 종
Some species shed tears as a result of pain or irritation.
shed
v. (피, 땀, 눈물을) 흘리다
Some species shed tears as a result of pain or irritation.
irritation
n. 자극, 자극물, 염증
Some species shed tears as a result of pain or irritation.
creature
n. 생물
Humans are currently known as the only creatures whose tears can be triggered by their feelings.
trigger
v. 유발하다, 촉발시키다
Humans are currently known as the only creatures whose tears can be triggered by their feelings.
declare
v. 선언하다, 강조하다
Charles Darwin once declared emotional tears “purposeless.”
purposeless
a. 무의미한, 무익한
Charles Darwin once declared emotional tears “purposeless.”
contrary to
~와는 반대로
Contrary to Darwin’s declaration, scientists have found that crying plays a far more important role than was once believed.
in response to
~에 응하여
Crying is scientifically defined as the shedding of tears in response to an emotional state.
psychic
a. 마음의, 정신의
Differentiated from psychic or emotional tears, non-emotional tears are divided into two types.
differentiate
v. 차별화시키다, 구별 짓다
Differentiated from psychic or emotional tears, non-emotional tears are divided into two types.
basal
a. 기저의, 기초가 되는
Basal tears flow continuously to moisturize the eyes.
reflex
a. 반사적인, 반사 작용의
Reflex tears are the tears you shed in spite of yourself when you slice a raw onion or encounter a cloud of dust.
conscious
a. 의식하고 있는
You are not conscious of the flow of basal tears until your eyes get dry due to their absence.
in spite of oneself
자기도 모르게
Reflex tears are the tears you shed in spite of yourself when you slice a raw onion or encounter a cloud of dust.
encounter
v. ~와 우연히 만나다, 직면하다
Reflex tears are the tears you shed in spite of yourself when you slice a raw onion or encounter a cloud of dust.
irritant
n. 자극물
These tears help clear the eyes of such irritants as the gas from the onion or dust particles.
particle
n. 작은 조각, 입자
These tears help clear the eyes of such irritants as the gas from the onion or dust particles.
lacrimal gland
누선, 눈물샘
A tear is produced from the lacrimal gland.
fate
n. 운명
When a tear is produced from the lacrimal gland, it has two fates.
drain
v. 흘러나가다, 물이 빠지다
Your tear can drain down the tiny hole in the corner of the eye.
volume
n. 양, 분량
Your drainage system simply cannot deal with the volume of tears.
excess
a. 초과한
The excess fluid flows over your eyelids and down your cheeks.
fluid
n. 분비액, 유체
The excess fluid flows over your eyelids and down your cheeks.
eyelid
n. 눈꺼풀
The excess fluid flows over your eyelids and down your cheeks.
prevailing
a. 지배적인, 널리 퍼져있는
A prevailing theory in the 1600s held that emotions heated the heart, which generated water vapor in order to cool itself down.
vapor
n. 증기, 기체
A prevailing theory in the 1600s held that emotions heated the heart, which generated water vapor in order to cool itself down.
toxic
a. 유독한
A theory that crying removes toxic substances from the body that build up during times of stress gained some popularity in the 20th century.
substance
n. 물질
A theory that crying removes toxic substances from the body that build up during times of stress gained some popularity in the 20th century.
build up
쌓아 올리다
A theory that crying removes toxic substances from the body that build up during times of stress gained some popularity in the 20th century.
mount
v. (수량, 정도가) 높아지다, 늘다
In recent years, evidence is mounting in support of new theories.
in support of
~을 지지하여
In recent years, evidence is mounting in support of new theories.
bonding
n. 긴밀한 유대
Emotional tears trigger social bonding and human connection.
unequipped
a. 준비가 안 된
We come into the world physically and emotionally unequipped to deal with anything on our own.
capable
a. 능력이 있는
Even though we become more capable as we grow, we never quite grow out of occasional attacks of helplessness.
grow out of
~에서 벗어나다, 자라서 ~이 고쳐지다
Even though we become more capable as we grow, we never quite grow out of occasional attacks of helplessness.
occasional
a. 가끔의, 비정기적인
Even though we become more capable as we grow, we never quite grow out of occasional attacks of helplessness.
cope with
극복하다, 대처하다
We are experiencing some important problem that is beyond our ability to cope with.
reach out
~을 도와주다
Participants were much more likely to reach out to the person in the first photo.
layer
n. 층
All types of tears have three layers.
mucus
n. 점액, 진
A thin mucus layer sits directly on the eye.
evaporate
v. 증발하다
A thin oily layer on top prevents the tear from evaporating.
portion
n. 일부, 몫
The watery portion of reflex tears is larger and has higher levels of antibodies that can stop harmful microorganisms.
antibody
n. 항체
The watery portion of reflex tears is larger and has higher levels of antibodies that can stop harmful microorganisms.
microorganism
n. 미생물
The watery portion of reflex tears is larger and has higher levels of antibodies that can stop harmful microorganisms.
protein
n. 단백질
Emotional tears contain more protein.
sticky
a. 끈적거리는
This higher protein content makes emotional tears stickier.
bring out
~을 끌어내다, 데리고 나오다
The more visible tears are, the more likely they are to bring out compassion from observers.
compassion
n. 연민, 동정
The more visible tears are, the more likely they are to bring out compassion from observers.
evolutionarily
ad. 진화론적으로
There must have been some point in time, evolutionarily, when tears became something that automatically set off empathy and compassion in another.
set off
~을 유발하다
There must have been some point in time, evolutionarily, when tears became something that automatically set off empathy and compassion in another.
empathy
n. 감정이입, 공감
There must have been some point in time, evolutionarily, when tears became something that automatically set off empathy and compassion in another.
manipulate
v. 조종하다
A less touching theory about emotional tears focuses on crying’s ability to manipulate others.
guilty
a. 자책하는, 유죄의
When someone feels guilty, they have a greater chance of being forgiven as long as tears are running down their face.
forgive
v. 용서하다
When someone feels guilty, they have a greater chance of being forgiven as long as tears are running down their face.
molecule
n. 분자
Some researchers are even looking into the molecules in tears to see if there is one that is responsible for reducing aggression.
aggression
n. 공격성
Some researchers are even looking into the molecules in tears to see if there is one that is responsible for reducing aggression.
arise
v. 일어나다, 발생하다
Then, a question arises.
tendency
n. 경향, 추세
People who do not cry have a tendency to withdraw and describe their relationship experiences as less connected.
withdraw
v. 혼자만의 세계에 틀어박히다
People who do not cry have a tendency to withdraw and describe their relationship experiences as less connected.
affect
v. 영향을 미치다
Emotional states affect the production of tears.
identify
v. 확인하다
Some patients have difficulty identifying their own feelings.
immediate
a. 즉시의, 즉각의
Crying is not always followed by immediate relief.
relief
n. 안심, 안도
Crying is not always followed by immediate relief.
measure
v. 측정하다
Participants had their mood measured right after watching a sad movie.
set in
시작되다
Participants were given enough time for the benefits of crying to set in.
demonstrate
v. 입증하다, 보여주다
Crying demonstrates our deep connections with our world.
domain
n. (학문, 사상 등) 분야, 영역
Today, women are displaying their talents and abilities in almost every domain of human effort.
sector
n. (산업 따위의) 부분, 부문
Women compete with men in once male-dominated sectors.
in the course of time
시간이 지나자, 세월이 흐른 후에
In the course of time women’s rights have progressed a lot.
severely
a. 심하게
Women were severely restricted in their working lives due to irrational discrimination against them.
restrict
v. 규제하다
Women were severely restricted in their working lives due to irrational discrimination against them.
irrational
a. 비이성적인, 비합리적인
Women were severely restricted in their working lives due to irrational discrimination against them.
discrimination
n. 차별
Women were severely restricted in their working lives due to irrational discrimination against them.
equality
n. 평등
Equality has long been considered one of the noblest human values in America.
privilege
n. 특권
Women were once not able to enjoy the same rights and privileges as men.
eligible
a. 적격의, 적임의
Women also were not eligible for admissions to Ivy League universities.
admission
n. 입학, 입장
Women also were not eligible for admissions to Ivy League universities.
jury
n. 배심원단
In some states in America women were kept out of jury pools.
fragile
a. 허약한, 연약한
Women were thought to be too fragile to hear the horrible details of crimes.
by nature
천성적으로
Women were thought to be too sympathetic by nature to be able to remain objective about those accused of offenses.
accused of
~로 기소된
Women were thought to be too sympathetic by nature to be able to remain objective about those accused of offenses.
offence
n. 위반, 경범죄
Women were thought to be too sympathetic by nature to be able to remain objective about those accused of offenses.
revolutionary
a. 혁명적인, 혁신적인
During the 1960s revolutionary changes emerged in American society.
initially
a. 애초에, 처음에
Initially, the demands for change were triggered by sustained racial discrimination against African-Americans.
call for
~를 요구하다, 요청하다
The Civil Rights Movement called for all people to receive equal treatment.
suppress
v. 억압하다, 억누르다
People who had been treated unfairly began to organize collective movements to regain their suppressed rights.
regardless of
~와 상관없이
People demanded equality for all people regardless of race, sex, age, disability, national origin, religion, or other characteristics.
disability
n. 장애
People demanded equality for all people regardless of race, sex, age, disability, national origin, religion, or other characteristics.
invisible
a. 보이지 않는
Women begin to challenge both the visible and the invisible restrictions put upon them by outdated societal stereotypes.
societal
a. 사회의
Women begin to challenge both the visible and the invisible restrictions put upon them by outdated societal stereotypes.
stereotype
n. 고정관념, 전형
Women begin to challenge both the visible and the invisible restrictions put upon them by outdated societal stereotypes.
due
a. 마땅한, 당연한
Women struggled to gain their due rights as equals to men.
barrier
n. 장벽, 방해물
A brave female athlete was able to overcome one barrier in the male-dominated athletic culture.
major
n. 소령
Kathrine Switzer was born in Germany, the daughter of a major who was stationed there in the United States Army.
station
v. ~을 주둔시키다
Kathrine Switzer was born in Germany, the daughter of a major who was stationed there in the United States Army.
unofficially
a. 비공식적으로
Switzer trained unofficially with the men’s cross-country team.
intensely
ad. 강하게, 매우
Briggs intensely discouraged Switzer, saying women could not run in the marathon.
discourage
v. 용기를 꺾다, 말리다
Briggs intensely discouraged Switzer, saying women could not run in the marathon.
insistence
n. 고집, 주장, 강조
Upon Switzer's insistence, Briggs finally agreed to let her sign up for the race.
sign up for
~을 신청하다, ~에 등록하다
Upon Switzer's insistence, Briggs finally agreed to let her sign up for the race.
entry
n. 참가, 출전
Switzer and her coach checked the rule book and entry form.
taken for granted
당연시 되는
At that time, it was taken for granted that only men could enter the race.
controversy
n. 논란
To avoid the controversy that would come with her registration as a woman, she entered as “K.V. Switzer.”
registration
n. 등록
To avoid the controversy that would come with her registration as a woman, she entered as “K.V. Switzer.”
bib
n. 참가번호
Switzer was given the bib number 261.
pilgrim
n. 순례자
Switzer was one of the pilgrims.
scream
v. 소리치다, 비명을 지르다
A man in the middle of the road screamed at Switzer.
swipe
v. 휘둘러 치다, 후려치다
Semple continued to swipe at the bib number on Switzer's back.
embarrassment
n. 당황
Having never felt such embarrassment and fear before, Switzer wondered if she should step off the course.
flicker
n. 잠깐 스침
That thought, however, was only a flicker.
be capable of
~할 수 있다
Switzer proved with an official bib number and time that womenare capable of running long distances.
one-off
a. 일회성의
To the male runners it was a one-off event.
doubt
n. 의심
Without a doubt, it was a lot more than that to Switzer.
convince
v. 설득하다
Switzer tried to convince the Boston Athletic Association to allow women to participate in the marathon.
association
n. 협회
Switzer tried to convince the Boston Athletic Association to allow women to participate in the marathon.
participate in
~에 참가하다
Switzer tried to convince the Boston Athletic Association to allow women to participate in the marathon.
ceaseless
a. 부단한, 끊임없는
Switzer's ceaseless efforts to achieve gender equality in the marathon finally led the 1984 Olympic Games to introduce the women’s marathon.
gender
n. 성
Switzer's ceaseless efforts to achieve gender equality in the marathon finally led the 1984 Olympic Games to introduce the women’s marathon.
be inducted into
~에 추대되다, ~에 입성하다
Switzer was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 2011.
Hall of Fame
명예의 전당
Switzer was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 2011.
empower
v. 권능을 부여하다, 힘을 주다
Switzer created a social revolution by empowering women around the world through running.
attention
n. 주목, 주의집중
Switzer once again ran in the marathon, getting the media’s attention globally with the same bib number that was assigned to her in 1967.
assign
v. 부여하다, 할당하다
Switzer once again ran in the marathon, getting the media’s attention globally with the same bib number that was assigned to her in 1967.
acceptance
n. 수락, 인정, 동의
Switzer secured acceptance of the notion that elderly runners should be able to compete with younger ones.
notion
n. 개념
Switzer secured acceptance of the notion that elderly runners should be able to compete with younger ones.
in honor of
~을 기리기 위해
In honor of Switzer’s accomplishment, the Boston Athletic Association announced it would retire bib number 261.
retire
v. 은퇴시키다, 영구 사용중지하다
In honor of Switzer’s accomplishment, the Boston Athletic Association announced it would retire bib number 261.
mascot
n. 마스코트
Buzz the Bee, the famous honeybee mascot of a cereal maker, was gone from the boxes of the maker’s cereals.
diminish
v. 줄다, 감소하다
It was the decision of the cereal maker to remind people that the world’s population of bees is fast diminishing.
out of the blue
갑자기, 느닷없이
The cereal maker’s decision did not come out of the blue.
bumblebee
n. 호박벌
Earlier in that year, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service declared that in the United States the bumblebee was endangered.
endangered
a. 멸종 위기에 처한
Earlier in that year, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service declared that in the United States the bumblebee was endangered.
shrink
v. 줄다, 감소하다
The population of the bumblebee in the U.S. had shrunk by nearly 90 percent since the late 1990s.
phenomenon
n. 현상
Similar phenomena have occurred in other parts of the world.
colony
n. 군락, 군집
In Central Europe, honeybee colonies have declined by 25 percent since 1985.
pollinate
v. 수분하다
In Hanyuan County, China, farmers are forced to pollinate their fruit by hand due to the severe decline in the population of honeybees.
all in all
대체로, 전반적으로
All in all, bees are disappearing all over the world, and that worries scientists and farmers, among others.
pollen
n. 꽃가루
If bees do not move pollen from one blossom to another, one third of the crops we consume would be severely affected.
multiple
a. 다수의, 복합적인
There is general agreement that declines in bee populations are the product of multiple factors that can act alone or in combination.
combination
n. 결합, 복합
There is general agreement that declines in bee populations are the product of multiple factors that can act alone or in combination.
suffer from
~로 고통을 겪다
Bees suffer from their own diseases and from parasites that weaken and often kill them.
parasite
n. 기생충
Bees suffer from their own diseases and from parasites that weaken and often kill them.
beekeeper
n. 양봉가
Many beekeepers agree that the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most serious threat to bees.
feed on
~을 먹고 살다
Varroa is a very small mite that feeds on the blood of the bee and spreads from hive to hive.
stable
a. 안정적인, 안정된
Bees feed on flowers, so they need a stable supply.
diverse
a. 다양한
When there are not enough diverse blooming flowers during the bee season, bees are not able to sufficiently feed themselves.
bloom
v. 꽃이 피다
When there are not enough diverse blooming flowers during the bee season, bees are not able to sufficiently feed themselves.
agriculture
n. 농업
The lack of diverse flowers is in part the result of changes in agriculture.
industrialized
a. 산업화된, 공업화된
Over the past century, agriculture has become increasingly industrialized.
outstanding
a. 뛰어난
One of the outstanding features of industrial agriculture is monoculture.
monoculture
n. 단일 재배
One of the outstanding features of industrial agriculture is monoculture.
nutrient
n. 영양소
Monoculture leads to poor nutrition for bees because a single plant cannot meet their nutrient requirements.
requirement
n. 요구량, 필요량
Monoculture leads to poor nutrition for bees because a single plant cannot meet their nutrient requirements.
habitat
n. 서식지
Large industrial facilities, playgrounds, and golf courses are making matters worse by destroying bee habitats that were once filled with diverse flowers.
be filled with
~로 가득 차다
Large industrial facilities, playgrounds, and golf courses are making matters worse by destroying bee habitats that were once filled with diverse flowers.
suspected
a. 의심스러운, 의심이 가는
One more suspected factor that is contributing to the bees’ poor nutrition is climate change.
contribute to
~에 기여하다
One more suspected factor that is contributing to the bees’ poor nutrition is climate change.
irregular
a. 불규칙적인
Increasing temperatures, changes in rainfall patterns, and more irregular and extreme weather have impacted bee populations.
flight
n. 비행, 날기
Honeybees' first winter flight date has advanced by more than one month during the last 25 years due to increasing temperatures.
shortage
n. 부족
Because patterns of flowering do not always match the bees’ first winter flight, bees are likely to suffer from food shortages.
pesticide
n. 농약, 살충제
Widespread use of pesticides is the third major factor that is leading to the decline of bees.
contaminate
v. 오염시키다
If bees avoid direct contact with pesticides, they can still be contaminated through pollen, the air, water or soil.
deadly
a. 치명적인
Widespread use of pesticides has deadly effects on a bee colony because a contaminated bee transports the pesticide to the colony, in pollen or nectar.
collapse
v. 무너지다, 붕괴하다
The results are often disastrous, and the affected colony eventually collapses.
minimize
v. 최소화하다
To apply pesticides in the evening will minimize the impact of pesticides on bees, as bees take food during the day.
collaboration
n. 협력
There should be national and international collaboration among beekeepers, growers, governments, and pesticide manufacturers.
manufacturer
n. 제조업자
There should be national and international collaboration among beekeepers, growers, governments, and pesticide manufacturers.
organic
a. 유기농의
We can buy and consume more organic produce that is grown without or with minimum use of pesticides.
produce
n. 농산물
We can buy and consume more organic produce that is grown without or with minimum use of pesticides.
take action
행동을 취하다
When we take these seemingly small actions to help bees, we help them make our world healthier.
seemingly
ad. 겉보기에, 언뜻 보기에
When we take these seemingly small actions to help bees, we help them make our world healthier.
frontier
n. 개척지
Modern children have eventually grown up to lead the frontiers of robot technology.
incredible
a. 놀라울 정도의, 놀라운
The incredible history of robots is all about science catching up with human imagination.
catch up with
따라잡다
The incredible history of robots is all about science catching up with human imagination.
fiction
n. 소설, 허구
The incredible history of robots is a constant dialog between imaginative fiction and actual scientific discoveries.
spin
v. 실을 만들다
In The Iliad, Homer tells the myth of Hephaistos who has helpers made of gold that spin and weave.
weave
v. 실을 엮다
In The Iliad, Homer tells the myth of Hephaistos who has helpers made of gold that spin and weave.
inanimate
a. 무생물의
Many ancient stories show that people have long dreamed of inanimate creatures that can do their monotonous or difficult work.
monotonous
a. 단조로운
Many ancient stories show that people have long dreamed of inanimate creatures that can do their monotonous or difficult work.
foundation
n. 토대, 기초
In early modern times, the first invention that laid the foundation for robotics was perfected.
robotics
n. 로봇 공학
In early modern times, the first invention that laid the foundation for robotics was perfected.
mechanism
n. 기계 장치
The mechanisms that ran clocks were called “clockworks.”
automaton
n. 자동 장치, 작은 로봇
The 17th century is known to have been the golden age of “clockwork automatons.”
ancestor
n. 조상, 선조
Walking toy soldiers were distant ancestors to today’s robots.
mechanical
a. 기계의, 기계적인
The moving dolls marked the beginning of modern mechanical engineering.
edge
n. 모서리, 경계
Further advances of mechanical engineering have given sharper edges to the imaginary machines that work for human beings.
imaginary
a. 가상의, 상상의
Further advances of mechanical engineering have given sharper edges to the imaginary machines that work for human beings.
refer to
가리키다
The term “robot,” referring to such artificial creatures, was first coined in Czech writer Karel Capek’s play.
artificial
a. 인공의
The term “robot,” referring to such artificial creatures, was first coined in Czech writer Karel Capek’s play.
coin
v. (말을) 만들다
The term “robot,” referring to such artificial creatures, was first coined in Czech writer Karel Capek’s play.
labor
n. 노동
Robots are specifically made to do the hard labor so that human beings can live lives of leisure and comfort.
repetitive
a. 반복적인
Industrial robots perform repetitive and dangerous tasks.
infinitely
ad. 대단히, 엄청
Products are manufactured infinitely faster and cheaper than before.
volcano
n. 화산
Industrial robots are sent deep into the sea, into volcanoes, and even to other planets.
be about to
막 ~하려는 참이다
For the first time in human history, robots are about to evolve into independent, “living” creatures.
prospect
n. 전망
The prospect seems to have stirred more fears than hopes.
stir
v. 불러일으키다
The prospect seems to have stirred more fears than hopes.
dread
n. 공포
When Google’s AlphaGo beat the world’s elite go players, the shock and dread that robots might finally assume “life” struck the global population.
owe
v. 빚지다
It is called Frankenstein anxiety and owes its name to the novel Frankenstein.
countless
a. 무수히 많은
In the genre of science fiction, countless artificial beings were depicted as becoming dangerous.
depict
v. 묘사하다, 그리다
In the genre of science fiction, countless artificial beings were depicted as becoming dangerous.
be replaced with
~로 대체되다
Human beings were seen to be replaced with their own creation.
wipe off
~를 없애다
In the movie The Terminator, released in the 1980s, highly developed AI robots finally decide to wipe the human race off the face of the earth.
devise
v. 고안하다
The safety measures Asimov devised for his fictional robots were the famous “Three Fundamental Laws of Robotics.”
set the priorities
우선순위를 정하다
The Laws set the priorities for robotic behavior.
at all cost
무슨 수를 써서라도
At all cost, human life should be protected.
insightful
a. 통찰력 있는
Asimov’s fictional vision has proved insightful and has helped global leaders to plan and prepare for the future.
ethical
a. 윤리적인
In 2011, British scientists, engineers, and scholars suggested that designers, builders, and users of robots follow five ethical principles.
principle
n. 원리, 원칙
The principles focus on human safety, making it clear that robots should serve human beings.
resolution
n. 결의안
In February, 2017, the European Parliament approved a resolution calling for the creation of laws on robotics.
undue
a. 과도한
We cannot just stop developing robots because of undue fears.
thorough
a. 철저한
Thorough discussions and constant monitoring are essential in guiding us in the right direction for robot development.
considerate
a. 사려 깊은, 주의 깊은
We should be wiser and more considerate in picturing and planning for a future with robots, carefully weighing many different possibilities.
weigh
v. 따져 보다, 저울질하다
We should be wiser and more considerate in picturing and planning for a future with robots, carefully weighing many different possibilities.
lock ~ in
~을 가두다
The king cruelly locked his own daughter and grandchild in a chest and set it out to sea.
chest
n. 상자, 궤짝
The king cruelly locked his own daughter and grandchild in a chest and set it out to sea.
prophecy
n. 예언
The fearful prophecy was that Perseus would one day threaten the king's life and kingdom.
resolve
v. 결심하다
The evil king resolved to send Perseus on a fatal enterprise that would be sure to get him killed.
fatal
a. 치명적인
The evil king resolved to send Perseus on a fatal enterprise that would be sure to get him killed.
enterprise
n. 임무, 모험
The evil king resolved to send Perseus on a fatal enterprise that would be sure to get him killed.
customary
a. 관례의
It is customary to give the royal bride a special present.
royal
a. 왕의, 왕실의
It is customary to give the royal bride a special present.
remote
a. (가능성이) 희박한
The Gorgons were three sisters, with only a remote resemblance to women.
resemblance
n. 닮음
The Gorgons were three sisters, with only a remote resemblance to women.
frightful
a. 무서운
The Gorgons were, in fact, frightful dragons.
spectacle
n. (굉장한) 광경, 장관
While the monsters were a spectacle, people never looked at them.
mortal
n. (보통의) 사람, 인간
If a mortal saw one of their faces, he or she was certain, that very instant, to be changed into lifeless stone!
victorious
a. 승리의, 승리한
Perseus was far more likely to die than to return victorious, so he sat down in despair.
despair
n. 절망
Perseus was far more likely to die than to return victorious, so he sat down in despair.
twisted
a. 꽈배기처럼 꼬아진
Perseus lifted his head and saw a handsome young man, with an odd cap, a twisted staff, and a crooked sword.
staff
n. 지팡이
Perseus lifted his head and saw a handsome young man, with an odd cap, a twisted staff, and a crooked sword.
crooked
a. 구부러진
Perseus lifted his head and saw a handsome young man, with an odd cap, a twisted staff, and a crooked sword.
statue
n. 조각상
“You would make a handsome statue,” said Hermes, teasing.
tease
v. 놀리다
“You would make a handsome statue,” said Hermes, teasing.
affair
n. 일, 문제
Let us hope that this affair won’t turn out that badly.
properly
ad. 적절히, 적절하게
Hermes told Perseus that to attack Medusa he must first be properly equipped.
possession
n. 소유
Hermes told Perseus that what he needed was in the possession of the fairy people of the North.
dwell
v. 살다, 거주하다
The Gray Women dwelled in a land where all was dark.
clap
v. (신체 부위에) 살짝 대다, 손뼉을 대다
One of the Gray Women took the eye out and passed it to another, who clapped it into her own head and enjoyed a glance out at the world.
glance
n. 얼핏 봄
One of the Gray Women took the eye out and passed it to another, who clapped it into her own head and enjoyed a glance out at the world.
swiftly
ad. 신속하게, 재빨리
Then before the woman could give the eye to her sister, Perseus swiftly took it out of her hand.
shield
n. 방패
At that moment, Pallas Athena, goddess of wisdom, appeared out of the blue and gave him a shield of polished metal, shining brightly.
polished
a. 광택이 나는, 윤이 나게 닦은
At that moment, Pallas Athena, goddess of wisdom, appeared out of the blue and gave him a shield of polished metal, shining brightly.
fortune
n. 운, 행운
By great fortune, the Gorgons were all asleep when Perseus found them.
reflection
n. 반사, 투영된 모습
In the bright shield, Perseus could clearly see the Gorgons' reflection, horrible creatures with a mass of twisting snakes instead of hair.
immortal
a. 불멸의, 불사의
Medusa alone of the three could be killed while the other two were immortal.
stroke
n. 일격, 한 번 치기
Perseus aimed a stroke down at Medusa’s throat.
thrust
n. 힘껏 찔러 밀기, 일격
With a single thrust, Perseus cut through Medusa’s neck.
take revenge
복수하다
No sooner were the other Gorgons awake than they tried to take revenge.
compel
v. 억지로 ~하게 하다
Danae was compelled to flee from King Polydectes, who was furious at her refusal to marry him.
flee
v. 도망하다
Danae was compelled to flee from King Polydectes, who was furious at her refusal to marry him.
furious
a. 분노한, 격노한
Danae was compelled to flee from King Polydectes, who was furious at her refusal to marry him.
refusal
n. 거절
Danae was compelled to flee from King Polydectes, who was furious at her refusal to marry him.
counselor
n. 고문, 상담관
The king was holding a big party in the palace and all his evil counselors were gathered there.
entrance
n. 입구
As Perseus stood at the entrance, all eyes were upon him.
subject
n. 신하
Not an eyelid had time to blink before the king, his evil counselors, and all his foolish subjects turned into stone.
wicked
a. 사악한
Perseus thrust the head back into his sack, and went to tell his dear mother that she needed no longer to be afraid of the wicked king.
학생
가장 빠르게 암기하도록 도와주는 암기학습 〉
제대로 외웠나 바로 확인하는 리콜학습 〉
철자까지 외우려면 스펠학습 〉
재미있게 복습하려면 매칭 게임 〉
주관식으로도 재미있는 복습, 크래시 게임 〉
선생님
수업 중 이 단어장을 보고 듣고 질문하는 슬라이드 〉
수업시간이 들썩 들썩 퀴즈배틀 (로그인) 〉
클릭만으로 종이낭비 없이 시험지 인쇄 (로그인) 〉
필요한 세트를 직접 만드는 단어장 만들기 (로그인) 〉
선생님들이 만드신 30만개 단어장 검색하기 〉
고객
센터
궁금한 것, 안되는 것
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