Extensive Reading-Book B (E)
1600 카드 | CompassPublishing
세트공유
binomial nomenclature
a formal system of naming species
In biology, binomial nomenclature is how species are called.
characteristics
a distinguishing feature or quality
One of the characteristics of a gifted child is their ability to solve complex puzzles.
convention
a representative party assembly to nominate candidates and adopt platforms and party rules
The national convention had the task of rebuilding after the government.
eproduction
being reproduction
The reproduction of human beings occurs in the union of an egg and a sperm.
fungi
one of the five kingdoms of animal and plant classification
Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms are examples of fungi.
genus
a type of classification
Human beings belong to the Homo Sapien genus.
hierarchical
of being arranged by order or class
John works in a very hierarchical company; he never has an opportunity to express his opinions.
kingdoms
the highest category in the classification of plants or animals
In biology, living organisms are subdivided into five major kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
life forms
a newly discovered type of life form
The survival of the life forms will depend on its ability to replicate itself.
naturalist
a person who studies plants and animals
The naturalist at the state park leads daily hikes for over 100 people a day.
nutrients
any substance which plants or animals need in order to live and grow
The baby monkey failed to thrive because he did not receive vital nutrients from its mother.
orders
the subdivision of a class
In biology, order is the category between class and family.
organisms
any living thing, plant, or animal
Human organisms are different from other organisms in that they have a thought process.
originator
a person or thing that starts something
Charles Schulz was the originator of the famous Peanuts comic strips.
photosynthesis
the process where a plant's chloroplasts capture the sun's energy and convert it into food
photosynthesis involves several complex chemical reactions.
phylum
the second category, below kingdom, in the classification of plants or animals
Human beings belong to the Chordate phylum.
prokaryotes
an organism lacking a true nucleus
prokaryotes are the smallest and original inhabitants of planet earth.
protists
Any one-celled organism belonging to the kingdom Protista
protists are a diverse group of organisms that cannot be classified in any of the other kingdoms; They are classified in their own kingdom.
species
a category of living things
A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of producing fertile offspring.
taxonomy
the system of classifying plants and animals
Most people view taxonomy as a rather dry field of science.
abnormalities
the condition of not being normal
A new study shows that many people are walking around with brain abnormalities and may not be aware of them.
cancerous
a malignant new growth anywhere in the body of a person or animal
The doctors did not realize the fibroids were cancerous until they opened up the patient.
detect
To discover or ascertain the existence
The children were not able to detect the poison in the hamburger, which ultimately led to their death.
diagnosing
to recognize and name the exact character of a disease or a problem
The physician had difficulty diagnosing her medical condition because of the unclear symptoms.
electromagnetic
having magnetic and electrical parts
electromagnetic radiation is classified into types according to the frequency of the wave.
imaging
making an image of something
In medical imaging, doctors create images of the human body or parts of it, to diagnose or examine a disease.
lesions
an injury; hurt; damage
A cancerous tumor is an example of a lesion.
light-opaque
inability of light to pass
It was difficult to see the shadows through the light-opaque windows.
physicians
doctors
All the physicians agreed that surgery was unavoidable
positron
a positive electron
The positron is the counterpart of the electron
radiation
the process in which energy is emitted as particles or waves
In cancer patients, radiation therapy is sometimes used concurrently with chemotherapy.
radiation
the process in which energy is emitted as particles or waves
In cancer patients, radiation therapy is sometimes used concurrently with chemotherapy.
radiopaque
Not allowing the passage of x-rays or other radiation
Metal is a radiopaque substance that will appear white on a plain X-ray.
reproductive
serving to reproduce
Her unhealthy lifestyle had damaged her reproductive system, and she no longer is able to have children.
resonance
the prolongation of sound by reflection
Without resonance we wouldn't have radio, television or music.
respiratory
involving the respiratory system
The respiratory system is what enables us to breathe.
skeletal
like a skeleton
The two important functions of the skeletal system is to provide the shape and form for our bodies.
tomography
a process for producing an image of a single plane of an object excluding all other planes
In tomography is a device called tomograph is used to image section by section.
tuberculosis
an infectious disease that may affect the lungs
Coughing is often the only initial indication of tuberculosis.
ultrasound
the application of ultrasonic waves to therapy or diagnostics
An ultrasound of her uterus showed the fetus to be normal.
archaeologists
someone who studies objects of people who lived in the past
archaeologists uncovered the ancient city of Pompeii; the town was in almost the same condition as it had been years ago.
botanical
of plants and plant life
The New York Botanical Garden is one of the oldest and largest botanical gardens in the world.
concentrated
a substance that has been that has been made denser
Most orange juice sold today is concentrated orange juice.
constipation
unable to empty your bowels as often as you should
Many people who do not exercise, sit all day at work, and lack fiber in their diets suffer from constipation.
herbalism
herbal medicine
herbalism is traditional medicine based on the use of plants and plant extracts.
hieroglyphs
a picture or symbol which represents a word
The Egyptian form of writing is known as hieroglyphs.
holistic
dealing with or treating the whole of something or someone and not just a part
Rather than treating just the symptom, Eastern medicine takes a holistic approach in treating disease.
homeopathic
of the method of treating disease by drugs, given in minute doses
When the doctors failed to find a cure in conventional medicine, the family turned to homeopathic remedies.
ingested
to take food into the body
The boy, who was allergic to peanut butter, had ingested some by accident which caused his face to swell up.
ingredients
a component part, or constituent, of anything
The mother looked all over town for the ingredients to make her daughter's favorite recipe.
metabolites
any substance produced by or taking part in metabolism
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development or reproduction of organisms.
naturopathic
a system of treating diseases, largely employing natural agencies
naturopathic medicine seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the body's innate capacity to recover from illness and injury.
pharmaceuticals
a medicine
Many pharmaceutical companies are investing a lot of money for research in an attempt to find a cure for cancer.
predators
an animal that hunts, kills and eats other animals
Coyotes are natural predators of many of the small creatures.
remedies
any medicine or treatment that cures
Since conventional remedies were not effective, they decided to try alternative therapies.
respiratory
involving the respiratory system
The respiratory system is what enables us to breathe.
subsided
to become less strong or extreme
As the violence subsided, the police were able to interview each suspect and get a better picture of what had happened.
symptoms
any feeling of illness or physical or mental change which is caused by a particular disease
Although he complained of all the flu symptoms, the doctors had to investigate further because he didn't get better after four weeks.
toxicity
poisonous
Tests of the candy have shown that it has a high level of toxicity.
tranquilizer
a person or thing that is used as a calming agent in relieving and controlling various emotional disturbances
The doctor prescribed a tranquilizer so that his patient can cope with his panic attacks.
archaeologists
someone who studies objects of people who lived in the past
archaeologists uncovered the ancient city of Pompeii; the town was in almost the same condition as it had been years ago.
botanical
of plants and plant life
The New York Botanical Garden is one of the oldest and largest botanical gardens in the world.
concentrated
a substance that has been that has been made denser
Most orange juice sold today is concentrated orange juice.
constipation
unable to empty your bowels as often as you should
Many people who do not exercise, sit all day at work, and lack fiber in their diets suffer from constipation.
herbalism
herbal medicine
herbalism is traditional medicine based on the use of plants and plant extracts.
hieroglyphs
a picture or symbol which represents a word
The Egyptian form of writing is known as hieroglyphs.
holistic
dealing with or treating the whole of something or someone and not just a part
Rather than treating just the symptom, Eastern medicine takes a holistic approach in treating disease.
homeopathic
of the method of treating disease by drugs, given in minute doses
When the doctors failed to find a cure in conventional medicine, the family turned to homeopathic remedies.
ingested
to take food into the body
The boy, who was allergic to peanut butter, had ingested some by accident which caused his face to swell up.
ingredients
a component part, or constituent, of anything
The mother looked all over town for the ingredients to make her daughter's favorite recipe.
metabolites
any substance produced by or taking part in metabolism
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development or reproduction of organisms.
naturopathic
a system of treating diseases, largely employing natural agencies
naturopathic medicine seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the body's innate capacity to recover from illness and injury.
pharmaceuticals
a medicine
Many pharmaceutical companies are investing a lot of money for research in an attempt to find a cure for cancer.
predators
an animal that hunts, kills and eats other animals
Coyotes are natural predators of many of the small creatures.
remedies
any medicine or treatment that cures
Since conventional remedies were not effective, they decided to try alternative therapies.
respiratory
involving the respiratory system
The respiratory system is what enables us to breathe.
subsided
to become less strong or extreme
As the violence subsided, the police were able to interview each suspect and get a better picture of what had happened.
symptoms
any feeling of illness or physical or mental change which is caused by a particular disease
Although he complained of all the flu symptoms, the doctors had to investigate further because he didn't get better after four weeks.
toxicity
poisonous
Tests of the candy have shown that it has a high level of toxicity.
tranquilizer
a person or thing that is used as a calming agent in relieving and controlling various emotional disturbances
The doctor prescribed a tranquilizer so that his patient can cope with his panic attacks.
annihilated
to destroy completely so that nothing is left
The bomb had completely annihilated the village.
at-risk
Being endangered
The doctor gave up his prestigious job and decided to go work in the slums with at-risk children.
contained
to check the power, expansion, or influence of
The forest fire could not be contained, and it ultimately burned down 2,000 homes in the nearby vicinity.
containment
when something or someone harmful is controlled and limited
containment of crowd violence was the police's main concern.
disfiguring
to hurt the appearance or attractiveness of
The actress looked completely different after she had applied disfiguring make up on.
drastic
severe and sudden or having very noticeable effects
When the normal disciplinary methods were not effective, the teacher had to take drastic measures.
eliminated
get rid of
Through the use of effective vaccines, polio has been eliminated from the United States since the 1970s.
eradication
to get rid of; wipe out
eradication of polio was possible with the discovery of a vaccine.
extracted
take out something
Because of the cavity, the tooth was extracted.
infected
to pass a disease to a person, animal or plant
After treating the patient, the doctor had infected the same disease for which he was treating.
injections
an act or instance of injecting
She had severe allergies which required her to take daily injections of medicine.
inoculation
the injection of a disease agent into an animal or plant, usually to cause a mild form of the disease and build up immunity to it
The word "inoculation" refers to the placement of something to where it will grow or reproduce,
instigate
to urge on
The little boy instigated his classmates to rebel against the teacher.
milkmaids
a girl or woman who milks cows or works in a dairy
My mother worked as a milkmaid for over thirty years; I worked hard so that I could escape this fate.
outbreaks
a sudden beginning of something
The outbreak of mad cow disease frightened the entire village.
panic
a sudden strong feeling of anxiety or fear that prevents reasonable thought and action
panic spread through the entire building when they heard the plane crash.
procedure
a set of actions which is the official or accepted way of doing something
We have a new procedure of handling students who cheat on their tests.
rampantly
in full sway
Surgery was unavoidable; the cancer cells had spread rampantly.
surveillance
the careful watching of a person or place
They were able to capture the bank robbers because the robbery was caught on the surveillance camera.
susceptible
capable of being affected
A city without walls is susceptible for an enemy invasion.
administered
to cause someone to receive something
The drug was administered to the patient through his IV.
adverse
having a negative or harmful effect on something
The benefits of the drug out weighed the adverse effects.
agents
a person who acts for or represents another
The government agents decided to purchase new vehicles for the department.
antibodies
a protein produced in the blood which fights diseases by attacking and killing harmful bacteria
Young mothers are encouraged to breast feed their babies because the antibodies found in breast milk protect newborn babies against infection.
coined
create a phrase
My son had coined a new word and wanted to know how to get it into dictionaries.
consequentially
having consequence
The disease had affected the entire population, consequentially there were no doctors to asset in the hospitals.
contagious
spread by direct or indirect contact
The viral infection was very contagious, thus she was barred from getting on the plane.
deactivated
to cause something to be no longer active or effective
After the war, many firearm factories were deactivated.
ethics
a system of moral standards or values
The ethics of journalism is much debated.
exaggerated
to make something seem larger, more important, better or worse than it really is
The seriousness of the situation had been exaggerated and did not require 20 fire trucks.
inaccessible
impossible to reach or enter
The oval office is inaccessible to the general public; you can only visit when you are invited by the president.
initiative
the first step
The student took the initiative to learn Chinese before going on his exchange program to China.
instituted
to set up
After the death of her daughter, she instituted a scholarship fund for aspiring writers in memory of her daughter.
mortality
the death rate from a particular disease
The mortality of children from the outbreak of the disease surpassed that of previous years.
pathogens
any small organism which can cause disease
A pathogen is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host.
programs
a plan or procedure for dealing with some matter
Several programs were implemented in order to deal with the influx of new immigrants.
strands
Something that is plaited or twisted as a ropelike length
She was wearing several strands of pearl necklaces.
toxoids
A substance that has been treated to destroy its toxic properties but retains the capacity to stimulate production of antitoxins
toxoids are used in vaccines as they induce an immune response to the original toxin or increase the response to another antigen.
treated
to use drugs, exercises, etc. to cure a person of a disease or heal an injury
The doctor treated the wound by first washing away the dirt and blood.
vulnerable
easy to attack
Because the deer was standing in the middle of an open field, he was a vulnerable target.
abdomen
the part of the body of a mammal between the thorax and the pelvis
The doctor an incision in her abdomen during her c-section.
anesthesiologist
a doctors who administers anesthetics
It is crucial that all patients discuss their medical conditions with their anesthesiologist prior to surgery.
anesthetics
An agent that causes loss of sensation with or without the loss of consciousness
Due to her extreme fear of dentists, the doctor gave her an anesthetics before he cleaned her teeth.
antiseptics
a chemical used for preventing infection in an injury
antiseptics are used to clean the area before blood is withdrawn.
carbolic acid
a poisonous compound used as a disinfectant and antiseptic
Injecting carbolilc acid can cause death.
impulses
driving forward with sudden force
After watching the movie, I had an impulse to suddenly run away to a secluded island.
incisions
a cut into a body tissue or organ
The doctor had to make several incisions during surgery.
infection
the act of causing to become diseased
The infection had spread to all over her body; Surgery was her only option.
inflated
puffed out
They inflated the air mattress only to find out that it had a hole in it.
inhale
to draw air into the lungs
It is not healthy for children to inhale smoke from cigarettes.
instruments
an object for making music, such as a violin, piano, or horn
She plays several musical instruments, and now she is learning to conduct.
invasive
tending to spread into healthy tissue
She was given six weeks to recover because of the invasive nature of the surgery.
laparoscopic
surgery using a flexible instrument that is passed through a small incision in the abdominal wall perform minor surgery
Because her fibroids had grown too big in her uterus, laparoscopic surgery was not an option.
malfunctions
to fail to function as it should
My computer continues to malfunction despite the fact it is only two weeks old.
minimizes
to reduce to a minimum
In order to minimize the negative effects of television, all the shows the children watch are monitored.
operating
to work, perform, or function
operating the machine effectively proved to be a challenge for the soldier due to his lack of experience.
overdose
An excessive dose
The woman took an overdose of her medication which caused her condition to worsen.
pelvic
of or near the pelvis
He had a cramp in his pelvic area, and he had to be taken to the hospital immediately.
sterile
free from living germs
All instruments used in surgery must be sterile.
surgery
an operation to treat disease
She had to have surgery to remove cysts; the doctors were worried that they could be cancerous.
acquired
to obtain something
She acquired the building after the death of her husband.
blood vessels
The flexible tubular canals through which blood circulates in the body
The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body.
cardiovascular
relating to the heart
Blood vessels are part of the cardiovascular system.
cerebrovascular
of or pertaining to the blood vessels of the brain
The most commonly known cerebrovascular disease is stroke.
clot
an almost solid lump
She often has big bruises because her body is not able to clot the blood.
communicable
able to be given from one person to another
Mad Cow Disease was attributed to the communicable disease that was now ravaging the country.
deficiency
lack of what is needed
Pregnant woman often suffer from iron deficiency.
detrimental
causing damage
Her poor study habits proved to be detrimental in her ability to get into a good college.
devastating
causing a lot of damage or destruction
The hurricane was devastating because it affected the entire village.
diabetes
a disease in which the body cannot control the level of sugar in the blood
diabetes is occurring more often in children who are obese.
immunodeficiency
a condition in which the ability of the immune system to produce antibodies is impaired
An immunodeficiency disorder may be present at birth or may develop later in life, often as a result of another disorder.
malignant
describes a disease or a diseased growth that is likely to get uncontrollably worse and lead to death
Her tumor turned out to be malignant, and the doctor only gave her six months to live.
mutation
the way in which genes change and produce permanent differences
Since radiation can cause mutations, pregnant women are discouraged from taking x-rays.
obesity
being very fat
The introduction of fast foods is the leading cause of obesity in developing countries.
prevalent
existing very commonly or happening frequently
Christianity is probably the most prevalent religion in the world today.
ravaging
to cause great damage to something
When the enemy finished ravaging the village, it lay in ruins.
strain
a particular type or quality
A particular strain of bacteria caused the outbreak of eye disease in the school.
stroke
a sudden change in the blood supply to a part of the brain, which can cause a loss of the ability to move particular parts of the body
The stroke that her mother had last year has impaired her mother's ability to drive.
syndrome
a number of symptoms occurring together and characterizing a specific disease or condition
Down's syndrome is a genetic condition in which a person is born with lower than average mental ability.
unchecked
something harmful that is increasing without any limits or attempts to prevent it
If the present trend continue unchecked, the disease will devastate the entire town.
afflictions
something that makes you suffer
She had several afflictions which prevented her from being able to participate classroom activities.
agencies
an organization that offers a particular kind of assistance
The social service agencies offer aide to hurricane victims.
challenges
something needing great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully
She is a very motivated and intelligent person and she will rise to the challenges of her new job.
chartered
to establish a local branch or chapter
The bank took a risk and chartered a branch in Africa.
conferences
a formal meeting of a number of people for discussion or consultation
The doctor presented his new research ideas at several medical conferences.
constitution
the principles and rules, set forth in a written document, governing a country
The constitution of the United states, which contain the fundamental laws of the country, was adopted in 1789.
credited
to give credit to or deserved commendation for
The actor was credited with starting a movement in promoting foreign adoption.
encourages
to make someone more likely to do something
My teacher always encourages me to do my best.
eradication
to get rid of; wipe out
eradication of polio was possible with the discovery of a vaccine.
founded
to set up
The university was founded in 1922.
funding
money given by a government or organization for an event or activity
The funding for the school building project was not sufficient, so project had to be halted.
geographic
of a particular location
The decorations are distinctive based on geographic regions.
hemisphere
half of a sphere, especially the Earth
The northern hemisphere lies on the north side of the equator.
inception
the establishment of an organization or official activity
Since its inception, the university has been the forerunner in producing highly trained engineers.
infrastructure
a substructure or underlying foundation
The war damaged the country's infrastructure.
monitors
to check the performance of
The parole officer monitors his every move; one bad decision and he goes back to jail.
objectives
something which you plan to do or achieve
After she was elected to the presidency, her main objective was to stay in power.
personnel
persons employed in any work, enterprise, service, establishment
The personnel at his company are highly trained; they all have a doctorate degree.
promote
to further the popularity
The event was held to promote world peace.
sponsors
to support a person, organization or activity
Our company sponsors a run every year to support breast cancer.
abbreviated
to shorten a word or phrase by leaving out letters
Because her name was so long, she abbreviated her name to Ann.
alleviate
to make something bad such as pain or problems less severe
The drugs did not alleviate her pain; in fact, they made it worse.
alter
to make different in details but not in substance
When they edited the movie, they had altered the writer's original theme.
antibiotics
any chemical substances that is able to inhibit the growth of or to destroy bacteria
She was on antibiotics for two weeks before her symptoms started to get better.
anticoagulants
a substance that prevents the clotting of blood
My friend suffers from a blood clotting disease for which she takes an anticoagulants medicine.
antifungals
destroying or inhibiting the growth of fungi
The doctor prescribed an antifungal cream for the fungi that was growing on her toe.
beneficial
advantageous
The mother's comments were not beneficial when she presented her arguments for buying a car to her father.
bloodstream
the blood flowing through the circulatory system of a body
It was too late to save the girl; the poison had entered her bloodstream.
comprehensive
complete and including everything that is necessary
The company offered comprehensive training for all those that are hired.
disrupting
to interrupt the orderly course of
The neighbors barged into the house, disrupting the family's quiet dinner.
drawbacks
the negative part of a situation
The benefits of the new project are apparent, but we also need to consider any drawbacks.
eliminates
get rid of
The new cleaning solution promises to eliminate all household odors.
healthcare
the prevention and treatment of illness or injury
Because of her love for people and medicine, she decided to enter the healthcare profession.
insulin
a hormone in the body which controls the amount of sugar in the blood
She has to have daily insulin injections for her diabetes.
metabolizes
to change by or subject to metabolism
When you have diabetes, it is important that you understand how your body metabolizes sugar.
pharmaceutical
a medicine
With the population living longer, the sales of pharmaceuticals related to geriatrics is anticipated to rise 50%.
pharmacology
the study of the preparation, qualities, and uses of drugs
My uncle entered the field of pharmacology because he liked to do research.
professionals
a person practicing a profession
The professionals knew what they were doing; they didn’t waste any time.
substances
material with particular physical characteristics
Hazardous and toxic substances are defined as those chemicals present in the workplace which are capable of causing harm.
undiscovered
not discovered yet
Given his risk-taking nature, he likes to explore undiscovered islands.
advantages
a more favorable position
The advantages outweighed the disadvantages, so they decided to go ahead with the surgery.
burden
to weigh down
My friend was burdened by the fact that she now had to care for her sister's five children.
combination
a mixture obtained when two or more things are combined
Hot chocolate and a good book is a perfect combination on a rainy day.
competition
when someone is trying to win something or be more successful than someone else
With the current recession, competition for jobs is intense.
compulsory
that must be done
Education is compulsory in the United States until the 12th grade.
considerably
worth considering
After ten months of physically therapy, his ability to walk was considerably much better.
contribute
to help to cause or bring about
Many elements contributed to her promotion, the main factor being her ability to work under severe pressure.
disadvantages
a condition or situation which causes problems
Athletes who are not physically fit have many disadvantages during a tournament.
exploitation
use for profit
The company went out of business because of their exploitation of minors in their factories abroad.
finance
to provide the money needed for something to happen
The rich father refused to finance any of his son's adventures since all proved to be unsuccessful.
government-funded
receiving money from the government
She lived in a government-funded housing project.
impoverished
very poor
She grew up in an impoverished family and had never used utensils while eating.
insurance
coverage by contract in which one party agrees to reimburse another for loss that occurs under the terms of the contract
The cost of health insurance is sky rocketing, making it unaffordable for most people.
monopoly
exclusive control of a commodity or service
With the support of the government, the company had a monopoly on the telecommunications industry for 50 years.
portion
a part or share of something larger
A significant portion of his salary goes to charity.
predominantly
mostly
This neighborhood is predominantly comprised of people who moved here during the 1940s.
professionals
a person practicing a profession
The professionals knew what they were doing; they didn’t waste any time.
self-reliance
dependence on one's own powers, resources, skills, thoughts, etc.
Her parents were surprised by the extent of her self-reliance.
subsidized
to pay part of the cost of something
Because she is a low income, single mother, the government subsidizes her rent.
universal
existing everywhere
The universal healthcare proposal was rejected because it lacked credible evidence that it would be effective.
altitude
height above sea level
It is difficult to breathe in higher altitudes; oxygen masks are highly recommend.
arcs
a bowlike curved line or object
As the hot-air balloon descended behind our house, it made a colorful arc right above the roof.
charged particles
a particle with an electric charge
charged particles can be positive, negative, or neutral.
electrons
an extremely small piece of matter with a negative electrical charge
An element has the same number of protons as electrons.
emanating
to send forth
Factors affecting effective cooperation of the team members are perceptions emanating from the failure of past projects.
emits
to send out
Our broken television emits a rattling sound from the speakers.
flicker
to move quickly
We had to stop watching TV because there was too much flicker; we need to get the TV fixed.
gaseous
of, having the nature of, or in the form of, gas
Jupiter is a gaseous planet and has no solid surface.
gusts
a sudden, strong rush of air or wind
The 130 mile per hour gusts of wind destroyed the entire village.
hemisphere
half of a sphere, especially the Earth
The northern hemisphere lies on the north side of the equator.
horizon
the place in one's view where the earth's surface forms a line with the sky
As the ship sailed smoothly across the ocean, the people could see another ship over the horizon.
magnetic field
a region of space near an electric current in which a magnetic force acts on any other electric current
magnetic fields surround electric currents, magnetic dipoles, and changing electric fields.
magnetic poles
the north and south poles of a magnet
Earth has two magnetic poles: north and south.
magnitude
size or dimension
The magnitude of the earthquake was unclear until all the debris was cleared away.
particles
one of the most simple parts of all matter, such as an electron, a proton or a neutron
The atom is the smallest indivisible particle of matter.
photon
a particle having energy but no mass or electric charge
The photon has no mass, and therefore, can travel at the speed of light.
radiates
to give forth or spread
She always has a positive disposition; she radiates happiness.
spectrum
the series of colored bands dispersed and arranged in the order of their respective wavelengths
In a rainbow we can see all the colors of the visible spectrum.
streaks
a line or long mark
What is in vogue these days is for teenagers to highlight their hair with different streaks of color.
wavelength
the distance from one point to the same point on the next sound or electromagnetic wave
Waves with a longer wavelength take longer to travel than shorter waves.
charged
to put electricity into an electrical device such as a battery
My phone went dead during a very important conversation because the battery was not charged.
column
a vertical row or list
The elements on a periodic chart that are in the same column have the same number of electrons.
electrons
an extremely small piece of matter with a negative electrical charge
An element has the same number of protons as electrons.
elements
an element is a substance that is made entirely from one type of atom
As of 2006, scientist know of 117 elements.
horizontally
parallel to the ground
As part of his physical therapy, he was required to lie horizontally for 20 hours a day.
intervals
a period between two events or times, or the space between two points
Most dentists recommend that you get your teeth cleaned at regular intervals--usually every six months.
isotopes
a form of an atom which has a different atomic weight from other forms of the same atom but the same chemical structure
An isotope of hydrogen called deuterium has one neutron.
negatively
having a negative charge
The negatively charged particle of an element is called the electron.
neutrons
a part of an atom that has no electrical charge
You can figure out the number of neutrons by subtracting the atomic number from the mass number.
noble
chemically noncreative
There are six noble gases on the periodic table; they rarely react with other elements.
nucleus
the central part of an atom
The nucleus of an atom is usually made up of protons and neutrons.
particles
one of the most simple parts of all matter, such as an electron, a proton or a neutron
The atom is the smallest indivisible particle of matter.
periodic table
an arrangement of the chemical elements according to their atomic numbers, to exhibit the periodic law
Every student that studies chemistry has to become familiar with the periodic table.
positively
having a positive charge
The positively charged particle of an element is called the proton.
properties
an essential or distinctive attribute or quality of a thing
Many scientists attempted to study the properties of his mind; they were curious to know what made him so intelligent.
protons
a type of elementary particle which has a positive electrical charge and is found in the nucleus of all atoms
The number of protons in an atom determines the atomic number of a chemical element.
respectively
in regard to each of two or more
The first and second prizes went to Tom and Jerry, respectively.
revolve
to move or cause something to move round a central point or line
The Earth revolves around the sun.
shell
a group of nucleons of approximately the same energy
A shell can be any seven energy levels on which an electron may exist within an atom.
vertical
straight up or down
The vertical blinds made the house look bigger.
absolute zero
the lowest temperature possible
The absolute zero temperature is -273.15°C.
capacity
the ability to do something
The movie theater has a capacity of 100 seats.
capillarity
the state of being of or like a hair
capillarity is when the surface of a liquid contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid.
characteristic
of or constituting the special character
Kimchee has a characteristic odor that offends many westerners.
compositions
a mixture of several parts or ingredients
Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase as well as their chemical compositions.
dissolve
to make or become liquid; liquefy; melt
It is easier to dissolve salt in hot water than it is in cold water.
environmental
relating to the environment
Many schools are teaching their students to become more aware of environmental issues.
evaporates
to cause a liquid to change to a gas, especially by heating
Plants keep cool during the summer by evaporating water from their leaves.
evaporation
to cause a liquid to change to a gas, especially by heating
evaporation is the process in which water is transformed from its liquid state to vapor state.
extraordinarily
very unusually
Her extraordinarily beauty captivated every man that entered her office.
latent
present but needing particular conditions to become active
The art program hopes to bring out the latent artistic talents in the children that they may not realize they have.
liquid
readily flowing
liquid water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius and becomes ice.
machinery
a group of large machines or the parts of a machine which make it work
While working at the factory, he was injured by the machinery.
molecules
the simplest unit of a chemical substance, usually a group of two or more atoms
A water molecule is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.
nutrients
any substance which plants or animals need in order to live and grow
The baby monkey failed to thrive because he did not receive vital nutrients from its mother.
solvent
that dissolves or can dissolve another substance
A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution.
surface tension
the elastic like force existing in the surface of a body,
You can see the effects of surface tension when a child jumps into a swimming pool.
temperature
the measured amount of heat in a place or in the body
The normal human body temperature is 98.6 Fahrenheit.
universal
existing everywhere
The universal healthcare proposal was rejected because it lacked credible evidence that it would be effective.
vaporizes
to turn something from a solid or liquid state into gas
Water normally vaporizes at 212 degrees Fahrenheit.
antiseptics
a chemical used for preventing infection in an injury
antiseptics are used to clean the area before blood is withdrawn.
by-products
something that is produced as a result of making something else
Illness is a by-product of overcrowded living conditions.
carcinogenic
describes a substance which causes cancer
The government found the drinking water to be carcinogenic.
chlorides
a chemical compound that is a mixture of chlorine and another substance
Sodium chloride is the chemical name for table salt.
chlorination
to pass chlorine into water or sewage for purification
chlorination will remove impurities from your drinking water.
chlorine
a greenish-yellow gas with a strong smell, which is added to water in order to kill organisms that might cause infection
She developed an allergic reaction to the chlorine in the swimming pool.
compounds
to make by combining parts or elements
compounds are two or more elements that are bonded together.
Disinfection
to destroy the harmful bacteria
disinfection is an important step in ensuring that water is safe to drink.
elasticity
the quality of being flexible
Natural gut tennis strings offer more elasticity than synthetic strings.
electrolysis
the use of an electric current to cause chemical change in a liquid
electrolysis involves separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them.
hydrochloric acid
an acid containing hydrogen and chlorine
hydrochloric acid must be handled with precautions because it is a highly corrosive liquid; it can damage the skin and the eye.
hydroxide
a chemical compound containing the hydroxyl group
Alkali metal hydroxides such as sodium hydroxide are strong bases and are very soluble in water.
insecticides
a chemical substance made and used for killing insects
Spraying insecticides around the perimeter of the house prevented the spiders from finding their way inside the house.
oxidizing
to remove electrons from
If one element in a reaction contributes oxygen, extracts hydrogen, or extracts electrons, it is said to be an oxidizing agent.
petroleum
a dark thick oil obtained from under the ground
petroleum is considered to be a fossil fuel because it was formed from the remains of tiny sea plants and animals that died millions of years ago.
poisonous
capable of injuring or killing by or as by poison
There are many forms of poisonous mushrooms.
saturation point
to reach a stage where no more can be added, contained or accepted
With most households having two or three cars, the demand for automobiles will reach a saturation point in about 30 years.
sodium
a soft silver-white chemical element that is found in salt
Too much sodium is linked to high blood pressure and heart disease.
solution
a liquid into which a solid has been mixed and has dissolved
When sugar dissolves and spreads throughout the water in a glass, it is considered a solution.
synthetic
describes products that are made from artificial substances
synthetic tennis strings are more affordable than natural gut tennis strings.
bullion
gold or silver in the form of bars
When they opened up the safe of the king, the found boxes of gold bullion.
certification
a certified statement
Her diamond ring came with certification of its quality and value.
commodities
a substance or product that can be traded, bought or sold
The country's most valuable commodities include gold and tin.
conductivity
to allow electricity or heat to go through
Aluminum has a high level of conductivity.
currency
a system of money in general use in a country
If you travel to another country, you will need to convert your money to its currency.
desirability
worth having or wanting
The desirability of wanting a new car grew in his heart as he saw his friends all acquiring new automobiles.
ductility
that can be stretched, drawn, or hammered thin without breaking
Gold and aluminum are metals that have high ductility.
lustrous
very shiny
The new girl in class has very lustrous hair.
malleability
describes a substance that is easily changed into a new shape
malleability occurs as a result of the specific type of bond found in metals; Lead and tin are malleable metals.
Mint
a place where money is coined by authority of the government
The United States mint operates six facilities in different parts of the country.
molten
describes metal or rock that is in a liquid state because of great heat
Glassblowing is the art of using molten glass and forming it into different shapes.
monetary
relating to the money in a country
During the economic crises of 1997, the International monetary Fund had to bail Korea out.
nationality
national quality or character
His nationality was never an issue until he ran for the office of presidency.
ornaments
anything serving to adorn
Her Christmas ornaments were all made of glass.
precious metal
a metal which is valuable and usually rare
God is a precious metal thus gold is very expensive.
purity
the quality or condition of being pure
There is a big movement for teenagers where they vow abstinence; they wear purity rings to show their commitment.
rarity
the quality or condition of being rare
My sister is a homebody; it's a rarity to see her at an all night party.
simultaneously
occurring or done together or at the same time
The boy was very gifted and was able to learn five languages simultaneously.
transportable
to carry from one place to another
transportable bathrooms are usually called port-a-potty.
troy
expressed or computed in troy weight
In troy weight, there are 12 ounces to a pound versus 16 ounces to a pound.
application
anything applied
After several applications of the ointment, the wound finally healed.
concentrations
strength or density, as of a solution
Her new cosmetics had a high concentration of oil in it and made her skin sag.
consumption
a consuming or being consumed
When the economy improved the consumption of beef by consumers also increased.
cosmetics
a powder, lotion, lipstick, rouge, or other preparation for beautifying the face, skin, hair, nails, etc
She is very concerned about her beauty and spends a lot of money on cosmetics.
distillate
liquid obtained by distilling
To make a distillate, wine is heated in an enclosed copper pot until it boils and the alcohol evaporates.
enormous
greatly exceeding the common size
When James woke up from his nap, he was surprised to find an enormous teddy bear sitting on his bed.
fraction
A small part
When crude oil is refined, the lighter fractions (gasoline, kerosene, diesel, etc.) are removed by distillation.
generator
a machine that converts one form of energy into another
When there was a blackout, we had to use the back up generator to keep the lights.
hydrogen-powered
Using hydrogen for fuel
Many automobile makers are turning out hydrogen-powered cars in hopes of becoming less dependent on fossil fuel.
impurity
the quality or state of being impure
After the flood, the citizens were warned not to drink the water because of impurities.
industrialized
establish or develop industrialism in
Famine is no longer a problem for many industrialized nations.
irreplaceable
not replaceable
When she lost her wedding ring, she was deeply sadden; it was irreplaceable.
lubricant
A substance, such as grease or oil, that reduces friction when applied as a surface coating to moving parts.
When the ring would not come off his finger, they used a lubricant to get it off.
marketable
that can be sold; fit for sale
After working on his invention for twenty years, he finally felt that it was marketable.
petrochemicals
a chemical derived ultimately from petroleum or natural gas
Ammonia is a petrochemical and it is used to produce a variety of cleaning solutions.
preservation
to keep alive or in existence
Her grandmother's house was identified by the historical preservation committee as a building that the president was born in.
refinery
An industrial plant for purifying a crude substance, such as petroleum or sugar
The refinery in town was fined for not handling its waste in an appropriate manner.
reservoir
An underground accumulation of petroleum or natural gas
She didn't realize there was a reservoir running under her house.
residual
left over after part or most is taken away
residual oil is oil that does not move when fluids are flowed through the rock in normal conditions.
solar-heated
to heat (a building) by means of solar energy
Although the concept of solar-heating have been around for thousands of years, solar-heated homes have recently come into vogue.
alchemists
someone who practices the magical power or process of transmuting a common substance, usually of little value, into a substance of great value
alchemists were popular during the middle ages.
alloys
A mixture or solid solution of two or more metals
Brass is an alloy of zinc and copper.
amalgams
any alloy of mercury with another metal or other metals
Silver amalgam that was used as a dental filling is no longer widely prescribed by dentists.
banned
to prohibit
Students are banned from bringing fire arms to school.
carroting
a process of separating fur from the hide.
carroting is no longer used in the process of making felt hats.
cavities
a hollow place in a tooth caused by decay
Many cities put fluoride in their water to prevent cavities in children.
cinnabar
mercuric sulfide, HgS, a heavy, bright-red mineral, the principal ore of mercury
cinnabar is generally found in a massive, granular or earthy form and is bright scarlet to brick-red in color.
concern
to have a relation to or bearing on
When the baby failed to thrive, ensuring her growth became the mother's major concern.
controversy
a prolonged public dispute, debate, or contention; disputation concerning a matter of opinion
Major controversy regarding his service records surrounds the new presidential candidate.
detrimental
causing damage
Her poor study habits proved to be detrimental in her ability to get into a good college.
fluorescent
possessing the property of fluorescence
Some studies have shown fluorescent lights can increase intelligence.
isolate
to cause to be alone or apart from others
The teacher isolated the bad child from the class before talking with her.
liabilities
something disadvantageous
The children were prohibited from playing on the construction site because of the liabilities the owners can face.
maintained
To keep up or carry on
Despite the fact the fire had ravaged their home, she maintained a sense of normalcy for her children.
Mercury
a heavy, silver-white metallic chemical element,
mercury is used in thermometers.
ointments
a fatty substance applied to the skin for healing
Her mother made a special ointment that healed all types of ailments.
poisonous
capable of injuring or killing by or as by poison
There are many forms of poisonous mushrooms.
prohibit
forbid by law or by an order
He prohibited his son from going to the party because of his poor grades.
prolonged
to lengthen or extend in time or space
When her husband was deployed to the war zone, she tried to prolong her goodbye as long as possible.
properties
an essential or distinctive attribute or quality of a thing
Many scientists attempted to study the properties of his mind; they were curious to know what made him so intelligent.
atmosphere
the air in any given place
The Earth's atmosphere protects life on Earth.
conducted
To direct the course of
The school principal conducted a school-wide survey to see if they should offer an after school program.
cost
to cause someone to lose or destroy something valuable
His gambling addition cost him everything--his family, his career, and his status.
deadly
causing death or likely to cause death
The toys were recalled because it had been painted with a deadly substance.
decay
to become gradually damaged
Too much sugar in a child's diet can cause teeth decay.
derived
to get or obtain something from something else
The mother derived great pleasure from watching her twins play.
downside
the disadvantage of a situation
San Francisco is one of the most beautiful cities in the world; the downside, however, is that it is very expensive to live there.
electron microscopes
microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen
The electron microscope has a higher magnification than an optical microscope which allows for greater observation of small objects.
electronegative
having a negative electrical charge
Atoms that are more electronegative attract more electrons.
give off
to put forth
Roses give off a very strong fragrance.
incidences
the rate at which something happens
With the city budget cuts, there have been higher incidences of burglary.
insulation
any material used to insulate
If your home has inadequate insulation, your energy bill can be much higher in the winter and summer.
odor
an unpleasant smell
Her husband does not like to eat fish because he doesn't want fish odor in the house.
oxidize
combines with oxygen to form another substance
The Statue of Liberty is green in color because the copper has naturally been oxidized.
ozone layer
a layer of air above the Earth, which contains a lot of ozone, and which prevents harmful ultraviolet light from the sun from reaching the Earth
The ozone layer protects humans from the sun's harmful radiation, however, human activity has damaged this layer.
pollutants
a substance that pollutes
Until lead was found to be a harmful pollutant, it was used in paint.
purification
to cause to make pure
After the hurricane, the purification of the water system began immediately.
reactive
reacting to events or situations rather than acting first to change or prevent something
The child's parents tend to be reactive rather than proactive in responding to the child's misbehavior.
refrigerants
cooling or freezing something
refrigerants are used in Air Conditioners and refrigerators.
ultraviolet radiation
radiation lying in the ultraviolet range
Too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer.
attribute
characteristic that someone or something has
Public speaking skills and honesty are attributes that a presidential candidate must have.
bonds
the attraction between atoms in a molecule
A molecule is two or more atoms joined together through a chemical bond.
circumstances
a condition or factor which has effects on others
Several circumstances lead to his decision to leave the company.
cohesively
well-integrated
Molecules that are cohesively bonded remain fixed and in a set pattern.
collisions
coming together with sudden, violent force
The collision was unavoidable since both cars were traveling at dangerous speeds.
constant
staying the same
In order to grow the bacteria, the temperature must be constant.
droplets
a small drop of liquid
Large droplets of rain fall faster than smaller droplets.
exemplified
to be or give a typical example of something
The two novels exemplified the poor circumstances in which he was raised.
gaseous
of, having the nature of, or in the form of, gas
Jupiter is a gaseous planet and has no solid surface.
inflates
to cause to increase in size by filling with air
The balloon inflates when you fill it with air.
lightning
a flash of bright light in the sky which is produced by electricity moving between clouds or from clouds to the ground
The lightning looked scarier in the country side with no tall buildings to block it.
membrane
a very thin piece of material that covers an opening
A cell may die because of damage to its membrane.
relative
related each to the other
Happiness is relative to your attitude towards life.
spontaneous
acting in accordance with or resulting from a natural feeling
My brother is very spontaneous; he never plans out his vacations.
sporadically
happening irregularly
The father had a very busy schedule and only visited his son sporadically.
substance
material with particular physical characteristics
What kind of substance can withstand the heat of the sun?
tension
a balancing of forces or elements in opposition
Even though a pin is heavier than water, the surface tension of water holds up the pin.
unique
existing as the only one or as the sole example
She always stands out in class; she has a very unique voice.
uphold
to keep from falling
The foundation was too weak to uphold the six ton statue.
volume
a certain, usually large amount of something
The main difficulty with teaching is the volume of work.
acquires
to obtain something
It was relatively easy for her to acquire profiency in math--both her parents are math professors.
assumes
to take on or put on
When her mother visits, she assumes the responsibility of taking care of her grand children.
capabilities
the quality of being capable
He had remarkable capabilities and was soon promoted to the position of CEO.
configure
to construct or arrange in a certain way
She had configured her furniture so that she could watch television from every room.
covalent
the number of pairs of electrons that an atom can share with its neighboring atoms
covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electrons.
density
the quality or condition of being dense
The density of a bowling ball is higher than a basketball.
expansion
when something increases in size, number or importance
The rapid expansion of the telecommunications industry led the inventors to become wealthy very quickly.
freezing point
the temperature at which water becomes ice
The freezing point of water is zero degrees Celsius.
generality
the condition or quality of being general
In order to check the generality of creativeness, a study was conducted with both girls and boys.
intermolecular
existing or occurring between molecules
The forces that hold molecules together are generally called intermolecular forces.
kinetic
of or caused by motion
The kinetic energy of an object is the energy it possesses because of its motion.
lava
hot liquid rock which comes out of the earth through a volcano
During our field trip to the volcanoes on the Big Island, we were able to see the lava flowing.
ordered
neatly or conveniently arranged
He had a very analytical mind and liked to conduct business in a very ordered way.
overpower
to defeat someone by having greater strength or power
The gunmen were finally overpowered by the police men.
progressively
continuing by successive steps
His healthy progressively got worse, and we finally had to put her in a rest home.
survival
the act, state, or fact of surviving
Her survival in the snowstorm depended on her ability to build a snow shelter.
thermal
pertaining to, or caused by heat or temperature
thermal expansion is when matter to changes in volume due to a change in temperature.
trapped
unable to move or escape from a place or situation
After the gunmen entered the building, the customers were trapped inside.
typically
in a typical manner
It's typically American culture to tip the waiters and waitress.
vat
a large container used for mixing or storing liquid substances
To make wine, grapes are dumped together in a vat and allowed to ferment.
acceptors
one who accepts
Automatic coin acceptors were installed on the toll way to alleviate some of the congestion.
acetic acid
a sour, colorless, liquid organic acid found in vinegar
acetic acid is what gives vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell.
building blocks
the basic things that are put together to make something exist
Reading classic books are the building blocks to a good education.
categorize
to put people or things into groups with the same features
The books are categorized by the author's last name.
citrus
any of a group of plants which produce juicy acidic fruits
Oranges and lemons are citrus fruits.
digestion
when your body digests food
Yogurt helps the digestion process to move along smoothly.
donor
a person who donates
The primary donor of the museum wanted to remain anonymous.
dyes
A substance used to color materials
She used several bright dyes to give her fabric a very refreshing feel.
explosives
a substance that can explode, as gunpowder
The terrorists hid the explosives inside toy dolls.
extent
area or length
The extent of the damage caused by the fire was not known.
fertilizers
a natural or chemical substance which is spread on the land or given to plants, to make plants grow well
It is important that you purchase the correct fertilizers for your plants.
formulated
to develop all the details of a plan for doing something
When the initial project failed, the team formulated a new plan to present to the CEO.
independently
free from the influence
The goal of most home schooling families is to teach their children to think critically and independently.
ingested
to take food into the body
The boy, who was allergic to peanut butter, had ingested some by accident which caused his face to swell up.
lichens
a grey, green or yellow plant-like organism that grows especially on rocks, walls and trees
lichens can survive in extreme environments; they can live in hot, dry places as well as in wet rain forests.
litmus
a powder which is turned red by acid and blue by alkali
Neutral litmus is purple in color.
majority
the greater number
The majority of the school children were from single parent homes.
manufacturing
the making of goods or wares by manual labor or by machinery
Most cheap toy manufacturing companies are based in China.
scale
used to measure or compare the level of something
Centigrade and Fahrenheit scales are what is used to measure temperature.
solvent
a substance that dissolves another to form a solution:
Water is a solvent for sugar.
absorbing
to take in and incorporate
By absorbing the nutrients and water through its roots, a tree continues to grow in the winter when their leaves have fallen off.
binocular
using both eyes at the same time
binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used together.
blur
become difficult to see clearly
After the impact of the accident, her surroundings began to blur.
ciliary
relating to certain fine structures of the eyeball
The ciliary body inside the eye is part of the uveal tract-the layer of tissue which provides most of the nutrients in the eye
compensate
to make equivalent
His zeal and compassion more than compensates his lack of experience in the field.
contraction
when something becomes smaller or shorter
The contraction of certain muscles in our body enable our arms and legs to move.
converge
to come together
All the various roads converge at the main gate.
converts
to change from one form or use to another
The human body converts the food we eat into energy that we can use.
cornea
the transparent outer covering of the eye
The cornea covers the iris and the pupil.
depth
the quality of being deep
He dove into the swimming pool, he did not realize the depth of it.
exceptional
unusually excellent
The exceptional violinist started playing her instrument at the age of three.
iris
the colored part of the eye around the pupil:
People have different colored irises--some are blue, brown, and green.
merge
to join together
The goal of our meeting is to merge our differing ideas into one workable solution.
perception
mental grasp of objects, qualities
There is a perception in the western world that Asian people are all good at math.
phenomenal
unusual, remarkable
The results of the test were phenomenal; she will no longer require surgery.
processing
To put through the steps of a procedure
processing the information they learn at school is crutial if students are to be successful.
retina
the inner lining of the eye that contains many light-sensitive cells and sends messages about light and color to the brain
The retina is the most complicated part of the eye; it is like a messenger that sends information to the brain.
simultaneously
occurring or done together or at the same time
The boy was very gifted and was able to learn five languages simultaneously.
transmitted
to send
The ship was able to transmit their message safely without the enemy intercepting them.
transparent
allowing light to pass through so images can be clearly seen:
He didn't realize he was walking into a glass door because it was so transparent.
applications
a way of applying or method of applying or using
Scientific discoveries have many applications in everyday life.
base
any compound that can react with an acid to form a salt
In chemistry, a base is a substance that can accept protons.
cation
a positively charged ion
Cations have a positive charge because there are more protons than electrons.
composition
the makeup of a thing or person
Because the chemical composition of the solution was unknown, the researchers were reluctant to mix it with any other solution.
corrosive
causing damage by chemical action
Household bleach is a strong corrosive that can burn or irritate the skin.
demonstrate
to display, to prove
Arriving to work on time everyday demonstrated the new secretary's sense of responsibility.
equated
to make equal or equivalent
Wisdom and knowledge cannot be equated.
fundamentals
the main or most important rules or parts
It is important to teach children the fundamentals of math.
interchangeably
that can be put or used in place of each other
Many students use the words "exchange student" and "foreign student" interchangeably.
limitations
the act of controlling and especially reducing something
Living in the city has many limitations for large families.
neutralization
to destroy the distinctive or active properties of
The reaction between acids and bases is called neutralization.
noted
a brief record of something written down to assist the memory or for future reference
While counting the beads, he noted there were very few red ones.
noticed
to see or become aware of something or someone
While walking around the block, I noticed a strange car parked by the school.
proclaimed
to announce something publicly or officially, especially something positive
I wore the bright red button that proclaimed my choice for the presidency.
proposed
to offer or state a possible plan or action for other people to consider
I propose that we delay our plans to build the new complex until we have sufficient funding.
pungent
describes a very strong smell or taste
Vinegar has a very pungent smell.
responsible
expected or obliged to account for something or to someone
He is responsible for alerting the president of all possible invasions.
slippery
wet, smooth or oily so that it slides easily or causes something to slide
After the snow fall, the road was very slippery and made it difficult to drive.
texture
the quality of something that can be decided by touch
The queen liked the texture of silk and ordered all her blankets to be made of this material.
uncovered
to discover something secret or hidden or remove something covering something else
While working in her garden, she uncovered an antique statue.
abundance
more than enough
There was an abundance of food at the party.
agricultural
of farming
With the development of new buildings, the agricultural land is shrinking rapidly.
aptly
suitable or right for a particular situation
The bear was very big and aptly named "Big Bear."
aqueous
of, like, or containing water
The students mixed the chemical into the aqueous solution.
assume
to guess to be the case, without proof
The Duchess assumed that Agatha and her husband would remain in England.
attraction
the act of attracting or condition of being attracted
There was a strong attraction between the two people.
attraction
the act of attracting or condition of being attracted
There was a strong attraction between the two people.
biological
pertaining to biology
Three of her children were biological and three were adopted.
electrolytes
electrically charged substances
When you exercise you lose much electrolytes through your sweat.
electrostatic
of or pertaining to static electricity
In a hydrogen atom, there is an electrostatic attraction between the proton and the electron.
evaporated
to change a liquid or solid into vapor
The sun evaporated the bowl of water that was sitting outside.
fertilizers
a natural or chemical substance which is spread on the land or given to plants, to make plants grow well
It is important that you purchase the correct fertilizers for your plants.
flavoring
something that gives flavor
The chocolate chip cookie tasted awful because she forgot to put in vanilla flavoring.
geological
pertaining to geology
There is geological evidence to show that the last ice age did happen billions of years ago.
industrial
having the nature of or characterized by industries
During the industrial Revolution of the 1800s, there was an abundance of new inventions.
lattice
an openwork structure of crossed strips or bars of wood or metal
A lattice is when a positive and negative ion combine to create an ordered, repeating pattern.
mined
to dig from the earth
Coal is energy that is mined from the earth.
preservation
something that is kept alive or in existence
Refrigeration and freezing are two food preservation methods that are commonly used today.
shells
a hard outer covering of an animal
The shell of a turtle protects it from its predators.
specifically
of a special or particular kind
The daughter specifically asked for a black and white puppy.
accidentally
happening by chance
The little boy accidentally lit a match which caused his house to burn.
artificially
made by human work or art
The boy had many food allergies, and his mother does not buy any food that is artifically flavored.
biochemistry
the scientific study of the chemistry of living things
She wanted to be a doctor and decided on biochemistry as her major.
breakthrough
an innovation; a new and better product or technique
The breakthroughs in computer technology over the past twenty years have helped humankind improve speed in communication
chromatography
the separation of mixtures into their constituents
Police often use chromatography to identify drugs in urine and blood samples.
confirmation
something that confirms or proves
We received confirmation the diplomat was on the plane that had crashed.
contributed
to give or furnish
The church members contributed generously to the hurricane victims.
crystallography
the science dealing with crystallization and the forms and structure of crystals
X-ray crystallography is the science of determining the arrangement of atoms within a crystal.
culprit
a person guilty of a crime or offense
We could not figure out who was eating all the cookies; the culprit turned out to be their puppy.
disproved
to prove to be false or in error
His theory of life on the sun was disproved by scientific evidence.
encoding
to convert information into code
The army's method of encoding was inadequate which allowed the enemy to figure out their plans.
ferment
to breakdown complex molecules in organic compounds, caused by the influence of a ferment
Kimchee ferments faster in warmer temperature.
furthered
additional
The trip was canceled until further notice.
genetic
pertaining or according to genetics
Everyone has their own special genetic code that makes them who they are.
hereditary
of characteristics or diseases passed from the genes of a parent to a child
One of the reasons the distant cousins were not allowed to marry was because of the hereditary disease in the family.
inherited
to have certain characteristics by heredity
She inherited her good looks from her mother.
metabolic
relating to the chemical processes in the body
Diabetes is a metabolic disease where the body does not produce enough insulin, so there is too much blood sugar.
publication
a book, journal, etc. made for sale to the public
The government banned publication of his book.
traits
a distinguishing quality
Humility and gentleness were two character traits the teacher was trying to teach her children.
undefined
without fixed limits
The children behaved rudely because their boundaries of appropriate actions had been undefined.
conversion
change in character, form, or function
Her conversion of faith surprised the entire family.
factors
any of the circumstances or conditions that bring about a result
One of the greatest factors in the singer's decision to perform in Europe was that her mother had grown up there.
inhibitors
a substance that retards or stops a chemical reaction
In chemistry, inhibitors slow the rate of reaction.
initiated
to introduce or start something new
I initiated a discussion on today's topic.
mechanisms
the working parts or arrangement of parts of a machine
Once the students took the clock apart, they were able to understand its mechanisms.
nutrients
any substance which plants or animals need in order to live and grow
The baby monkey failed to thrive because he did not receive vital nutrients from its mother.
pathways
A path
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
pigmentation
the natural color of something
Albinism is a skin pigmentation disorder which causes people to have light skin and white or pale yellow hair.
puberty
The stage of adolescence in which an individual becomes physiologically capable of sexual reproduction
A boy can first show signs of puberty between the ages of nine and fifteen.
quota
the allotment of something for a specific period of time
I have to sell eight boxes of cookies in the next week to make my monthly quota.
regulate
to control by rules and regulations
A water plant called the sacred lotus regulates its temperature in order to benefit insects that it needs to reproduce.
secrete
to discharge
Some bees secrete poison.
selective
intentionally choosing some things and not others
The actress was very selective about the colors she wore on stage.
strands
Something that is plaited or twisted as a ropelike length
She was wearing several strands of pearl necklaces.
substrates
a substance acted upon
In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates.
sustaining
To keep in existence
Team work and cooperation were the key to sustaining a healthy work environment.
transcription
a transcript
The process of transcription happens in the nucleus of the cell.
traverse
to cross, travel over
The braver hikers traversed across the United States.
triggers
To set off
Being in the same house as the accident triggers too many memories for her.
vital
necessary to the existence
Laughter is vital for a long life.
Carbohydrates
one of several substances such as sugar or starch, which provide the body with energy,
She could no longer eat rice; her doctor had put her on low carbohydrate diet.
cellobiose
A disaccharide that is produced from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose
cellobiose molecule is derived from the condensation of two glucose molecules.
complexity
the state or quality of being complicated
The complexity of the project required several departments to work together.
condensation
a reaction between two molecules leading to the formation of a larger molecule by eliminating of a simple molecule such as water
A condensation reaction is a chemical reaction in which two molecules combine to form one single molecule.
crustaceans
any of various types of animal which live in water and have a hard outer shell
My brother is allergic to crustaceans; he ate a clam once and developed a rash all over his body.
dairy
a product made with milk
She can not eat cheese because she is allergic to all dairy products.
demanding
requiring of a lot of time or effort
Bob's boss was very demanding.
disaccharides
A class of sugars composed of two glycosidically linked monosaccharides.
Sucrose, table sugar, is a disaccharides.
exoskeletons
any hard, external, supporting structure, as the shell of an oyster
Humans have used armors an artificial exoskeleton.
formula
a plan or method for doing, making, or achieving something
This formula is used to calculate the area of a circle.
Fructose
a crystalline monosaccharide found in sweet fruits and in honey
Consuming too much fructose at once can be bad for you.
Galactose
a common monosaccharide found in milk
galactose is less sweet than glucose and considered a nutritive sweetener because it has food energy.
germinating
to start developing
After having writer's block for several days, he felt an idea germinating in his head.
glucose
a type of sugar which is found in plants, especially fruit, and which supplies an important part of the energy animals need
glucose is the primary source of energy for the body's cells.
Lactose
a type of sugar which is found in milk
lactose intolerant people can not drink milk or eat ice cream.
maltose
malt sugar
The production of maltose on germinating cereals, such as barley, is an important part of the brewing process.
monosaccharides
Any of several carbohydrates that cannot be broken down to simpler sugars
monosaccharides are also called simple sugars.
polysaccharides
Any of a class of carbohydrates, such as starch and cellulose, consisting of a number of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds
polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates.
respiration
act or process of breathing; inhaling and exhaling air
The lung is a main organ used during respiration.
Sucrose
the type of sugar that exists naturally in most plants that grow on land
sucrose is table sugar.
abbreviated
to shorten a word or phrase by leaving out letters
Because her name was so long, she abbreviated her name to Ann.
code
a set of rules or guidelines related to behavior or activity in a particular area
Right and wrong are often defined differently by individuals who each have a unique moral code.
consequentially
having consequence
The disease had affected the entire population, consequentially there were no doctors to asset in the hospitals.
continuation
the act or state of continuing
The continuation of her business was not affected by the riot.
deciphered
to translate a message in code into ordinary, understandable language
Her training in the military allowed her to decipher the enemy's code.
free-floating
lacking an apparent cause
In order to promote creativity, students are allowed to participate in free-floating experiments.
generation
the group of people born and living at about the same time
Many generations of families have immigrated to the United States from that country.
helix
a spiral
Guggenheim Museum is shaped in a helix.
instruction
the act of teaching or giving lessons
The teacher gave us instructions to sing in harmony.
ladder
a piece of equipment consisting of two vertical bars or rope joined to each other by a set of horizontal steps
Romeo climbed his rope ladder to reach Juliet's room.
mathematically
concerned with mathematics
She knew the answer, but she couldn't figure out the sequence mathematically.
respectively
in regard to each of two or more
The first and second prizes went to Tom and Jerry, respectively.
reverse
to change the direction, order or position
She purchased a lottery ticket; she hoped to reverse her luck.
rungs
the horizontal bars on a ladder
She didn't realize one of the rungs was broken and fell off the ladder.
segments
section of something
Lucy divided into three segments.
sequence
the way a series of things is ordered
What is the sequence for doing the tasks?
submerged
to place under or cover with water or the like
He submerged himself in the swimming pool for 10 minutes and broke the world record.
twisted
to turn, wind or bend
Andy twisted the bottle cap to open it.
unique
existing as the only one or as the sole example
She always stands out in class; she has a very unique voice.
utilized
to use something in an effective way
She utilized her time in prison effectively by earning a high school degree.
absorbent
capable of absorbing moisture
The paper towel was very absorbent, and we were able to reuse it several times.
absorption
the state or process of being absorbed
absorption is the process in which grains of rice soaks up the water in which it is immersed in.
analysis
this process as a method of studying the nature of something
The teacher's analysis of the student's academic skills was inaccurate.
captured
to record or take a picture of something using a camera
The tourist captured the entire bank robbery on her video camera.
detailed
giving a lot of information with many details
The host didn't want the family to get lost, so she gave a very detailed map to her house.
dynamics
the various forces operating in any field
The dynamics between the teacher and student was not a positive one.
emissions
something emitted
Automobile emissions contribute to environmental problems such as smog.
invisible
impossible to see
The monster was invisible, nonetheless, the little girl was still terrified of it.
magnification
the power of magnifying
The magnification of the insect allowed us to see the intricate details.
magnify
increase the apparent size of
A microscope can magnify an object to show the details.
naked eye
The eye unassisted by an optical instrument
Germs are invisible to the naked eye.
predominant
present as the strongest or main element
Fatique is the predominant reason for her absence from class.
radioisotopic
a radioactive isotope, usually artificially produced
radioisotopic labeling is a technique for tracking the passage of a sample of substance through a system.
resolution
the ability to show things clearly and with a lot of detail
Setting your camera at a higher resolution will allow you to maker bigger prints of your pictures.
resonance
the prolongation of sound by reflection
Without resonance we wouldn't have radio, television or music.
specimen
a sample
In order to determine the cause of the child's illness, the doctor took a blood specimen.
spectroscopy
the science that deals with the use of the spectroscope and with spectrum analysis
spectroscopy pertains to the dispersion of an object's light into its component colors.