Extensive Reading-Book C (E)
1604 카드 | CompassPublishing
세트공유
adequate
enough
In order to thrive, newborn babies need to receive an adequate supply of nutrients.
contribute
to give
He contributes regularly to the church's building fund.
crisis
an emergency
The fire caused a major crisis in the hospitals; there was not enough room for all the victims.
destitution
the condition of being without money or hope of having any
destitution has become a major problem in the city.
dilapidated
falling apart, in disrepair
The older couple lived in a dilapidated house with broken windows and no heating.
dweller
a person who lives in a certain place
The city dwellers grew tired of the long commutes and pollution.
flock
to gather together
The little children flocked to see Santa Clause.
foster
to help develop
His tennis coach helped foster his career as a professional tennis player.
hospitable
friendly, welcoming
The city dwellers were not hospitable to the influx of people from the country side.
influx
the sudden arrival of many people or things
The influx of immigrants has flooded the school system in Florida.
migration
the process of people traveling to a new place together
There was a mass migration of hurricane victims into the neighboring states.
offspring
child or children
The couple's three offsprings are all accomplished musicians.
poverty
the state of being poor
poverty causes other challenges such as disease and illnesses.
pronounced
noticeable
The new president had a pronounced English accent.
proximity
the state or quality of being near
The two people, having worked in close proximity for years, finally fell in love with each other.
reality
something that is real
The doctors were aware of the reality of the current situation.
seldom
not often
I seldom go out with friends; I prefer to stay home and watch a good movie.
slums
part of a city where poor people live in bad housing
The mother worked hard and saved enough money to move her children out of the slums.
trend
a general pattern
The recent trend in developed countries is to have less children.
typically
showing all the characteristics that you would expect from the stated person, thing or group
Mary, in her typically frank fashion, told Jim that he was being rude.
arise
to occur
A revolt will arise if the government does not find ways to feed its people.
contend
to state formally that something is true
The victim contended that the two young boys were guilty.
controversial
causing disagreement
Religion and politics are controversial subjects that people tend to shy away from.
declaration
an important written statement
The declaration of Independence was written to ask England for independence.
devoid
empty
The town was devoid of all human life.
domestic
related to one's home life
Pets are considered domestic animals because they live in your house.
evident
plain, clear
It is evident that the suspect is guilty; he had his head down during the entire trial.
exemplify
to serve as an example
Her willingness to work long hours exemplifies her desire to succeed.
hail
to praise someone or something for good qualities
The students hailed their teacher as a being a good person.
influence
the power to change or persuade others
It is a challenge to protect our children from the many negative influences they are exposed to each day.
mindless
thoughtless
Her mindless answers caused great frustration for her teacher.
minimization
to reduce to a minimum
minimization of human suffering is the goal of the new agency.
outcome
the effect, result
The citizens were not happy with the outcome of the election.
outspoken
saying clearly what one thinks
Being too outspoken in certain cultures is considered to be very rude.
primary
main
My primary concern right now is studying so that I can pass my test.
proponent
someone who favors something
My sister is a proponent of women staying home and raising their children.
quite
very
Her version of the story is quite different than mine.
reincarnate
be born anew in another body after death
Many religions believe the body can reincarnate into animals after their death.
result
a consequence of an action
The result of the meeting was not what she expected; she was fired.
violation
an act of breaking a law
The judge sent her to jail because she had over 30 traffic violations.
amendment
a change
The parents wanted to make amendments to the school by laws.
assuage
to calm
The parents assuaged the fears of their children about them getting divorced.
baby boomer
person born after World War II between 1946 and 1965 along with a great many other children
There will be a big void in many occupations when the baby boomers start retiring.
bankruptcy
the legal state of being without money or credit, unable to pay bills
The parents had to file for bankruptcy because they had lost their store to the fire.
disabled
having a mental or physical disability
The mother had to quit her job and take care of her son when he became disabled from the accident.
epidemic
extremely prevalent
Playing computer games could also result in an epidemic of short sightedness
expectancy
an expecting or being expected
The life expectancy for American females is 79 years old.
government bond
A government bond is a bond issued by a national government denominated in the country's own currency
The investor does not invest in stocks but in government bonds; he thinks they are safer.
health care
the field concerned with the maintenance or restoration of the health of the body or mind
The presidential debate focused on the issue of health care for children.
income tax
a tax levied on incomes
The citizens were outraged because of the rich pay less income tax than the middle class.
New Deal
the domestic program of the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration
The New Deal programs lasted from 1933 to 1941 in the United States.
pension funds
a supply of money which many people pay into, especially employees of a company, and which is invested in order to provide them with a pension when they are older
The mother contributed the maximum amount into her pension fund; she was concerned about how she will live in retirement.
proper
right as to how to do something
Because they didn't have enough money, they could not pay for a proper wedding for their daughter.
retirement
an act of leaving or time when one leaves the workforce and stops work
After his retirement, he was able to play a lot of golf.
social insurance
any of various forms of insurance in which a government is an insurer, esp. such insurance that provides assistance to disabled or unemployed workers and to aged persons
Medicare is social insurance for the elderly in America; it provides for health care services.
supplementary
additional
Because the mother's milk was not sufficient, the doctor recommended a supplementary diet for the infant.
surface
to appear
The son's medical condition surfaced during a routine visit to the doctor.
surplus
an amount more than what is needed or used
The army had surpluses of supplies, so they gave them to the local people.
uneven
not equal in ability, intelligence, strength
The two boys did not enjoy playing chess together because their skills were uneven.
unprecedented
never having happened or existed in the past
The 20th century witnessed unprecedented new discoveries in technology.
blissfully
great joy or happiness
Her dream was to live blissfully in the country side.
compete
to try to be more successful than someone or something else
Both of his children try to compete for his attention.
decline
to move downward
You can see the decline in the education standards because students no longer can recite their multiplication facts.
disseminate
to make known
The fastest way to disseminate news these days is through the internet.
editor
person in charge of publishing a periodical, a newscast, or a book series
Her work as the editor of a very large newspaper occupied most of her time.
entertainment
shows, films, television, or other performances or activities that entertain people, or a performance of this type
The family enjoyed visiting Las Vegas because of the various entertainment it offered.
enthral
to hold someone's attention completely
Babies are enthralled by bright colors.
fee
a charge, cost
The entrance fee to the museum was $25 per person.
inception
beginning
Since the inception of the program, it has been very successful.
integral
necessary
The nanny was an integral member of the family.
medium
a means of doing something
She chose art as the medium to represent her ideas.
mimic
to copy the way in which a particular person usually speaks and moves, usually in order to amuse people
The baby mimicked every sound the dog made.
opinion
a thought or belief about something or someone
He held the opinion that the economy would improve significantly next year.
press
newspapers, magazines, and their reporters, and often radio and television editors
The president and his family is often followed by the press.
printing press
a machine for printing from inked type, plates, or rolls
Johannes Gutenberg is credited with the invention of the printing press.
reinvent
take something old and do or show it in a new way
With the internet, communications has been reinvented.
sensational
very interesting or exciting
There was a sensational story in the newspaper about a monkey that could read a book.
shape
to have an effect
Newspaper stories help shape people's opinions about political candidates.
trade
commerce in general
The two leaders decided to expand trade between their two countries.
vital
most important
Water is vital for human survival.
addicted
to not be able to stop doing or using something, especially something harmful
It's easy to become addicted to cigarette smoking.
commentator
a person who reports, analyzes, and evaluates news events and trends on radio or television
Sports commentators are usually retired professionals from that field.
deprive
to take something away from
Because she had been raised by a nanny and not her parents, the woman felt deprived of a normal childhood.
glance
to take a quick short look at something
She glanced at the newspaper before eating her breakfast.
gossip
to talk or write about other people's actions or lives, sometimes in an untruthful way
Did you hear the latest gossip about the president?
hypnotize
to put someone in a mental state like sleep
The psychologist hypnotized his patient in hopes of having her remember the details of the accident.
interfere
to enter or interrupt a situation or discussion
She had difficulty working from home because her child constantly interferes.
intrinsic
belonging naturally to someone or something
Taking care of their young is intrinsic for most animals.
leisure
relaxation free from work
The couple enjoyed their leisure time at the beach.
malicious
intentionally mischievous or harmful
The manager could no longer tolerate the malicious gossip that was circulating about him.
obese
very fat
The mother was worried because her son had become obese; He weighed over 300 pounds.
persist
to continue steadily in the same manner in spite of obstacles or opposition
The man persisted and finally won over the woman's heart.
pervasive
widespread
In Silicon Valley, there is a pervasive trend towards casual dress.
predict
to say what will happen in the future
Fortune tellers say they can predict the future, but they usually not right.
prevalence
widely existing
The prevalence of computer usage among teens is not a bad thing if it can be carefully monitored.
prey
a victim
The thief thought the woman would be an easy prey because she could not work very well.
problematic
having the nature of a problem
The test question proved to be very problematic because there were four possible answers.
reduction
less of something
The reduction of the husband's salary affected the family greatly.
risk
danger of losing something important
There is great risk of becoming addicted to gambling.
trend
a general pattern
The recent trend in developed countries is to have less children.
accessible
able to be entered or reached
All the buildings in the city are accessible to people in wheelchairs.
anxiety
an uncomfortable feeling of nervousness or worry about something that is happening or might happen in the future
She had a lot of anxiety regarding her upcoming surgery.
assume
to believe something is true without knowing
Since all the lights were out, we assumed no one was home.
diversion
an action designed to distract
The thieves worked in pairs; one stole the wallets while the other provided a diversion.
drastically
having very noticeable effects
The company had to drastically reduce their work force; they fired 2,000 employees.
inconspicuous
not obvious or noticeable
The presidents daughter wore a hat and sunglasses to the because she wanted to be inconspicuous.
input
something such as energy, money or information that is put into a system, organization or machine so that it can operate
The CEO did not put much input into the new design of the building.
mentally ill
Suffering from a mental illness
The family could not take vacations because of their mentally ill child.
passive
accepting without resistance
The husband did not understand his wife's passive response to their child's temper tantrums.
physical
of or pertaining to that which is material
The couple had no emotional bonding even thought they lived in the same house and shared physical space.
portable
capable of being carried or moved around
The mother bought each of her children a portable CD player.
progress
to improve or develop in skills or knowledge
Her English skills progressed to a level where she was able to hold conversations with native speakers.
radical
complete or extreme
The school district made radical changes by forbidding bicycles on school campuses.
reliant
a state of needing something very much
Mark is reliant on his older brother for everything.
rely
to depend on
After the birth of her child, she relied heavily on her mother for support.
render
to give something or do something
The new store attracts many customers because it renders good services.
severely
causing very great pain, difficulty, anxiety, damage
The car was severely damaged from the accident.
sheer
absolute
Her success was due to sheer determination and will power.
subtle
not noticeable
The wife wanted a new oven and gave her husband subtle hints.
via
by way of
Singapore Airlines flies to Seoul via San Francisco.
bemoan
to feel sad about something
The couple bemoans the fact that they never had children.
comprise
to include
The building was comprised on 20 different stores.
dedicate
to give completely
Mother Theresa dedicated her entire life to helping poor children.
essence
central point or issue of a subject
The essence of his argument was that children should have the right to an education.
feature
to advertise as important
Most McDonald's feature a play area for children.
franchise
a right to sell a company's products in a particular area using the company's name
She owned three Mc Donald's franchises.
icon
a very famous person or thing considered as representing a set of beliefs or a way of life
Bill Gates is an icon for many young entrepreneurs.
inclination
desire to do something
She had an inclination to climb the mountain, but no one would go with her.
indulgence
to allow yourself or another person to have something enjoyable, especially more than is good for you
My only indulgence is having two scoops of ice cream every day.
inexpensive
not costing a lot of money
The gift was very practical and inexpensive.
inordinate
more than necessary
She takes an inordinate amount of time preparing dinner for her husband; she treats him as if he were king.
obesity
being extremely fat
A high fat diet can lead to obesity.
option
a choice
She had no other option but to get a divorce.
originality
the quality or state of being original
The originality of the child's poem surprised everyone.
patron
a regular customer
patrons to the store come from the community.
rapid
very fast
The message was difficult to understand because of her rapid speech.
recognition
praise for doing something well
The dinner was given in recognition of her charity work.
solitary
A solitary person or thing is the only person or thing in a place
In the distance, they saw a solitary statue.
ubiquitous
found all over
Large pieces of empty land is ubiquitous in Texas.
utmost
the greatest
The situation required utmost sensitivity.
adapt
to change, to function in a new way
He adapted very quickly to his new life in South America.
alienation
the feeling that you have no connection with the people around you
Although she lived in a very busy city, she felt an alienation from the people around her.
blur
difficult to see, understand or separate clearly
The distinction between art and graffiti has blurred in recent years.
camaraderie
a good feeling of togetherness
There was a certain level of camaraderie between the new freshmen students.
compulsive
needing to do something and not being able to stop
She has a compulsive need to eat chocolate every day.
connote
to signify or suggest certain meanings
The word "home" connotes different feelings for different people.
cope
to struggle or deal on fairly even terms or with some degree of success
Since her family moved frequently, she developed coping strategies for not getting depressed.
depression
a feeling of temporary sadness
She suffered depression after the death of her cat.
empathetic
the ability to share someone else's feelings or experiences by imagining what it would be like to be in their situation
Having lost her husband to cancer, she was very empathetic to the couple's situation.
first-hand
to experience it yourself
Mother's have first-hand experience of the pain of childbirth.
initiative
the first step, usu. showing strength
The student took the initiative to learn Chinese before going on his exchange program to China.
insight
ability to see or know the truth, intelligence about something
His grandfather had a lot of insights about the war.
layman
someone who is not trained in or does not have a detailed knowledge of a particular subject
The new financial book is for laymen who are interested in investing.
plight
difficult situation
Their plight was that they were stranded in the middle of the desert.
pool
to contribute money, knowledge, or other resources as a group for a common purpose
The workers pooled their money together to buy the manager a wedding gift.
prescription
when someone says what someone else must have or do
Many of the attendees wanted to know the prescription for success.
remedy
a successful way of curing an illness or dealing with a problem or difficulty
The remedy for her sickness was quite simple; she just needed to rest.
therapy
treatment of mental and physical illnesses and disorders, usu. without surgery
Speech therapy was recommended to fix the child's stuttering.
to be on the fringe
to behave very odd behavior
He is on the fringe of society; he can't seem to hold down a job.
wholeheartedly
completely enthusiastic
The audience wholeheartedly agreed with the speaker.
aim
a result that your plans or actions are intended to achieve
Our short term aims are to get out of debt and purchase a house.
connotation
the meanings that a word can have beyond its basic one
The word 'gentleman' has different connotations for different people.
debate
an argument
There was big debate over who would have custody of the child.
denial
refusal to accept something as true
Her denial of her son's medical condition prevents her son from getting the best medical care.
discrimination
unfair treatment because of race, sex, age, religion, etc.
After moving to a new country, she faced much discrimination because of her race.
draft
to draw the plans for something
The committee drafted a new plan for retaining students.
entitle
to allow
As the daughter of the CEO, she was entitled to many privileges not available to other girls her age.
equality
a condition of being equal
There is no equality in the way women and men are paid in the workforce.
fortunate
lucky in general
We were fortunate in that our house did not burn down during the fire.
gender
the classification of male and female living things
Many countries still discriminate based on gender.
immensely
extremely
When he was younger, he was an immensely talented singer.
intangible
feeling or quality exists but you cannot describe it exactly or prove it
It is crucial that parents teach their children intangible characteristics such as work ethic and attitude.
literally
used to emphasize what you are saying
The family was literally shocked by the news.
mandate
to order
The students and parents mandated a new homework policy.
manner
a way of acting
He behaved in a manner that was inappropriate for a 10 year old.
obstacle
something that gets in the way and stops action or progress
Romeo and Juliet faced many obstacles to being together.
spark
bit of light caused by hard surfaces scraping together or from fire
Rubbing two sticks together will create sparks.
stereotype
a fixed idea that people have about what someone or something is like, especially an idea that is wrong
Many Americans have the stereotype that all Asians are good in math.
straightforward
without complications; clear
The directions to the part were straightforward.
struggle
a difficult time or task using much effort and energy
The daughter's struggle for independence from their parents finally led to her moving to another country.
akin
similar to
His new songs are akin to those of the 70s.
avoid
to stay away from
She avoids dark alleys at night.
cessation
a stop to an activity
The cessation of the couple's fighting brought peace to the family.
crave
to desire greatly
She craves chocolate every night before bed.
define
to explain the meaning of
The roles of the husband and wife were not clearly defined and the couple struggled with their identity in the marriage.
despite
in spite of
despite the heavy rains, the children had fun at the zoo.
dose
an amount of medicine
You should take the exact dose prescribed by your doctor.
habit
a repeated behavior
He has a bad habit of picking his nose in public.
habitually
usual or repeated
There is something wrong with a student that habitually curses his teacher.
hallucination
events imagined by someone
The new drug caused her to have hallucinations that someone was chasing her.
indication
a sign, signal
The rain is a good indication that we will not have a drought this year.
interpersonal
between people
Occupations in sales require great interpersonal skills.
potential
the possibility of being or doing something
This company has the potential of making a lot of money.
pursuit
a career, occupation
The occupational pursuits of the siblings were all different.
rehabilitation
to return someone or something to a good or healthy condition
The judge ordered her to enter a drug rehabilitation program for six months.
relapse
to become worse again after being better
After completing the drug rehabilitation program he was doing very well, until he had a relapse.
replenish
to replace something that was used
The aunt allowed them to eat everything in the refrigerator as long as they replenished it before they left.
resort
To have recourse
The mother tried very hard to discipline her son without resorting to spanking.
run-in
an argument
After getting married, the husband had many run-ins with his new brother-in-law.
tolerance
ability to suffer or endure something
The doctors were surprised at her high tolerance for pain.
adopt
to accept or start to use something new
The parents decided to adopt a new strategy for disciplining their child.
allocate
to plan to use an amount of money for a specific purpose
The family had only allocated $50 for meals per day; it was not enough, so they ended their vacation short.
amalgamate
to mix or merge so as to make a combination
The three companies decided to amalgamate.
array
a large group of things or people
There was an array of beautiful flower arrangements on the stage.
assimilate
to become part of a nation's culture or to absorb into a culture
She had no problems assimilating into her new culture.
congruent
agreeing with
The hope is that the family identity will become congruent as the foster children start adapting to their new environment.
culture
the ideas, activities and ways of behaving that are special to a country
Because America is a land of immigrants, its culture is difficult to define.
immigrant
a person who moves to another country to live
Many immigrants in the United States came to realize the American dream.
inadvertently
done unintentionally
The bride had inadvertently left her future in-laws off the guest list.
integration
to mix with and join society or a group of people
The integration of the two cultures was difficult to do because of their religious differences.
intense
strong feeling or emotion
She had intense pain when the doctor pulled her tooth.
mainstream
the group of ideas accepted by the majority of people
His ideas were so obscure that it was not accepted by the mainstream of American people.
mosaic
a pattern or picture made using many small pieces of colored stone or glass
America is no longer considered a melting pot; the words 'salad' and 'mosaic' are deemed more appropriate.
numerous
many
The man had numerous wives in many different countries.
oppression
the exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, cruel, or unjust manner
The oppression she endured for being a woman caused her to hate herself.
persecution
the act of harassing with oppressive treatment
The prisoners faced much persecution for their religious beliefs.
preservation
the act of keeping alive or in existence
The committee works hard in the preservation of historical buildings in the city.
prosper
to grow in wealth
He prospered in his new line of business.
sovereignty
Supremacy of authority
The two countries fought for the sovereignty of the island.
vie
to compete with other people to achieve or obtain something
Because she has eight children, all the children are constantly vying for their mother's attention.
approximately
much or less correct or exact
They determined the age of the fossil to be approximately three million years old.
climate
the type of weather that a place or region has
When people grow old, they prefer to live in places where the climate is moderate.
competitive
something that is as good or better than something else
The new smaller cars had a competitive advantage over larger cars.
consequence
the result of doing something
The consequences of her drinking was losing her children.
consumer
a person who buys goods or services for personal needs
She was a consumer of fine wines and always went to great lengths to purchase quality wines.
deforestation
the process of divesting or clearing forests or trees
There are many environmental problems caused by deforestation.
destructive
causing great damage
The destructive winds caused great damage to the small town.
disastrous
causing great harm, damage
Her first attempt at cooking was disastrous; she almost caused a fire.
effort
physical or mental work
She put a lot of effort into planning the party.
erosion
a wearing away
River erosion created the Grand Canyon.
extinct
no longer in existence
Dinosaurs are no longer in existence; they are extinct.
immense
very large
The immense mansion was purchased for 20 million dollars.
landscape
a broad view of the land
The woman wanted to purchase a house that would have a beautiful view of the landscape.
manipulate
to influence someone or something to your advantage
The son loved his mother dearly, but he grew tired of her trying to manipulate his life.
multitude
a large number of something, especially people
The politician spoke to a multitude of 30,000 people.
nomadic
an experience of a group of people who move from one place to another rather than living in one place all of the time
The rich young professionals sold all their belongings and lived a nomadic life, traveling from country to country.
strip
to take away
The mayor was stripped of his administrative powers when he was found guilty.
suit
to satisfy
The new house suits the needs of the family.
urban sprawl
the spread of the city to the suburbs
Los Angeles was one of the first cities to experience an urban sprawl.
urbanized
to build houses, offices, etc. in an area of countryside so that it becomes a town
The United States is a highly urbanized country.
absent
not present
The father was absent from his daughter's wedding.
aggressive
unfriendly
The aggressive behavior of the child caused much concern for the parents.
alteration
small change
There was a slight alteration in the plan; they decided to fly instead of driving.
candidate
a person or thing ready for something
She is the next candidate for the promotion.
circumstance
a fact or event that makes a situation the way it is
The circumstances were not favorable for them to start a family.
demand
the desire to purchase, coupled with the power to do so
The demand for the talking doll was high during the Christmas holiday.
facilitate
to help
The guides language skills help facilitate our tour through the congested part of town.
instinct
unlearned behavior or ability
A mother's instinct tells her when her child is in pain.
nontraditional
not conforming to or in accord with tradition
She married a nontraditional man; he cooks, cleans, and stays at home to watch the children.
norm
standard of behavior
Wearing baggy pants and earrings is the norm for students in this school.
procreate
to reproduce
Some women resent the fact that some men think they were put on this earth to procreate only.
propagate
to transmit
The church propagates a message of peace to the community.
pursue
to work hard at something
She studied hard and pursued a career in medicine.
reproduce
to make copies of something
The teacher reproduced 50 copies of the exam.
scenario
a description of events that make up a general situation
The scenario of the play was that of a many trying to save his wife.
split up
get a divorce
Ever since her parents split up, Mary has not been the same.
strategy
planning in order to achieve a goal
The company's strategy is simple: make good products and sell at a low price.
traditional
following customs that have continued in a group of people or society for a long time without changing
She decided not to marry Tom because he was too traditional; he expected her to stay home, cook and have babies.
upbringing
how parents, teachers, and others give a good or bad education and manners to a young person growing up
By the way she behaves, it is obvious that she had a very good upbringing.
viable
capable of succeeding
The only viable solution to the family's situation was that the children had to quit school.
accurate
correct
The grades were accurate and reflected the hard work of the students.
adversely
having a negative or harmful effect on something
The loss of the farm adversely affected the family's income.
annulment
to officially announce that something such as a law, agreement, or marriage no longer exists
The couple received an annulment of their marriage because the woman already had a husband.
child-support
money paid for the care of one's minor child
Since the father made more money than the mother, he was required to pay $3,000 a month for child-support.
conflict
a difference, disagreement
A conflict arose between the two people when they couldn't agree on a price for the table.
considerable
much, a lot
The woman received a considerable amount of money from the insurance company.
contemporary
modern
The wife liked contemporary furniture, and the husband liked antiques.
contrary
different from
contrary to what people think, the doctors in this country do not make that much money.
custody
safekeeping
After the divorce, the mother received custody of the children.
devastating
causing a lot of damage or destruction
The devastating fire consumed over 30 homes.
entail
to make necessary
Getting a job in the White House entails a lot of security checks.
exaggerate
to say something is better, worse, more important than it really is
The company profits were exaggerated, and no one knew the financial state of the company.
impact
to have an effect
The new program to help the poor people impacted the community greatly.
messy
cluttered, disorderly
Her desk was always messy; she had paper everywhere.
null and void
without legal force or effect
The marriage was considered null and void because the bride was a minor.
oblige
to require
He was obliged to pay for the accident because he was at fault.
pretense
a reason or act that hides the real reason for doing something
He enter the house on the pretense that he was going to fix the refrigerator, but he really wanted to steal her money.
terminate
to end
Our rental agreement was terminated because we had too many parties.
variance
an exception to a rule or standard
There has been an unusual variance in temperature this month.
vow
a solemn promise
She made a vow to exercise every day.
abuse
hurt badly, either physically or emotionally
Since the abused children had no place to go, the judge placed them with foster care families.
appropriate
correct, suitable
The mother allowed her children to watch TV programs that were not appropriate for them.
conceive
to become pregnant
She had a hard time conceiving a child.
disgrace
a cause of shame or dishonor
She had disgraced her family by becoming pregnant when she was only 15 years old.
forego
to do without
Many young couples these days forego a formal engagement party.
hype
exaggerated advertising claims
They went to the new restaurant because of the hype, but they were disappointed.
illegitimate
born to unmarried parents
The illegitimate daughter of the president became a famous actress.
intervene
to stop an action happening between other people
The police had to intervene and take the child out of the house.
neglect
to not give enough care or attention
She was too busy drinking that she neglected her baby.
orphanage
a place where orphans live and are cared for
The neighbors placed the little girl in an orphanage when they could not locate the parents.
permit
to allow
David was not permitted to leave the house after 10 pm.
portray
to describe someone or something in a certain way, to characterize them
Hollywood tends to portray Asians as being very weak and submissive.
prospective
anticipated in the future
The prospective buyers came to look at the house one more time.
resemblance
a likeness to someone or something
The actress showed a resemblance to her famous grandfather.
responsibility
something that someone must do
The responsibilities of becoming a parent are tremendous.
right
That which is just, morally good, legal, proper, or fitting
The citizens of this country do not have many rights; they can not vote or express their opinions.
stigma
a mark of shame or disgrace
Her father was an alcohol and that has been a stigma all her life.
unfit
lacking in good personal qualities
Due to her constant drinking, she was declared an unfit mother by the judge.
unwanted
not wanted
They considered getting an abortion because their child was unwanted, but they decided to keep the baby and start a family.
wary
concerned about danger
Being wary of all strange men, the little girl started to run when the man approached her.
access
the method or possibility of approaching a place or person, or the right to use or look at something
Many poor people do not have access to a good education.
aesthetically
relating to the enjoyment or study of beauty
The table was not very practical, but it was aesthetically pleasing.
conversely
in an opposite way
Children should respect their parents; conversely, parents should not aggravate their children.
cycle
a group of events which happen in a particular order, one following the other, and which are often repeated
The life cycle of a butterfly is fascinating and remarkable for children to observe.
demarcate
to show the limits of something
Properties in the neighborhood are clearly demarcated with fences.
densely
thick; close together
The neighborhood was densely populated, and there was no space for the children to run around.
disproportionately
too large or too small in comparison to something else
All the men complained the ratio of men to women was disproportionately unbalanced.
disrepair
a condition of being broken down and needing to be fixed
The town has fallen into a state of disrepair; all the buildings and street lights are damaged.
ethnic minority
a national or racial group living in a country or area which contains a larger group of people of a different race or nationality
California has a disproportionate number of ethnic minorities in the school system.
feasible
workable
Your plan is feasible as long as we can raise the funds.
graffiti
writings and drawings on walls, often rude, funny, or political
Graffitis are against the law allowed in Singapore.
networking
to meet people who might be useful to know, especially in your job
Having the right education and skills is important, but networking is becoming more important in finding a job.
overcome
to fight against successfully
He had to overcome his fear of flying first before he could become a pilot.
overlap
the amount by which two things or activities cover the same area
There is an overlap in the products of the two companies.
perpetuate
to keep alive or preserve in memory for a long time
He worked hard to perpetuate his father's legacy.
privileged
having an advantage that only one person or group of people has
Many children of wealthy families are privileged to receive an excellent education.
segregation
to keep one group of people apart from another and treat them differently
Racial segregation in the United States prevented blacks and whites from eating in the same restaurants.
social mobility
the ability of individuals or groups to move within a social hierarchy with changes in income, education, occupation, etc
The family moved into a better neighborhood because they thought it would help with their social mobility.
status
one's position in society in terms of power and importance
Lawyers and doctors have more status than bus drivers.
surmount
to overcome
The family has surmounted some difficulties and now they are doing well.
allow
permit; to let
We allowed our son to start driving when he turned 16 years old.
childrearing
the practice of looking after children until they are old enough to look after themselves
After she devoted 15 years to childrearing, she decided to pursue a career.
decade
a period of 10 years
After decades of working on his invention, the scientist was finally rewarded for his hard work.
dramatic
making a big impression
She made a dramatic entrance to the party; she wore a beautiful gown with lots of jewelry.
ensue
happen in sequence
After the terrible earthquake, a tsunami ensued.
establish
to found, create
The English established several colonies around the world.
fertility
the ability to produce offspring or new plants
They decided to adopt a child because they had problems with fertility.
Great Depression
the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s
Her grandfather had lived through the Great Depression, and he hates to waste any food.
inevitable
definitely going to happen
It was inevitable that you will not get into a good college if you don't study hard.
inhabit
to live in an area
I was surprised to find that people inhabit such places as Siberia.
life expectancy
the length of time that a living thing, especially a human being, is likely to live
The life expectancy in America has greatly increased in the past 50 years.
massive
huge, great
A massive amount of information is available on the internet.
millennia
a period of 1000 years
By the year 2000, there were two millennia.
mortality
the rate of death from illness or disaster
The infant mortality rate in poor countries tend to be very high
motherhood
the state of being a mother
Now that she was married, she eagerly looked forward to motherhood.
pace
tempo of an activity
The company could not keep up with the pace of the demand for their product.
pension plan
a financial plan that allows you to receive money after you or your employer have paid money into it for a number of years
She had diligently put money into her pension plan, and now she is able to enjoy the benefits.
postpone
to delay an event and plan or decide that it should happen at a later date or time
After postponing having children, the couple realized they were now too old to have children.
prospect
a possibility of success in the future
The prospect of her getting married was not very good; she was not over 50 years old.
surviving
continuing to live or exist
The whale did not have any chances of surviving because his wounds were too deep.
abhor
to hate
The little girl abhors vegetables.
accommodate
to give what is needed to someone
The restaurant was not set up to accommodate the physically disabled.
amenity
something that adds to people's comfort
The only amenities at the hotel was its gym.
backlash
a strong action against something
After the senator made the comment about ethnic minorities, there was a backlash against his campaign.
dependence
a need for support
A child's dependence on his mother gradually decreases as he ages.
diversity
differences among people in race, ethnic group, religion
American is known for the diversity of its people.
encourage
to give strength or hope to someone; urge
The teacher encouraged his students to never give up their dreams.
exhaust
discharge in the form of smoke or steam
The people in the village got sick from breathing in the exhaust from cars passing by.
expansion
an enlargement
The company's expansion program included building a gym for its employees.
global warming
a slow increase of the temperature of the air around the earth caused by pollution
Some scientist argue that global warming is not caused by human actions.
infringe
to go where someone or something doesn't belong
Our neighbor's fruit trees infringes in our yard.
latter
the second of two people or things named
We watch a lot of horror and mystery movies, but we preferred the latter.
lengthy
long in distance, time, or coverage
The speaker gave a lengthy description on the mating habits of whales.
locale
a place, location for something that happens
The movie director chose a new locale for his next film.
middle class
the social level of people between the working class and upper class
Korea's middle class is starting to grow.
pedestrian
any person walking on a sidewalk, across a street, or down a road
In America, most pedestrians have the right of way; this is not true in some other countries.
reject
to refuse, not accept
I do not reject his story, I just question some of the details.
restore
to renew
After a vacation to Thailand, the man's health was restored.
sacrifice
to give up something that is valuable to you in order to help another person
You can not achieve your goals without sacrificing something in your life.
transport
transportation
Public transport in Seoul is safe and efficient.
absorb
to soak up
The flowers absorbed all the water in the vase.
cell
the basic of living things
Our bodies are made up of many cells.
constitute
to make up
Giving advice to young teens constituted most of his time at work.
contraction
a pain, often muscular, esp. starting the birth of a baby
The doctor told her to come to the hospital when her contractions were 10 minutes apart.
dilate
to make larger
The pupils dilate in the dark.
distinct
easy to see
They were able to see the baby's distinct features through the ultrasound.
embryo
the early stage of growth before birth
When they cracked open the egg, they saw the embryo of the chicken inside.
fallopian tube
one of two tubes connecting the uterus with the ovaries
The woman's difficulty getting pregnant was caused by a blockage in her fallopian tube.
fertilization
the union of egg and sperm that starts the development of new life
In vitro fertilization is a technique in which egg cells are fertilized by sperm outside the woman's womb.
fetus
the developed embryo in humans and other mammals
When the couple did an ultrasound, they were able to see the fetus.
implant
to put an organ, group of cells, or device into the body in a medical operation
The doctor implanted a device into the man's skin which would help him stop smoking.
ingest
to eat
If you ingest any poison, you must call 911 immediately.
malnourished
poorly fed
When the police found the children, they were badly malnourished.
prenatal
while a baby is in the mother's womb
The fetus did not thrive because the woman did not receive adequate prenatal care.
series
a group of similar things or events
She likes to read books that are in a series.
survival
the ability to continue to exist or live
The team's survival in the tournament depended on their defensive tactics.
traverse
travel over
The climbers traversed over the rocky mountains.
trimester
any of the three three-month periods that a human pregnancy is divided into
The woman felt very good during her second trimester of her pregnancy.
uterus
female organ where a baby develops
The doctors had to remove the woman's uterus, and she could no longer get pregnant.
womb
the part of a woman's body where a baby can grow
Although her daughter did not grow in her womb, she loved her all the more.
abstract
related to ideas, feelings and not concrete things
Love is an abstract concept for many people.
autonomy
independence or freedom
When children become toddlers, they start to assert their autonomy.
bombard
to criticize heavily
The audience bombarded the candidate with many comments about healthcare.
cause-and-effect
noting a relationship between actions or events such that one or more are the result of the other or others
Babies normally do not understand the cause-and-effect of their behaviors.
complex
having many parts or details that make something hard to understand or deal with
The mother could no longer her son with his complex math problems.
concentrate
to think hard about something
It was difficult to concentrate in the library because the people were talking too loudly.
concrete
dealing with facts and certainties
The police did not have any concrete evidence to arrest the criminal.
consider
to think about something
She considered becoming a doctor, but she decided against it because she couldn't stand blood.
cooperatively
to act or work together for a particular purpose
The school, the hospital and the church worked cooperatively to help the child get better.
curiosity
an eager desire to know or learn about something
Out of curiosity, he called the police station to find out what had happened to the robber.
discourage
to take away one's confidence or hope
The parents tried to discourage their son from joining the army.
disdainful
showing no respect
The students had a disdainful attitude towards their substitute teacher.
infancy
early time
From it's infancy, the restaurant never served alcohol.
inquisitive
asking lots of questions
She had a very inquisitive daughter; she asked at least five questions to everyone she met.
logic
a system of reasoning
The youth had very poor logic and was not able to win many arguments.
mobile
capable of going from one place to another
Her doctor recommended four weeks of bed rest, but after one week she was quite mobile.
motor skill
the ability to perform complex muscle-and-nerve acts that produce movement
The five year old had very good fine motor skills; she used her scissors effectively.
role-play
to assume the attitudes, actions, and discourse of (another)
The school teaches the students to role-play different situations in order to prevent the students from getting kidnapped.
self-reliant
able to take care of oneself without outside help
Even after the stroke, her 70 year old mother was very self-reliant; she cooked her own meals and did her own shopping.
temper tantrum
a violent demonstration of rage or frustration
It was obvious the child was not properly disciplined; he threw a temper tantrum even in public.
adolescent
a teenager, especially ages 13-17
adolescents are often confused because of their emotions; they do not realize this is normal.
autonomous
independent
By 10 months, most babies are autonomous enough to roam around the house by themselves.
awkward
difficult to use, do, or deal with
During adolescents, teenagers often feel very awkward with what is going on in their bodies.
clumsy
awkward in movement or manner
After she first learned how to walk, Sarah was very clumsy and fell often.
cognitive
connected with thinking or conscious mental processes
Although she was 15, her cognitive skills were not fully developed, and she behaved like a five year old.
contemplate
to think about something seriously
Her parents were not a very good role model for her, and she seriously contemplated whether she wanted to get married or not.
disorder
a sickness or disturbance
Teenage girls who struggle with self-esteem often suffer from eating disorders.
entity
a group viewed as a whole
Although they are owned by the same person, they are essentially different entities.
forge
to proceed with strength or speed despite problems or difficulties
Despite her lack of funds and other complications, she decided to forge ahead with her plans.
hormone
a chemical from body organs that stimulates activity in living systems
Teenage years can be difficult because the body is adjusting to all the hormones that are being produced.
hypothetical
imagined or suggested but not necessarily real or true
The two men liked to have hypothetical discussions about what the future will be like.
intimate
emotionally close
The couple found it difficult to have an intimate relationship because the husband was constantly traveling.
ovary
the organ of a woman or a female animal that produces eggs
The woman could not get pregnant because she had her ovaries removed when she was young.
peer
a person who is one's equal in age, rank, ability, or other quality
During teenage years, the advice of their peers become much more important than that of the parents.
pituitary gland
a small organ at the base of the brain that regulates the body's growth
Because Tom was not growing, the doctors checked his pituitary glands to see if there any problems.
psychological
relating to the human mind and feelings
She felt very sick, but after extensive tests the doctors realized that it was all psychological.
reasoning
ability to think logically
The stroke had impaired her reasoning skills, and she was no longer able to have normal conversations.
release
to let something go
After catching 30 fish, the fisherman released them back into the ocean.
spurt
to move out or forward with great force
He was always short until he had a grow spurt in college.
tumultuous
very loud, or full of confusion, change or uncertainty
After growing up in a very tumultuous family environment, Mary decided never to get married.
academia
the world of students and teachers
He had spent all of his adult life in academia because he was a history professor.
accompany
to be provided or exist at the same time as something
There is a lot of stress that accompanies planning a wedding.
alter
to change
Her pants were too big so she had to get them altered.
ample
more than enough
They thought they had ample time to get to the party, but they didn't anticipate the accident on the highway.
blackboard
a flat surface to write on in classrooms
Most blackboards in the school have been replaced with dry erase boards.
blatant
going against one's sense of honesty
The mother recognized her son's blatant lies.
curriculum
the courses offered at an educational institution
Parents believe that private schools offer a more rigorous curriculum than public schools do.
delve
to look deeply into
Unless you delve into a subject, you really wont' understand it.
dozen
a group of 12
I bought a dozen donuts and ate them by myself.
frequency
the rate at which something happens
The frequency of her contractions had increased.
intrinsic
belonging naturally to someone or something
Taking care of their young is intrinsic for most animals.
playful
funny and not serious
The child was very playful and continued to entertain the adults around her.
recognize
to recall, remember someone or something when one sees or hears that person or thing
The young woman recognized the tall man from the party.
rejection
something that is not accepted
His rejection of his wife's culture caused them to divorce.
remain
to stay after others are gone
The family decided to remain in the house even after the death of their grandfather.
sibling
a person with the same parents as someone else
Because there were seven children in her family, she often fought with her siblings for her parent's attention.
significant
important
The family was able to take a vacation because the father had received a significant increase in his salary.
spontaneous
not planned
The spontaneous nature of her son drove the mother crazy; she liked everything planned.
structured
organized
My children have a very structured day; they have a different activity each hour of the day.
trying
difficult
Babysitting five rebellious children was a trying experience for the baby sitter.
benefit
helpful or good effect
The benefit of a high school diploma is that you will be more employable.
concerns
worry
She had many concerns about her daughter living alone in New York City.
demand
the desire to purchase, coupled with the power to do so
The demand for the talking doll was high during the Christmas holiday.
disposal
the throwing away or dumping of
Most American homes have a garbage disposal in the kitchen.
economy
the system of trade and industry by which the wealth of a country is made and used
The housing boom improved the country's sagging economy.
efficient
working or operating quickly and effectively in an organized way
After fixing refrigerators for 20 years, he was very efficient at what he did.
feng shui
a Chinese art that reveals ways to balance the energies of the environment to assure health, wealth and good fortune
After having bad luck in her business for several years, she finally consulted a feng shui specialist who told her to paint her house red for better luck.
funnel
To move through or as if through a funnel
The tourists were slowly funneling their way through airport customs.
inhabitant
person who lives in a certain area
The inhabitants of the east coast enjoy four distinct seasons.
labor
to work
She labored over creating the perfect wedding dress for her daughter.
mass transit
a system of public transportation in a given metropolitan area, typically comprising of buses, subways, and elevated trains
Residents of Seoul do not need a car because of the efficient mass transit system.
motivated
to give a reason to do something
None of the students were motivated to study harder.
optimize
to make as effective
The city officials did not optimize the existing land in the city.
paycheck
a salary or wage check
Most employees work hard to receive their paycheck.
prefer
to give preference or priority to
If given a choice, most children would prefer to watch television over doing homework.
resident
a person who lives in a certain area
The residents of Hawaii enjoy a very scenic view.
resource
a useful or valuable possession or quality
Having traveled to over 30 countries, the student was a valuable resource to her peers.
settle
to make a home
Our family immigrated to the United States and settled in San Francisco.
urban
related to a city
Many young people from the small towns choose to move to urban areas.
variety
different types
She loved to eat at buffets because if offered her a variety of foods.
adaptation
a change that results in something to suit different conditions or uses
The elementary students enjoyed the adaptation of Romeo and Juliet; it was an animation.
adept
skillful
She was adept at making everyone believe her lies.
advantage
a good feature
She had an advantage over other students because she had studied Latin in high school.
cater
to satisfy someone's special needs and desires
The parents catered to their child's every needs.
cooperation
act of working with someone toward a common goal
The goal of kindergarten is to teach children cooperation.
counterpart
a person or thing that is like another or does the same type of job
His counterpart at the hospital was a woman in her 50's.
custom
made specially for individual customers
She liked to be unique and always wore custom shoes made especially for her.
detailed
giving a lot of information with many details
The detailed report outlined the patients history and treatments that were offered.
disadvantage
something that hurts or gets in the way of success
The disadvantage of the new pay system is that it is completely based on the number of hours you work regardless of the quality.
enhance
to improve the quality, amount or strength of something
Some athletes believe enhancing their muscles will help them improve their game.
essential
central, major
A comprehensive elementary education is essential for students to do well in high school.
excessively
an amount which is more than acceptable
The parents were excessively involved in their teenage son's school life.
higher education
education after high school
More than 75% of the population has some training in higher education.
improve
to cause something to get better
If his situation does not improve, we will have to operate.
learning style
Learning style is an individual's unique approach to learning based on strengths, weaknesses, and preferences
The student learned best by listening to audio tapes of books because he had an auditory learning style.
literacy
the ability to read and write
Korea has a very high literacy rate; more than 95% of the people can read and write.
natural
normal or expected
It is natural to get nervous before a big test.
priority
the tasks, or beliefs that are most important and require attention
Getting good grades was not his priority; getting a well rounded education was.
trait
a particular characteristic that can produce a particular type of behavior
Being rude is not a positive trait.
work ethic
the belief that work is morally good
Without good work ethics, it is impossible to advance in your career.
approach
come near
As you approach the town, you'll see the college on the left.
aptitude
capacity for, to be good at doing something
Her aptitude for math made her a good candidate for the math contest.
elective
not required in school or college
In addition to his core classes, he took 2 electives: logic and debate.
expose
To subject or allow to be subjected to an action, influence, or condition
Children that have been exposed to different situations tend to be more mature.
extend
to make longer in space or time
We extended our vacation because we really enjoyed the beach.
format
any general arrangement of something
The format of the meeting was a short lecture followed by a question and answer session.
gradually
slowly; over time
Nathan practiced every day and gradually became much better.
grown up
adults
Children often have a lot of respect for grown ups, whether they deserve it or not.
guidance
advice
Anna received guidance from her math teacher; she is now pursuing a doctorate degree in math.
impart
to give information
imparting his love of God to his grandchildren was a priority for the old man.
integrate
make a part of
Traditional television is integrated as it contains images, sound and text.
interact
to communicate with someone
Although they lived in the same house, the father and son barely interacted with each other.
needs
the things that a person must have in order to have a satisfactory life
The family did not make enough money for their basic needs, such as food and clothing.
overall
in general, considering everything
His overall grade in school was not bad, although he was not doing well in science.
primer
a manual that covers the basics of a subject
He wrote a primer on how to discipline rebellious children.
self-motivated
initiative to undertake or continue a task or activity without another's prodding or supervision
Being self-motivated is crucial for people who want to pursue a career in medicine.
tailored
to make something to specific requirements
He tailored his speech to match the needs of the audience.
tenuous
weak
Her arguments for living alone were so tenuous her parents decided against the idea.
transition
change; shift
The weather gets colder during the transition from summer to autumn.
wean
to stop former habits
She weaned herself from eating chocolates by exercising whenever she had cravings.
attain
to achieve
When he attained his doctorate, he felt he had accomplished all his dreams.
attract
to draw interest
With its beautiful beaches and friendly people, Thailand attracts many tourists each year.
burden
a responsibility
After her father's stroke, she had the burden of supporting her family.
decent
proper
Tom had to quit his job because he couldn't make a decent living with his salary.
earn
to get something one deserves as the result of action or effort
After studying very hard, she earned a scholarship to Harvard University.
earning power
the potential to make money
Compared to her sister, Mary had more earning power because she had a university degree.
extraordinary
outstanding
The little boy had extraordinary musical abilities.
faculty
the teaching staff at a school or college
The faculty at that university is known for their spectacular research.
firm
definite
The school set firm requirements for graduation.
fund
to support
The old man funds his grandchildren's education.
guarantee
to give a promise of satisfaction
She was a little worried about her piano because the movers could not guarantee when it would be delivered.
liberal arts
study of the humanities, social and natural sciences, and mathematics
She studied liberal arts in university which prepared her well for her teaching career.
loan
a sum of money borrowed at a rate of interest
She took out a loan from the bank to pay for her college education.
lot
one's condition in life
It was his lot in life to make a lot of money.
lucrative
profitable
It is a very lucrative business in this industry.
minimum wage
minimum hourly rate that employers must pay to workers
Most fast-food restaurants pay minimum wage; it is not sufficient to support a family on.
passion
enthusiasm; strong interest
He must have some passions.
post-secondary education
an education beyond high school
Many foreigners choose to complete their post-secondary education in the United States.
subsidize
to give money to a person, group, or business
Many small businesses that first start out are subsidized by the government.
varsity
describes sports teams at schools or colleges which are at the most skilled level of play
He was a member of the varsity football team at her high school.
acceleration
when something goes faster
The new car model was touted for its sleek design, but it had poor acceleration.
articulate
express something in clear and effective language
The speaker articulated the need for conserving energy in his speech.
claim
to state something as being true, especially when there is some doubt
She claimed she graduated from Harvard University, but no one believed her.
contradict
to tell someone what he or she says isn't true
The couple could never agree; the wife always contradicted her husband.
exotic
unusual and attractive
On their trip to Asia, they had discovered many exotic fruits and vegetables.
flawed
faulty
The scientist presented a flawed argument during his lecture.
formulation
careful preparation
The formulation of a new education policy took months to prepare.
gravity
a natural force pulling objects to the ground
Without gravity, we would all be floating in the air.
heavenly body
any object existing in space, especially a planet, star, or the moon
The sun is a heavenly body that we can all see and feel.
hypothesize
to give a possible but not yet proved explanation for something
Everyone hypothesized about how the accident happened.
inspiration
source of motivation or creativity
His inspiration for his book came from his long walks along the beach.
leap
increase or improvement
After being inspired by the movie, Mary made leaps in her studies; she received all A's on her report card.
minute
very small
The change to the script was so minute, everyone disregarded it.
novel
new and different
She had novel ways of solving problems.
phenomenon
movement; trend; happening
The wrapping of Christmas presents is a fairly recent phenomenon in American life.
shroud
to make difficult to see
The car was shrouded by tree branches.
slope
a surface at an angle
She skiing ability had improved significantly that she no longer skied down the same slopes.
twist
an unusual development
There was a new twist to the murder case; the husband was found guilty.
unthinkable
so bad that one cannot think about it
It is unthinkable for me to imagine getting divorced.
vacuum
a totally empty and airless space
How will the human body, without the protection of a spacesuit, respond to the vacuum of outer space?
bent on
set on doing something
She was bent on finishing her degree, no matter how long it took.
common sense
the understanding of something from thinking intelligently and from everyday experience
It is common sense that the man should pay for the meal on a first date.
dictate
say what someone must do
The winning team will dictate what the losing team must do.
entire
complete
The entire building caught on fire.
fascinate
extremely interested
The little children were fascinated by the clown and his magic tricks.
heaven
the sky
Thousands of balloons fell from the heavens.
heliocentrism
having or representing the sun as a center
heliocentrism is the theory that the sun is at the center of the Universe.
labor
to work
She labored over creating the perfect wedding dress for her daughter.
motionless
without moving
The soldiers stood motionless for several hours.
orbit
revolve around a star, planet, etc.
Smooth sailing after the storm, the aircar arrived at the orbit of the Island of Paradise.
paradigm
a model or concept used as a standard by which people evaluate, understand, and often act
The older generation had to have a paradigm shift in order to understand the younger generation.
precise
accurate
You need to follow the precise measurements of the recipe if you want your cake to turn out o.k.
prediction
a statement about what will happen in the future
The weather man's predictions about the weather is almost always incorrect.
reconcile
to bring together people or ideas that were separated
Before the group could move forward, they had to first reconcile their differences.
revival
a reawakening
The religious revival swept the entire nation.
ridicule
unkind words or actions that make someone or something look stupid or worthless
The new student was treated with such ridicule by her peers that her parents decided to send her to another school.
rigorous
having strict or high standards for behavior or action
Students must finish a rigorous program in order to become a doctor.
steady
calm; stable
There has been a steady wind blowing all day.
tendency
a likelihood to behave in a particular way or to like a particular thing
She has a tendency of leaving her clothes everywhere.
venerable
describes something that has been in use, or someone who has been involved in something, for a long time
In recent years, there has been a decline in the venerable tradition of Easter egg hunting.
beginning
a start
At the beginning of the play, the actor broke his leg.
billiards
a game played by two people on a table covered in green cloth in which a long pole is used to hit balls against each other and into pockets around the table
The mother was worried when her son just wanted to play billiards rather than study.
contribution
assistance; support
His contributions to the arts was significant; he had created five art museums.
elaborate
to give more detail
The eye witness elaborated on the details of the accident.
elegant
stylish in appearance, graceful, refined
Mary had exquisite tastes and had her house decorated with elegant furniture.
exert
to act with power, force, influence
The doctors warned her to stay in bed and not exert too much energy.
force
a source or instrument of power or energy
The forces of the wind knocked over ten trees.
friction
resistance that results when two surfaces are rubbed together
When you rub two stones together, the friction causes a spark which can start a fire.
humble
modest
The president's humble beginnings surprised everyone.
implication
consequence; effect
Are you interested in the political implications of weblogs and social software?
impressive
causing admiration
Her artistic abilities are quite impressive; it is difficult to imagine she painted everything with her feet.
indefinitely
without clear limits
Due to the lack of staff, the science education program has been stopped indefinitely.
mass
the amount of matter of an object
Although the plastic box was bigger than the book, the book had a greater mass.
miniscule
extremely small
The orphans only had a miniscule piece of toast to eat each morning.
negligible
small, not important
The cost of getting the car fixed is negligible compared to what could have happened.
optics
of or belonging to the eye
optics is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light.
precocious
a child that is advanced in intelligence or development
He had a precocious child that played the piano beautifully at the age of three.
prematurely
happening or done too soon, especially before the natural or desired time
The baby was born prematurely and had to be placed in an incubator for six weeks.
stun
to surprise
The news of your retirement stunned me.
tool
something that helps you to do a particular activity
The calculator is a useful tool for all math students.
achieve
to reach, gain
She didn't realize that she would be able to achieve everything that she had.
aptly
suitable or right for a particular situation
We had saved over two years for our vacation, and we stayed at a resort aptly named "Pamper Yourself."
arise
to occur
A revolt will arise if the government does not find ways to feed its people.
bit
a small amount of something
There was a bit of crumb on the pastor's tie.
carve
to make or create for oneself
He was very diligent and was able to carve out a career in real estate.
cornerstone
the chief foundation on which something is constructed or developed
The cornerstone of the Christian religion is that Jesus Christ died on the cross to pay for people's sins.
disappear
to go out of sight
The father often disappears for several hours a day; he needs to be alone.
ecosystem
all the living things in an area and the way they affect each other and the environment
The major oil spill will have a great impact on the surrounding ecosystems.
equilibrium
one's sense of balance
The senior citizen lost her equilibrium and fell down the stairs.
evolution
the development of living things
The evolution of the computer happened very rapidly.
evolve
change over time
A small argument evolved into a big war between the two families.
halt
an end
The parade came to a halt when it started raining hard.
meteorologist
someone who studies the processes that cause particular weather conditions
The meteorologist forecasted five days of severe thunderstorms.
murky
unclear and dark
Due to the oil spill, the river had turned very murky.
pattern
an example or model to be followed
All scientific research must follow certain patterns.
perpetual
continuing forever
During the time of Hitler, the Jews lived in perpetual fear of being captured.
posit
to suggest something as a basic fact or principle from which a further idea is formed or developed
If we posit that increasing homework will increase students' grades, it follows that students should spend more time studying than playing.
practically
nearly, almost
When her husband ran off with their savings, she had practically lost all the money that she had saved.
shift