YBM 고등 심화 영어 독해 Ⅱ 신정현 UNIT 4
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세트공유
relatively
ad. 비교적, 상대적으로
That is relatively recent in geological time.
compress
v. 압축하다; 누르다
If all of earth’s history were compressed into an hour, flowering plants would exist for only the last 90 seconds.
outnumber
v. ~보다 수가 많다
Today, flowering plant species outnumber by twenty to one those of ferns and cone-bearing trees, or conifers.
paleontologist
n. 고생물학자
“Before flowering plants appeared,” says Dale Russell, a paleontologist, “the world was like a Japanese garden."
carpel
n. 심피(암술을 구성하는 잎)
Each fruit contains one or more carpels, chambers that protect and nourish the seeds.
toehold
n. 거점; 발판
These botanical newcomers managed to get a toehold in areas of ecological disturbance, such as volcanic regions.
endemic
a. 고유의
The genome of Amborella, a small shrub endemic to New Caledonia, provides evidence that the ancestor of all flowering plants evolved following a “genome doubling event.”
blossom
n. 꽃
The most obvious is the blossom that we associate with flowering plants.
receptor
n. (세포의) 수용기
Eventually these grains come to rest on another flower’s stigma, a tiny pollen receptor.
compatible
a. 호환이 되는, 양립할 수 있는
Softened by moisture, the pollen grain releases proteins that detect whether the new plant is genetically compatible.
germinate
v. 자라기 시작하다, 커지다
If so, the pollen grain germinates and grows a tube down through the style and ovary and into the ovule.
compensate
v. 상쇄하다, 메우다
Because the wind is pretty unpredictable, gymnosperms compensate by producing lots of pollen.
desiccation
n. 건조
An angiosperm’s ovary protects its embryo from desiccation and physical harm.
pollinator
n. 꽃가루 매개자
Insects were among the most important animal pollinators that began visiting angiosperms as soon as they appeared.
flamboyant
a. 눈부신, 화려한
Flowering plants developed colorful and flamboyant petals some time between 70 and 100 million years ago.
finery
n. (아름다운) 장식; 화려함
In their new finery, once overlooked angiosperms began to stand out in the landscape.
stash
n. 숨긴 것
From a bee’s-eye-view, the ultraviolet colors and patterns on a flower’s petals dramatically announce the flower’s stash of nectar and pollen.
striation
n. 줄무늬
The patterns on flowers—such as the lines on petals called striations—serve as a sort of air traffic control system for bees.
bulldoze
v. 밀어 버리다, 밀고 나가다
Dinosaurs bulldozed through ancient forests, unconsciously clearing new ground for angiosperms.
reptile
n. 파충류
They survived for another 65 million years, which was sufficient time for the big reptiles to adapt to a new diet that included angiosperms.
dispersal
n. 확산
Flowering plants, in turn, got the benefit of seed dispersal from mammals.
sustenance
n. 음식, 먹을 것; 지지, 유지
Through agriculture, angiosperms met our need for sustenance.
unprecedented
a. 전례 없는
We in turn have taken certain species like corn and rice and given them unprecedented success.
virtually
ad. 거의
Virtually every non-meat food we eat starts as a flowering plant.
sustain
v. 유지하다, 지속하다
Angiosperms also sustain and enrich our lives.
realm
n. 범위, 영역
Flowers reign over a realm sought by artists, poets, and everyday people in search of inspiration, comfort, or the simple pleasure of seeing a blossom.
halt
v. 멈추다, 정지시키다
It is possible to halt and even reverse this process through better agricultural policies and practices.
unsustainable
a. 지속할 수 없는, 유지할 수 없는
Our unsustainable farming methods are a main contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.
havoc
n. 큰 피해, 대파괴
Modern techniques have also caused havoc throughout the environment, having severe effects on the soil, water, and atmosphere.
microbe
n. 미생물
Intense plowing has introduced more oxygen into the soil, increasing the number of microbes that convert organic matter into carbon dioxide.
wring
v. 짜다, 비틀다
The desire to wring every last dollar out of fields has put pressure on farmers to rely on chemical fertilizers.
degrade
v. 저하시키다
That loss has significantly degraded soil health, reducing our ability to grow food.
median
n. 중간(값)의, 평균의
Median crop yields are likely to decline by about 2 percent per decade through 2100.
sequester
v. 격리하다
It is a suite of agricultural practices and crops that sequester carbon in the soil.
perennial
a. 다년생의
It includes modifications to current cropping systems, the use of perennial crops, and more.
accumulation
n. 쌓임, 축적
Under the right conditions, farming can encourage the accumulation of carbon in the ground.
recipe
n. 방법, 비결
Innovative carbon farmers already know the recipe.
synthetic
a. 합성의; 인조의
Carbon farmers compost, reduce plowing, and eschew synthetic chemicals like nitrogen fertilizers.
boost
v. 밀어 올리다, 증가시키다
Farmers can also boost their income by selling some of their cover crops.
regenerative
a. 재생시키는
Regenerative farming would increase the fertility of the land.
generate
v. 발생시키다, 만들어 내다
Fields full of carbon generate more productive crops, cutting expenses for farmers.
disseminate
v. 전파하다, 퍼뜨리다
The science is new and has not yet been widely disseminated.
incentive
n. 유인책; 동기
Most of the incentives built into agricultural policies are based on maximizing yield, often at the expense of soil health.
subsidy
n. 보조금; 장려금
Farmers are denied full crop insurance, price supports, and subsidies if they grow cover crops beyond a specified period of time.
impediment
n. 방해(물); 장애
Viewing cover crops as a benefit instead of an impediment to cash crops would be the kind of climate-smart policy we need.
commercialize
v. 상업화하다
As farmers have learned, some cover crops can also be commercialized.
chasm
n. (사람·집단 사이의) 큰 차이, 간극
Incentives for carbon farming could bridge the political chasm between ranchers and farmers.
lush
a. 무성한
Even those farmers and ranchers who do not care about climate change desire healthy soil, high productivity, and lush pastures.
realign
v. 재편성〔조정〕하다
There is a rich opportunity here to completely realign the politics of agricultural and environmental policy.
ameliorate
v. 개선〔개량〕하다
The government successfully responded by implementing new policies to ameliorate the problem.
enact
v. 제정하다
With the crisis more serious than ever, we should enact policies like this that reward practices which restore carbon to the soil.
학생
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