YBM 교과서 단어 배틀 2학기 중간고사 - 고등 영어Ⅱ 박준언
187 카드 | ybmadmin
세트공유
renewal
n. 갱신, 재개발
The importance of urban renewal cannot be stressed enough.
organism
n. 유기체
Like any living organism, cities eventually grow old and tired.
infrastructure
n. 토대, 인프라, 사회 기반 시설
New buildings must be constructed and old infrastructure repaired or replaced.
tricky
a. 다루기 힘든, 까다로운
Most cities find it tricky to deal with the issue.
run-down
a. 황폐한, 허물어져 가는
What to do with the run-down parts of a city generates heated debates among interested parties.
generate
v. 발생시키다, 야기하다
What to do with the run-down parts of a city generates heated debates among interested parties.
property
n. 재산, 자산
From local government to private property owners, conservationists to real estate developers, disused city districts are highly fought over.
conservationist
n. 보호론자, 보존주의자
From local government to private property owners, conservationists to real estate developers, disused city districts are highly fought over.
real estate
부동산, 토지
From local government to private property owners, conservationists to real estate developers, disused city districts are highly fought over.
disused
a. 사용되지 않는
From local government to private property owners, conservationists to real estate developers, disused city districts are highly fought over.
district
n. 구역
From local government to private property owners, conservationists to real estate developers, disused city districts are highly fought over.
wipe out
쓸어버리다
A lot of run-down urban areas were entirely wiped out in favor of massive redevelopment.
in favor of
~의 이익이 되도록, ~을 위하여
A lot of run-down urban areas were entirely wiped out in favor of massive redevelopment.
redevelopment
n. 재개발
A lot of run-down urban areas were entirely wiped out in favor of massive redevelopment.
transport
n. 운송
Massive redevelopment would meet the demands of the modern city, for housing, transport, office or commercial space.
tear down
부수다, 파괴하다
Old buildings were torn down and were soon replaced with bright, shining buildings.
profitable
a. 이익이 많은
Massive redevelopment may have been fast, effective, and profitable, but the true cost was ignored.
ignore
v. 무시하다
Massive redevelopment may have been fast, effective, and profitable, but the true cost was ignored.
trace
n. 자취, 흔적
The historical traces of the cityscape were forever erased.
cityscape
n. 도시경관
The historical traces of the cityscape were forever erased.
disregard
n. 무시, 무관심
Because of this disregard for the human aspect, new perspectives to look at urban renewal are being brought into focus.
perspective
n. 관점, 시점
Because of this disregard for the human aspect, new perspectives to look at urban renewal are being brought into focus.
architectural
a. 건축의
New perspectives to look at urban renewal are being brought into focus─more creative, and better at preserving a city’s architectural heritage.
heritage
n. 문화 유산
New perspectives to look at urban renewal are being brought into focus─more creative, and better at preserving a city’s architectural heritage.
metropolitan
a. 대도시의
Today the colorful city is a rising metropolitan economy in Latin America.
shelter
n. 피난처, 은신처
Comuna 13 was once a shelter for armed criminals.
abandon
v. 버리다, 포기하다
Steep roads made it impossible for vehicles to access this poor neighborhood, leaving the community isolated, abandoned by law enforcement.
enforcement
n. 시행, 집행
Steep roads made it impossible for vehicles to access this poor neighborhood, leaving the community isolated, abandoned by law enforcement.
come up with
~을 생각해내다, 발견하다
The city came up with a clever idea to secure access to the areaㅡa 384-meter long series of escalators that scales the mountain.
scale
v. ~을 오르다
The city came up with a clever idea to secure access to the areaㅡa 384-meter long series of escalators that scales the mountain.
speak highly of
~을 칭찬하다
The residents cannot speak highly enough of the simple innovation.
prosperity
n. 번영
The simple innovation has brought peace, pride, and prosperity to a community.
peak
n. 절정, 정점
In recent years Medellin’s crime rate has fallen by more than 80 percent from its peak.
rebirth
n. 부활
The escalators are now a symbol of rebirth and have encouraged international corporations to open new facilities in the area.
corporation
n. 주식회사, 기업
The escalators are now a symbol of rebirth and have encouraged international corporations to open new facilities in the area.
featureless
a. 특색이 없는
Reconstruction architecture was functional and featureless, consisting of cheap grey concrete blocks.
consist of
~으로 구성되어 있다
Reconstruction architecture was functional and featureless, consisting of cheap grey concrete blocks.
concrete
n. 콘크리트
Reconstruction architecture was functional and featureless, consisting of cheap grey concrete blocks.
vitality
n. 활기
The artist transformed the dull concrete buildings into more welcoming, eco-friendly spaces, full of vitality and greenery.
greenery
n. 녹색 식물
The artist transformed the dull concrete buildings into more welcoming, eco-friendly spaces, full of vitality and greenery.
composed of
~로 구성된
The mayor allowed him to create a unique community composed of 52 apartments, common playgrounds, and a medical facility.
tenant
n. 거주자, 주민, 세입자
The trees in the community are treated as regular tenants.
reduction
n. 감소, 인하
The trees pay their share of the rent by providing fresh air and noise reduction.
integrated
a. 통합된
The apartment complex was designed to function as an integrated eco-friendly system.
overwhelming
a. 굉장한, 압도적인
The best thing about the colorful apartment site is its overwhelming beauty and incomparable artistic uniqueness.
incomparable
a. 비할 데가 없는
The best thing about the colorful apartment site is its overwhelming beauty and incomparable artistic uniqueness.
significantly
ad. 중요하게, 상당히
Most significantly, interest in the project has generated similar housing designs by architects from all over the world.
literally
ad. 문자 그대로, 정말로
An artist’s vision has literally changed the entire view of the city.
upcycle
v. 업사이클하다, 더 나은 것으로 만들다
An innovative plan for New York’s old subway line is a representative example of upcycling urban infrastructure.
outdated
a. 구식의, 낡아서 효용이 떨어진
Upcycling or creative reuse of outdated infrastructure can be a great solution.
few and far between
흔하지 않은
Green spaces in densely populated cities are often few and far between.
populous
a. 인구가 많은
In particularly populous cities like New York and Seoul, common space for citizens is never enough.
representative
a. 대표하는
An innovative plan for New York’s old subway line is a representative example of upcycling urban infrastructure.
enormous
a. 거대한
Built at an enormous cost, the High Line soon fell out of favor and began to be closed and brought down.
out of favor
인기 없는, 눈 밖에 나서
Built at an enormous cost, the High Line soon fell out of favor and began to be closed and brought down.
bring down
내리다, 붕괴시키다
Built at an enormous cost, the High Line soon fell out of favor and began to be closed and brought down.
convert
v. 변환시키다
Manhattan residents started an effort to convert the disused rail line into a public park.
revive
v. 회복시키다
The High Line Park has revived the run-down area and breathed new life into the surrounding community.
surrounding
a. 주위의
The High Line Park has revived the run-down area and breathed new life into the surrounding community.
overpass
n. 고가도로
The Seoul Station Overpass was originally designed exclusively for cars.
exclusively
ad. 오로지, 독점적으로
The Seoul Station Overpass was originally designed exclusively for cars.
priority
n. 우선, 우선사항
The priorities of one of the world’s fastest transforming cities have been reordered.
stand for
상징하다
It stands for the slower pace of a nation that seeks to pay greater respect to its history.
pay respect to
~에 경의를 표하다, ~을 존중하다
It stands for the slower pace of a nation that seeks to pay greater respect to its history.
underutilize
v. 충분히 활용하지 않다
Every city has pockets of underused and underutilized land or decaying urban areas.
decay
v. 썩다, 황폐해지다
Every city has pockets of underused and underutilized land or decaying urban areas.
be aware of
~을 알고 있다
Everyone is aware of the importance of urban planning.
miracle
n. 기적
After all 155 people were pulled from the icy waters by rescue boats, a story of a miracle began to emerge.
land
v. 착륙하다, 착지하다
US Airways Flight 1549 landed on New York’s Hudson River on a cold winter’s day.
destined
a. 예정된, ~할 운명의
What seemed destined to be a tragedy became an extraordinary tale of success and survival.
tragedy
n. 비극
What seemed destined to be a tragedy became an extraordinary tale of success and survival.
tale
n. 이야기
What seemed destined to be a tragedy became an extraordinary tale of success and survival.
emerge
v. 나타나다, 드러나다
After all 155 people were pulled from the icy waters by rescue boats, a story of a miracle began to emerge.
coordinated
a. 협력의, 조직화된
It was a miracle created with the coordinated efforts of a highly trained pilot, flight attendants, ferry operators and rescue workers.
takeoff
n. 이륙
It was a normal takeoff in every regard.
in every regard
모든 점에서
It was a normal takeoff in every regard.
cockpit
n. 조종석
Captain Chesley Sullenberger noticed large birds covering the cockpit windows, and they were too close to avoid.
shake
v. 흔들리다
Sullenberger felt the engine shaking, and burned bird smell was being brought into the airplane.
aircraft
n. 항공기
The airplane was about 3,000 feet over New York City when the engines failed, and the aircraft started to descend rapidly.
descend
v. 하강하다
The airplane was about 3,000 feet over New York City when the engines failed, and the aircraft started to descend rapidly.
urgently
ad. 긴급하게
Captain Sullenberger urgently looked for some place to land and contacted air traffic control.
dismiss
v. 거부하다, 묵살하다
The idea of turning back to LaGuardia was quickly dismissed because the distance and altitude required for the return could not be maintained.
altitude
n. 고도
The idea of turning back to LaGuardia was quickly dismissed because the distance and altitude required for the return could not be maintained.
disastrous
a. 비참한, 처참한
If he had turned his plane back to LaGuardia, it would have made the emergency landing disastrous for everyone on board and people on the ground.
on board
승선한
If he had turned his plane back to LaGuardia, it would have made the emergency landing disastrous for everyone on board and people on the ground.
come into sight
시야에 들어오다
And then the Hudson River came into sight on Sullenberger's left.
level
a. 평평한
The only smooth level place sufficiently large enough to land an airplane this size is the river.
sufficiently
ad. 충분히
The only smooth level place sufficiently large enough to land an airplane this size is the river.
co-pilot
n. 부조종사, 부기장
Sullenberger and his co-pilot Jeff Skiles prepared to land on the water.
accomplish
v. 성취하다
A water landing is never an easy job, one that only a few airline pilots have ever accomplished safely.
break into pieces
산산조각이 나다
He recalled an airplane that landed in the Indian Ocean in 1996 and broke into pieces, killing most of the passengers on board.
simultaneously
ad. 동시에
Most importantly, Sullenberger needed to make all these things happen simultaneously.
make an announcement
발표를 하다
Ninety seconds before hitting the water, Captain Sullenberger made an announcement to the passengers and the crew.
brace
v. 대비하다, 버티다
Brace for impact.
impact
n. 충격, 충돌, 영향
Brace for impact.
panic
n. 공포, 불안감
With Captain Sullenberger busy making the complex calculations needed for the emergency water landing, panic spread among the passengers.
superb
a. 최고의, 최상의
Despite Sullenberge's superb control of the plane, the impact was so powerful that it tore a hole under the airplane’s tail.
tear
v. 찢다, 자국을 남기다
Despite Sullenberge's superb control of the plane, the impact was so powerful that it tore a hole under the airplane’s tail.
cabin
n. 선실
Water began to pour into the cabin.
chute
n. 비상 탈출 슬라이드, 활송 장치
The flight attendant opened the door and the chute automatically came out and inflated.
inflate
v. 부풀어 오르다
The flight attendant opened the door and the chute automatically came out and inflated.
command
n. 명령
At the command of Captain Sullenberger to evacuate, passengers started to get out.
evacuate
v. 피난하다
At the command of Captain Sullenberger to evacuate, passengers started to get out.
comfort
v. 위로하다
The flight attendant tried to comfort the man, saying, “Be calm, and just try to breathe.”
turn out
드러나다, 나타나다
It turned out that he had lost his brother, a firefighter, in 9/11.
approach
v. 접근하다
Within minutes after the landing, three New York Waterway ferries approached the airplane.
brutally
ad. 잔인하게, 가차 없이
Scared passengers began to get out of the emergency exits into the brutally cold air and onto the wings of the plane.
pull up
(서서히) 멈추다
The first ferry pulled up alongside the plane and some passengers leaped onto the decks while others were helped aboard by ferry crew.
leap
v. 뛰어오르다
The first ferry pulled up alongside the plane and some passengers leaped onto the decks while others were helped aboard by ferry crew.
deck
n. (배의) 갑판
The first ferry pulled up alongside the plane and some passengers leaped onto the decks while others were helped aboard by ferry crew.
craft
n. 보트, 배, 항공기
Soon, police boats, Coast Guard craft and many other boats covered the scene.
raft
n. 고무보트
Then the captain took a final look at his sinking plane and got on the last life raft, now filled with passengers.
pass away
사망하다
My father could have passed away along with your other passengers, if you had not landed in the river.
credit
v. ~의 공으로 돌리다
The final report by the National Transportation Safety Board on the accident credited the outcome to four factors.
outcome
n. 결과
The final report by the National Transportation Safety Board on the accident credited the outcome to four factors.
life vest
n. 구명조끼
The plane carried life vests and additional rafts and slides, even though they were not required for that route.
suitable
a. 적절한
The fact that the plane carried life vests and additional rafts made it suitable for an extended overwater operation.
extended
a. 오랜 시간의
The fact that the plane carried life vests and additional rafts made it suitable for an extended overwater operation.
crucial
a. 결정적인
The closeness of working boats to the landing site was crucial for a fast response from the ferry operators and emergency workers.
characteristic
n. 특질, 특성
Crying is a human characteristic that other animals do not have.
species
n. 종
Some species shed tears as a result of pain or irritation.
shed
v. (피, 땀, 눈물을) 흘리다
Some species shed tears as a result of pain or irritation.
irritation
n. 자극, 자극물, 염증
Some species shed tears as a result of pain or irritation.
creature
n. 생물
Humans are currently known as the only creatures whose tears can be triggered by their feelings.
trigger
v. 유발하다, 촉발시키다
Humans are currently known as the only creatures whose tears can be triggered by their feelings.
declare
v. 선언하다, 강조하다
Charles Darwin once declared emotional tears “purposeless.”
purposeless
a. 무의미한, 무익한
Charles Darwin once declared emotional tears “purposeless.”
contrary to
~와는 반대로
Contrary to Darwin’s declaration, scientists have found that crying plays a far more important role than was once believed.
in response to
~에 응하여
Crying is scientifically defined as the shedding of tears in response to an emotional state.
psychic
a. 마음의, 정신의
Differentiated from psychic or emotional tears, non-emotional tears are divided into two types.
differentiate
v. 차별화시키다, 구별 짓다
Differentiated from psychic or emotional tears, non-emotional tears are divided into two types.
basal
a. 기저의, 기초가 되는
Basal tears flow continuously to moisturize the eyes.
reflex
a. 반사적인, 반사 작용의
Reflex tears are the tears you shed in spite of yourself when you slice a raw onion or encounter a cloud of dust.
conscious
a. 의식하고 있는
You are not conscious of the flow of basal tears until your eyes get dry due to their absence.
in spite of oneself
자기도 모르게
Reflex tears are the tears you shed in spite of yourself when you slice a raw onion or encounter a cloud of dust.
encounter
v. ~와 우연히 만나다, 직면하다
Reflex tears are the tears you shed in spite of yourself when you slice a raw onion or encounter a cloud of dust.
irritant
n. 자극물
These tears help clear the eyes of such irritants as the gas from the onion or dust particles.
particle
n. 작은 조각, 입자
These tears help clear the eyes of such irritants as the gas from the onion or dust particles.
lacrimal gland
누선, 눈물샘
A tear is produced from the lacrimal gland.
fate
n. 운명
When a tear is produced from the lacrimal gland, it has two fates.
drain
v. 흘러나가다, 물이 빠지다
Your tear can drain down the tiny hole in the corner of the eye.
volume
n. 양, 분량
Your drainage system simply cannot deal with the volume of tears.
excess
a. 초과한
The excess fluid flows over your eyelids and down your cheeks.
fluid
n. 분비액, 유체
The excess fluid flows over your eyelids and down your cheeks.
eyelid
n. 눈꺼풀
The excess fluid flows over your eyelids and down your cheeks.
prevailing
a. 지배적인, 널리 퍼져있는
A prevailing theory in the 1600s held that emotions heated the heart, which generated water vapor in order to cool itself down.
vapor
n. 증기, 기체
A prevailing theory in the 1600s held that emotions heated the heart, which generated water vapor in order to cool itself down.
toxic
a. 유독한
A theory that crying removes toxic substances from the body that build up during times of stress gained some popularity in the 20th century.
substance
n. 물질
A theory that crying removes toxic substances from the body that build up during times of stress gained some popularity in the 20th century.
build up
쌓아 올리다
A theory that crying removes toxic substances from the body that build up during times of stress gained some popularity in the 20th century.
mount
v. (수량, 정도가) 높아지다, 늘다
In recent years, evidence is mounting in support of new theories.
in support of
~을 지지하여
In recent years, evidence is mounting in support of new theories.
bonding
n. 긴밀한 유대
Emotional tears trigger social bonding and human connection.
unequipped
a. 준비가 안 된
We come into the world physically and emotionally unequipped to deal with anything on our own.
capable
a. 능력이 있는
Even though we become more capable as we grow, we never quite grow out of occasional attacks of helplessness.
grow out of
~에서 벗어나다, 자라서 ~이 고쳐지다
Even though we become more capable as we grow, we never quite grow out of occasional attacks of helplessness.
occasional
a. 가끔의, 비정기적인
Even though we become more capable as we grow, we never quite grow out of occasional attacks of helplessness.
cope with
극복하다, 대처하다
We are experiencing some important problem that is beyond our ability to cope with.
reach out
~을 도와주다
Participants were much more likely to reach out to the person in the first photo.
layer
n. 층
All types of tears have three layers.
mucus
n. 점액, 진
A thin mucus layer sits directly on the eye.
evaporate
v. 증발하다
A thin oily layer on top prevents the tear from evaporating.
portion
n. 일부, 몫
The watery portion of reflex tears is larger and has higher levels of antibodies that can stop harmful microorganisms.
antibody
n. 항체
The watery portion of reflex tears is larger and has higher levels of antibodies that can stop harmful microorganisms.
microorganism
n. 미생물
The watery portion of reflex tears is larger and has higher levels of antibodies that can stop harmful microorganisms.
protein
n. 단백질
Emotional tears contain more protein.
sticky
a. 끈적거리는
This higher protein content makes emotional tears stickier.
bring out
~을 끌어내다, 데리고 나오다
The more visible tears are, the more likely they are to bring out compassion from observers.
compassion
n. 연민, 동정
The more visible tears are, the more likely they are to bring out compassion from observers.
evolutionarily
ad. 진화론적으로
There must have been some point in time, evolutionarily, when tears became something that automatically set off empathy and compassion in another.
set off
~을 유발하다
There must have been some point in time, evolutionarily, when tears became something that automatically set off empathy and compassion in another.
empathy
n. 감정이입, 공감
There must have been some point in time, evolutionarily, when tears became something that automatically set off empathy and compassion in another.
manipulate
v. 조종하다
A less touching theory about emotional tears focuses on crying’s ability to manipulate others.
guilty
a. 자책하는, 유죄의
When someone feels guilty, they have a greater chance of being forgiven as long as tears are running down their face.
forgive
v. 용서하다
When someone feels guilty, they have a greater chance of being forgiven as long as tears are running down their face.
molecule
n. 분자
Some researchers are even looking into the molecules in tears to see if there is one that is responsible for reducing aggression.
aggression
n. 공격성
Some researchers are even looking into the molecules in tears to see if there is one that is responsible for reducing aggression.
arise
v. 일어나다, 발생하다
Then, a question arises.
tendency
n. 경향, 추세
People who do not cry have a tendency to withdraw and describe their relationship experiences as less connected.
withdraw
v. 혼자만의 세계에 틀어박히다
People who do not cry have a tendency to withdraw and describe their relationship experiences as less connected.
affect
v. 영향을 미치다
Emotional states affect the production of tears.
identify
v. 확인하다
Some patients have difficulty identifying their own feelings.
immediate
a. 즉시의, 즉각의
Crying is not always followed by immediate relief.
relief
n. 안심, 안도
Crying is not always followed by immediate relief.
measure
v. 측정하다
Participants had their mood measured right after watching a sad movie.
set in
시작되다
Participants were given enough time for the benefits of crying to set in.
demonstrate
v. 입증하다, 보여주다
Crying demonstrates our deep connections with our world.
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